Presentation on theme: "Class 18: Human-Computer Interaction July 19 th, 2011 1."— Presentation transcript:
Class 18: Human-Computer Interaction July 19 th,
Todays Learning Objectives List a few current events in information systems new Define human computer interaction List HCI breakthroughs today List at least two ways HCI has been applied in the field of Psychophysiology List at least four HCI design principles Search Engine Optimization (see slides)
HCI Warm-Up: Controllers 1. Look at each controller. What makes the design so poor? 2. If you were to design a better controller, what would you include in the design? 3. Are the controllers we use currently extensions of ourselves when we play? Why or why not?
HCI Warm-Up: Project Natal
Human-Computer Interaction What is Human-Computer Interaction? A discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them Design of interactive systems that are: enjoyable to use, that do useful things and that enhance the lives of the people that use them
HCI Considerations Designers need methods for Capturing what people want to do rather than just what the technology/designer can do Understanding how to translate from what people want to good design Involving people in the design process Designing for diverse users and uses
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: ENIAC (1943) A general view of the ENIAC, the first all electronic numerical integrator and computer in USA.
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Mark I (1944) The Mark I paper tape readers.
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Mainframe Computers IBM SSEC (1948): Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator. Manchester SSEM (1948) – Baby: Small Scale Experimental Machine. Mark 1 prototype.
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: DEC PDP-1 (1961) The world's first commercial interactive computer Pioneer in timesharing systems Affordable for smaller businesses and laboratories
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Xerox Alto (mid-1970s) Alto applications: Bravo WYSIWYG text editor. BravoX an ancestor of MS Word Laurel program. Neptune Disk file manipulation program. Press Document printing program. Sil Drawing program.
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Xerox Star First commercial PC designed for business professionals Desktop metaphor, pointing, WYSIWYG First system based on usability engineering Commercial flop
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Apple Macintosh Apple Lisa (1983) was a failure Macintosh is expensive - $2500 Motorola chip (8MHz) 3rd party applications High quality graphics and laser printer but B&W The first PC that took 400k 3.5 disks
History of HCI Evolution of Machines: Others – by IBM IBM Mark-8 (1974) IBM 5100 (1975) IBM PC 5150 (1981)
Discussion Question What are the latest breakthroughs in HCI today?
What is next?
Visual Disability Normal: 20/20: the ability to read letters of a certain size (the norm for ones age) from the eye chart placed 20 away 20/40 = You need twice the size to read at 20 Registered blind = 20/200 At least 1.5M blind and visually impaired Americans use computers Only 10% blind people read Braille The most common AT: screen magnifier/reader CataractsGlaucoma
Retinal prostheses Project: Multiple-Unit Artificial Retina Chipset (MARC) Lead researcher, Mark Humayun Glasses with embedded cameras supply signals to an electrode array. Array is implanted in the retina, at the back of the eye. Retina normally translates light into signals for the brain. First demonstrated that patients could exhibit a visual response (eg. touching a point on the wall) when patterns of electricity were supplied directly to their optic nerve Current array has 25 electrodes: allows images with 5x5 resolution. Hopes to create a 25x25 array by the end of the decade. optic nerve
Artificial Vision Cameras embedded in glasses communicates with signal processors implanted in both sides of the skull. Processors directly stimulate the visual cortex. Visual cortex normally processes signals coming from the optic nerve…...but what does the patient see? Patient sees phosphenes: blobs of light against a dark background. Patient is trained using the implants: given a specific signal, the patient reports where in their visual field they see a phosphene. Training is used to program the implant: if a light-colored object appears in the upper-left of the cameras image, then the signal processor should trigger a phosphene in the upper-left of the patients mental image. Allowed one patient to drive a car:
Alternative technique: Shunting signals meant for one sense organ to another one. Example: vOICe, developed by Peter Meijer Camera captures signals meant for your eyes. Signal translated into a soundscape. Users learn to see with their ears. Does not require surgery. The scene in front of you is scanned in stereo: you hear objects on your left through your left ear and objects on your right through your right ear. Brightness is translated as volume: bright things are louder. Pitch tells you what's up and what's down. The image refreshes once a second. A camera scans the visual field. The images are converted into a soundscape by the computer. How the sounds might "look": a brightness represented by volume; elevation is represented by pitch. [Courtesy +ISM] Users who were able to see previously reported that greyscale images form in their head.
Auditory Disability Marginal, mild, and moderate losses: 2-60 dB loss Profoundly impaired/deaf: decibel loss in hearing capacity in the better ear Causes: percent prenatal percent perinatal (rubella) percent postnatal (aging) Presbyacusis: aging-related progressive hearing loss of higher frequency, more common in men Check mosquito ringtone - annoying for under 30 Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): results from exposure to high-intensity sounds, over a long period of time.
Auditory Disability Earcons Synthetic sounds used to convey information Structured combinations of notes (motives) represent actions and objects Auditory icons Natural sounds with associated semantics which can be mapped onto similar meanings in the interaction What about designing a new interface to help the hearing impaired?
Cochlear implants Bypass damaged parts of the ear to supply signals directly to the auditory nerve. Hearing aids simply amplify sounds. The electrode array is a group of electrodes that collects the impulses from the stimulator and sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve. Does not deliver normal sounds, but the brain recognizes the signals as some sound; with training, the patient can learn to distinguish between different kinds of sound.
Psychophysiology and HCI: Other Disabilities Haptics (touch) Receiving thermomechanical forces and perceiving physical properties of things Three kinds of cutaneous receptor (skin) Thermoreceptors (temperature) Mechanoreceptors (pressure) Nocioceptors (pain) Kinaesthestic sense - body pose Two kinds of proprioceptor in joints Reaction times depend on fitness Practice improves Deteriorate with age
Psychophysiology and HCI: Other Disabilities Motor Impairment Paralysis – usually due to spinal injury, the higher the damage the greater the degree of paralysis tetraplegia/quadriplegia – all four limbs paraplegia – lower limbs only Lack of strength (aging = reduced grip strength) Tremor/lack of accuracy (Parkinsons disease) Slowness (age-related) Cerebral palsies: a group of disorders in the development of postural control and mobility
Example: The Lokomat system Robotic exoskeleton automates rehabilitation for gait-impaired patients Advantages: -Physical strain on therapists is relieved -Longer training sessions for faster progress -Patient walking activity can be easily monitored, assessed and guided -Patient motivation is supported through visualized performance feedback -Gait pattern and levels of assistance are adjustable providing just as much assistance as needed
Controlling devices directly with thought Cyberkinetics: Neurotechnology Systems, Inc. Electrode array is Implanted directly Into the patients motor cortex. Motor cortex: Part of the brain that Sends commands to the muscles. 1. Signals from array are translated into computer commands. 2. The patient thinks about the action they would like to have happen (for example, moving the cursor). 3. Signals are then used to trigger that event in software.
Kevin Warwick: the first cyborg? Cybernetics professor at the University of Reading United Kingdom laws regarding self-experimentation more relaxed than US laws 1998: Radio Frequency ID (RFID) transmitter implanted beneath skin; controlled doors, lights, etc. based on his proximity. 2002: Device implanted into the median nerve of his left arm. Although a number of experiments were conducted, few concrete results: claimed to have controlled robot hand. But motion of robot hand seems random.
Auto Industry Examples: Driver Fatigue Saab uses facial recognition technology to determine a drivers attention Toyota developing a seat that detects driver fatigue
Auto Industry Examples: Driver Fatigue Earpiece detects excessive nodding Headband detects eye- openness of eyes
Auto Industry Example: Mouth and Yawning Analysis Dashboard Camera provides real-time monitoring of mouth openness Prolonged periods indicate sleepiness Can distinguish between talking and yawning
Is HCI Ready? Are We? Evolution of Machines: Processing speed and interactive performance Moores Law - For a given cost: Speed and capacity double every 18 months Predictability useful for planning Is faster better? Need time to read and hear Predictable feedback time Unpredictability and error Necessary to plan temporal response characteristics
Practical Design Principles
Visual Disability Color Blindness 8-10% male and 0.5% female populations experience some form of color deficiency Protanope 1% males, red-weakness Deuteranope 5% males, green-weakness Tritanope blue/yellow deficit
1. Dont use… Reads and Greens together Blues and Greens together
2. Dont use flashing media Make cause seizures
3-12 Dont make users think Dont squander users patience Manage to focus users attention Strive for feature exposure Make use of effective writing Strive for simplicity Dont be afraid of the white space Communicate effectively with a visible language Conventions are our friends