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Unit D – Safety in Transport

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1 Unit D – Safety in Transport

2 Chapter 13 – A Need For Safety
In this chapter you will learn about: Common driver errors Transportation data and studies that help make our roads safe Work through scenarios to answer questions like: What factors lead to traffic accidents? What is the connection between reaction time and vehicle collisions? What are the most common injuries? How are vehicles and roads designed to keep us safe?

3 13.1 – Analyzing the Error Injuries from vehicle collisions range from scratches and bruises to serious internal injury causing death How safe are you? 50 times more likely to die in a road collision than in an _____________________ 5 times more likely to be killed in a road collision than to be ______________ Many times more likely to be injured in a vehicle collision

4 Injuries Each year, more than __________Canadians are injured in motor vehicle collisions Injures include: Cuts, bruises, broken bones ___________________ ______ and _________ injuries Leading to blindness, paralysis, brain damage

5 Did you Know? More accidents happen on __________ than on any other day of the week… Why?

6 13.2 – Reaction Time The time it takes you to recognize a problem and act on it is called ___________ _______ Even if you are alert and react very quickly, there are many factors that affect a driver’s ability to stop _____________ _______________________ Brake failure… Fail.

7 Some drivers have a habit of ______________ _________________
These drivers do not have enough _________ _______ if the car in front stops suddenly. What are the potential hazards in the image?

8 Reaction Time and Distractions
A distraction is anything that takes your attentions away from what you are ___________________________ Common distractions outside the vehicle: Common distractions inside the vehicle: Distractions you have control over:

9 Fatigue and Reaction Time
Sleepy drivers are a serious danger: _______________________ ________________________ into a ditch ________________________ into on-coming traffic

10 Some people try to stay awake by drinking coffee and energy drinks that contain caffeine - _________________ Stimulants ___________________ and _____________ reaction time

11 Effects of the stimulant ______________ and the driver is ____________ than before – and therefore has a _______________________ _____________ of caffeine, loud music, cold air, or pinching yourself will keep awake ____________ o a safe parking place and ___________________

12 Reaction Time and Drugs
Anything that prevents you from functioning normally means that you are ____________ __________, _________________, _____-_______________ drugs can make it dangerous for a user to drive

13 Alcohol and Driving Alcohol is a ________________: _______ reaction time _________ co-ordination Makes the drinker __________ Alcohol is absorbed from the __________ directly into the _____________ Body recognizes the alcohol as a _______ Liver can convert _____________into less harmful substances, but is soon ________________

14 Blood Alcohol Concentration
It is difficult for a person to know if they have consumed too much alcohol and should not drive. Law enforcement use a BAC – ____________ _________________________ If a person’s BAC is 0.08, they have _______ of alcohol for each mL of blood BAC is measured in __________________in a ____________________

15 Blood Alcohol and the Law
In Canada, ______________ is generally considered the _______________ A police officer can charge drivers who have ______________ on their breath when they are pulled over – the charge is ____________________ Drivers are considered to be impaired when their _____________________ than normal: _______________________________ ___________________________________________

16 Other factors that can affect ability to drive:
__________any one person can drink before exceeding the legal limit of 0.08 mg/mL ______________: _________________ consumed ________________ ___________ Other factors that can affect ability to drive: Amount of ________ consumed About of _________ person has had

17 13.3 – Collision Injuries Individuals involved in vehicle collisions may sustain _________ and ______________ injuries Physical and emotional stress is referred to as ___________ Physical trauma: cuts, scrapes, broken bones, whiplash, metal injury Emotional trauma: grief, regret, fear of driving

18 Physical Trauma Some injuries can be healed __________ ________
________________ or ____________________ required to correct some damage Some injuries cannot be healed: Major _________________ ______________ _____________ injuries

19 Mental Trauma Emotional trauma is not “_________”
Emotional ____________ can assist individuals

20 Whiplash Whiplash occurs when the ______________ ___________ of the neck are ____________ Common injury for the people in the _______ ___ of a _________________

21 Properly ___________________ prevent the head from flying backward beyond the back of the seat
Chiropractic or massage therapy can be helpful in treating whiplash

22 Grief How would you feel?
Talking to a professional who understands sadness helps many people deal with emotional pain

23 13.4 – Protection and Prevention
______________are built into ________ and _____ to protect you in case of a road accident _____ concerning proper driving procedures _________________________designed to make us aware of specific traffic dangers

24 Safe Vehicles In Alberta, the law says that every person must ______________________; small children and babies are restrained using specially designed seats Does this law keep you safe? What has happened to the number of fatalities since the seal belt laws were passed in 1987?


26 Other Safety Features Seatbelts work ______________ to restrain passengers. Other safety features are designed to work only when ________________________: Air bags Anti-lock braking systems Crumple zones Side impact beams

27 Air bags _________ when a collision occurs
_________ drivers and passengers against impact

28 Anti-lock Braking Systems
Provide better _______________ in slippery conditions

29 Crumple Zones Located on the outer parts of the car near the bumpers
_____________________ of the collision so the passengers feel less effect

30 Side Impact Beams Steel beams in the doors
Prevent the doors from _____________ Protect the people inside the vehicle

31 Vehicle Maintenance Maintenance or continual care is important for all safety features on your vehicle: ________ – poor tread causes vehicles to skid easily, affect time for vehicle to slow down __________ – steering mechanism should be checked to make sure vehicle steers when you need it to ______________________ – poor condition of wipers makes it hard to see the road ahead

32 Safe Roads Roads are designed to be as safe as possible:
_____________ – remind people to slow down before intersections or school zones ______________ - protect cars from falling over steep edges ______________________________ – warn of pedestrian crossing or intersections ___________________________ – fall apart on impact to reduce force of a collision


34 Chapter 13 Summary Most collisions are preventable and due to driver error The use of alcohol and medications, distractions, and fatigue are often factors in vehicle collisions There are many types of injuries caused by vehicle collisions Accident victims use different methods to heal There are many regulations and road safety features that protect drivers and passengers

35 Chapter 14 – The Nature of Speed

36 What you will learn about…
What is velocity? How to create and interpret a distance/time graph To calculate the velocity of an object using the formula What effect does increasing velocity have on stopping distance and following distance

37 14.1 – Defining Velocity By foot? Bike? Car?
How do you know how fast you are going? By foot? Bike? Car?

38 Setting a Limit Why are speed limits set?
Why do school and playground zones have a limit of 30 km/hr?

39 What is Velocity? Distance is a change _____________
Car speedometers use __________ and _____ to determine the speed or velocity of an object Distance is a change _____________ Change in position occurs over a period of _____ Velocity is the ___________________ by an object during a ___________________________

40 Vehicles travelling at 100 km/h cover a distance of ____km in _____ hour
Vehicles travelling 50 km/h cover half that distance All descriptions of velocity include _______ (i.e. km/h or m/s)

41 d = _______ in ___________ (km) or ________ (m)
You can calculate the velocity or any object if you know its change in __________, and the period of _______ over which the change occurred. This is the formula that is used: or d = _______ in ___________ (km) or ________ (m) t = ______ in _______ (h) or ____________ (s) v = __________ in ______ or _____

42 Try this: A cue ball travels two meters toward the 8-ball. It takes one second for the cue ball to reach the 8-ball, how fast is the cue ball moving?

43 A snowboarder makes it down a 1000 m run in 60 seconds
A snowboarder makes it down a 1000 m run in 60 seconds. What is the snowboarder’s velocity?

44 Graphing Velocity It is difficult to make sense of a table full of numbers that show distance and time Distance (m) Time (s) 2 1 4 6 3 8 10 5

45 Distance versus Time Graphs
Called _________________ graphs for short In distance/time graphs: ______ describes the object being studied and what variables are being studied ______ is plotted on ______ (horizontal) __________ is plotted on the _______ (vertical) The line of “_______” joins the data points and gives us information about the __________


47 Constant Velocity, Changing Velocity
The ______ of the line represents the ________ of the object A _______ line shows a _________ velocity A ____________________ line shows a velocity that ___________ over time

48 The data below was collected by timing a running student for 10 seconds. Create a labeled graph from the data. Time (s) Distance (m) 1 5 2 10 3 15 4 20 25 6 30 7 35 8 40 9 45 50

49 Calculating velocity from a d/t graph
You can use a distance/time graph to determine the _________ of an object Describe the motion of both of these objects Object A: Object B:

50 The ____ on a distance/time graph shows the ________________ between ____ points
The ____ shows the _______________ between ____________ two points

51 Calculating velocity from slope
The “______________” of a line is referred to as its slope You can use the slope of a line to calculate exactly __________ an object is moving ___________ = ___________ or

52 Determine the _____, the __________ interval between the 2 points
To find the slope: Choose _____________along the slope; identify the _________________; (x,y) Determine the _____, the __________ interval between the 2 points Determine the ____, the _______ interval between the 2 points ____________ the rise and run values into the __________:

53 What is the slope of the distance/time graph for Granny’s car?

54 14.3 – Calculating Distance
If you know the _________ of an object and the _______________it was travelling for, you can determine ________ it travelled or

55 Sample problem: You ride your stationary bike for 30 mins (
Sample problem: You ride your stationary bike for 30 mins (.5 hours) and pedal 15 km/h. What is the odometer reading?

56 Sample problem: Fearing that her students would be lost without her, Miss Acorn braves a treacherous winter snowstorm to get to school. Miss Acorn travels with an average velocity of 18 km/h and it takes her 90 minutes to get to school. What is the distance between Miss Acorn’s house and the school?

57 14.4 – Distance travelled during Reaction Time
Why are speed limits different for different roads? When driving, reaction time is the time it takes between the driver recognizing the _______________and ______________________ The distance travelled by a vehicle during a driver’s reaction time ______________ as the velocity of the vehicle increases.

58 If you have a reaction time of 0
If you have a reaction time of 0.25 seconds, calculate how many meters your vehicle would travel during reaction time if: You are driving 50 km/h You are driving 110 km/h

59 Reaction time and stopping distance
The distance that a vehicle travels after the driver applies the brakes is called the __________________ The distance travelled during ______________ plus the ________________ is called _________ __________

60 Velocity and stopping distance

61 Yellow traffic lights are set to last different lengths of time depending on the speed limit of the road. Why is this important?

62 Following Distance Cars that follow too closely are at a _______ of having a collision. No matter how _____ your ______________, a vehicle takes a certain distance to stop. The faster a vehicle is moving, the ________ it will take to stop.

63 For safety, you should keep a ____________ following distance behind the vehicle in front of you.
_____________ is illegal, police can give you a ticket for following too closely!

64 Chapter 15 – The Physics of Collisions

65 What you will learn: Why collisions with small objects cause less damage than collisions with large objects Why is takes larger objects a longer time to stop than smaller objects Why collisions are less severe at slower velocities Why braking over a longer distance is easier than braking sharply What happens to objects after they collide

66 15.1 – Momentum and Mass Momentum is:
the measure of an _________________ __________________ it is that the object will remain in motion

67 The size of the force required to move an object depends on:
Force is: A __________________on an object The size of the force required to move an object depends on: _____________ the force is applied _____________ of the object _____________ you want the object to go

68 General laws related to force
Objects not moving will not move until they are __________________ Objects moving will ____________________until enough force is added in an _____________ ______________ to stop them Objects with a lot of _______________ will take ____________and ____________ to stop

69 Calculating Momentum Momentum = mass x velocity
Momentum is calculated by ___________ the ______ of an object times the ___________ it is travelling ___________ and __________ objects have more momentum The formula for momentum is: Momentum = mass x velocity Mass in ______________ (kg) Velocity in _____________________(m/s) Momentum in kg•m/s

70 A 3 ton (3000 kg) African elephant runs with a velocity of 3 m/s
A 3 ton (3000 kg) African elephant runs with a velocity of 3 m/s. An African Rhino weighing 2.00 tons (2000 kg) runs with a speed of 4.5 m/s. Which animal has more momentum?


72 A 60 kg girl jogs at a pace of 4 m/s. What is her momentum?

73 If a penny weighing 3. 10 grams (0
If a penny weighing 3.10 grams ( kg) reaches a terminal velocity of 105 km/h (29 m/s) when dropped off the Empire State Building. What is the penny’s momentum? Would a penny dropped from the Empire State Building kill a pedestrian below?

74 Slowing Momentum Brakes apply a force that stops vehicles by _____________ their momentum Brakes work by using __________: Force that two objects exert on each other when they press against each other

75 During braking friction decreases the vehicles momentum.
Braking uses friction in two ways: Applying brake petal presses the _____________ against the __________ Friction between the _______________ and the surface of the ________.

76 15.2 – Changing Momentum is Related to Force
_______________when approaching an intersection decreases your velocity slowly; body moves forward __________ When velocity decreases slowly so does ______________ (mass x velocity = momentum) Forces, like __________, can be large or small; you can brake ________________

77 Impulse Forces can either act for a ______ time or a ______ time.
If you brake gradually for a long time (______ force x ______ time) If you brake hard, the car stops quickly and you would feel a ____________(large force x short time) The result is the same either way, the car goes from a _________________(and momentum) to ______________(and zero momentum)

78 Impulses __________ momentum (increase or decrease)
Impulse is the combination of the ___________ _____ and the _____ during which the force acts Impulses __________ momentum (increase or decrease) The _________ the impulse, the _________ the change in momentum Impulse = force x time Impulse is measured in __________ Force is measured in __________ or Newtons (N) Time is measured in ____________ (s)

79 A football player collides with another player
A football player collides with another player. The force of the collision is 1000 kg•m/s2. The collision lasts 1 second. What is the impulse? What would the impulse be if the same force of tackle was experienced over two seconds?

80 How is impulse effected when a force is applied over a longer period of time?
How else can impulse be increased?

81 A force of 500 N over 2 seconds will have a ________________ than a force of 50 N over 2 seconds
__________ changes, _______ stays the same A force of 50 N for 5 seconds will have a ______________ than a force of 50 N for 2 seconds _________ changes, _______ stays the same

82 You can change momentum by:
Applying a _________ force Applying a force for a longer __________________ Which method of changing momentum would you use if you wanted to avoid a collision?

83 15.3 – Changing Momentum Quickly
Drivers frequently drive 100 km/h (28 m/s) and stop safely If your vehicle was travelling 100 km/h and came to a stop in less than one second, the force would be ______________ In a car crash a fast moving vehicle comes to a _______________: Metal crumples Glass shatters Bones splinter

84 How is the force of a collision related to the time it takes for a change in momentum?
Scenario A Scenario B

85 15.4 – Is Momentum Lost? When an object _____________, momentum __________ to be lost. Where does it go? The energy from the collision is changed into other forms of _________: _________ in the brakes and between the tires and the road is converted to ______________ Energy is lost in the __________ of metal and ___________ of glass

86 Conservation of Momentum
Two vehicles are travelling along a road in the _________________, each vehicle has its own momentum. What happens to the momentum of the vehicle in the front if it gets hit by the vehicle behind?

87 During a collision, one vehicle will gain momentum at the _______________the other vehicle is losing it. ______________________________________states that the _____________________of two colliding objects ___________________after their collision.

88 Head-on Collisions The motion is in the ____________________
Two vehicles are travelling along a highway in opposite directions and have the same momentum. They hit head on. What happens? The motion is in the ____________________ The forces would _______ each other out Their total ____________________would be _____, so velocity would be _____ They would ________________(with a lot of crumpling and injury to those inside

89 momentum1 + momentum2 = final momentum
Calculate the final momentum of the two vehicles. momentum1 + momentum2 = final momentum

90 momentum1 + momentum2 = final momentum
What would happen if one vehicle had a greater momentum than the other? Which direction would the two vehicle move in after the collision? momentum1 + momentum2 = final momentum

91 Chapter 16 – The Technology of Safety

92 What you will learn How safety features use the laws of physics to protect you from harm during collisions About advances in seat belt and air bag design About new advances in technology that could lead to even safer vehicles in the future How child safety seats are designed to protect differently than adult seats

93 16.1 – How Safety Features Work
Remember that when two objects collide that the ____________ of the faster vehicle is ______________ to the slower vehicle. The occupants of the vehicles experience various _________ as their velocities change

94 Safety feature serve to slow down the collision:
Remember that if the change in momentum (_______) occurs over a _______ period of time, the force will not be as severe Safety feature serve to slow down the collision: Change in momentum occurs over a _________ __________________ Occupants feel ______________ Occupants receive _________________

95 Engineers use ________________________ to determine what will happen to people during a collision

96 Crash test dummies are used to help engineers determine how well the ________ _______ in vehicles work Crumple zones: made of crushable ___________ or __________ Usually include __________________________ ____________ when the vehicle is hit

97 Remember that impulse = force x time
Why use crumple zones? __________________ the collision felt by the occupants of the vehicle Increase the amount of ____ over which the collision occurs Remember that impulse = force x time Increasing the time means that a _________ _______ is experienced by the vehicle occupants This reduces the __________ experienced by the occupants of the vehicle Smart Car crash test Crash test 1959 Bel Air vs Chevy Malibu

98 Types of Safety Features

99 Restraining features:
________ occupants in one place __________ occupants from hitting dash, windshield, sides or roof of car Prevent someone from being __________ from a vehicle Examples: ____________

100 Operational features:
Operate _______________to keep you safe while driving Examples: _______________ allow driver to see clearly and warn other drivers of vehicle’s approach Rear and side-view _________ assist driver in seeing all parts of the road Tail and _______________ warn other drivers of changes in speed and direction __________ all the vehicle to slow safely

101 Structural features (_____ and _________ zones)
Rigid features are built from materials that will ____________ or break under extreme pressure Designed to protect people _______ of the vehicle Examples: heavy frame, roll cage, side impact beams

102 Road Safety Features Many roads have road safety features that reduce the ________ of a collision by slowing the ___________ Examples: _________________ _______________________________

103 Crash cushion: Barrels filled with ________ or _________
_________ or ________ upon impact Apply a slowing force to the vehicle Less damaging than a solid barrier

104 Guardrails: _____ to lower the momentum of a vehicle and _________ force of the collision Prevent vehicles from _____________ Prevent vehicles from __________________ into traffic

105 Break-away light poles:
Designed with shear pins that ___________ under the force of collision Vehicle hits post and is _______________ immediately Force of impact is ___________

106 16.2 – Seat Belts Modern seat belts are designed to prevent your body from moving forward in a collision Original designs were 2-point lap belts Did not prevent the _____________ from moving forward Modern design is a 3-point shoulder harness Restrains ________________

107 How Seatbelts Work 2 Main components: ____________ ________________

108 Webbing Made from webbed polyester
____________ 10-15% of its normal length How is this helpful?

109 Retractor Unit uses __________ and ________ technology Ratchet:
Maintains ____________ in the webbing Belt fits ___________ to your body Pendulum: ___________ stop of vehicle causes pendulum to swing forward Bar _________________and _________ more webbing from coming out TAC seatbelt campaign – Katie TAC seatbelt campaign – Head trauma



112 Child Restraints Children have ________ bones and muscles along with their comparatively _________ ________ Devices are designed to provide the ______ ____________ that this type of body needs Types of child seats differ based on the ______ of the child The ______ seat of the car is recommended because there is no dashboard to hit and no chance of injury by an airbag

113 Rear facing: Forward facing: Booster seat: Seatbelt:
_____________ upright for children who can not yet do so Forward facing: _______________ made for child’s narrow shoulders Booster seat: Allows regular seatbelt to ________________ Seatbelt: Used by children who can comfortably fit seatbelt

114 16.3 – The Evolving Air Bag

115 How Air Bags Work Works similarly to a _______________; lower velocity and momentum of vehicle occupants A ___________________ inside the air bag causes it to inflate in milliseconds __________ cause sodium azide (NaN3(s)) to decompose; ________________of nitrogen gas _________ the airbag

116 Evolution of the Air Bag
1st generation: caused many problems 2nd generation: deployed at a safer _______ and at a safer ________ (20-35% less than 1st generation) 3rd generation: seat sensors detect the ______ of the occupants and ________ the force of the air bag accordingly Modern vehicles feature switches that can turn the passenger air bag off when a _____ is in the _____________

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