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Producing Safe Beef Carcasses: Pre- And Post-Slaughter Strategies.

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Presentation on theme: "Producing Safe Beef Carcasses: Pre- And Post-Slaughter Strategies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Producing Safe Beef Carcasses: Pre- And Post-Slaughter Strategies



4 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean Theories: The Microbiological contamination that occurs during the slaughter process is limited to the outside surface of carcasses Meat inside the carcass is naturally free of microorganisms By decontaminating carcass surfaces during and after the slaughter process, we can greatly reduce the potential for contamination of ground beef and other processed beef products downstream

5 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean How to achieve the objective: 1.Prewash cattle to reduce contamination 2.Phage Treatment prior to slaughter 3.Eliminate gross contamination of the hide using high pressure wash 4.Apply Advanced technologies for hide removal 5.Utilize validated antimicrobial carcass spray treatments i.e. PAA; Sanova; Bromous Acid

6 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean 6.Thermal Pasteurization with Steam or Hot Water. 7.Control environmental sources of contamination on the slaughter floor using Advanced Oxidation Technologies – This will address contamination carried on water droplets, particles and in the air. 8.Utilize Steam Vacuuming and Sanitary Knife Trimming to assure the removal of visible physical defects.

7 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean Post-Slaughter Control: 1.Assure that carcasses are properly spaced during chilling process. 2.Employ Advanced Oxidation Technology in Cooler – this will provide an additional reduction in microbiological contamination and prevent recontamination from environmental sources.

8 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean 3.Carcass Pasteurization - A validated intervention employed after carcass chilling to address possible recontamination and outgrowth of microorganisms - This will provide a bridge from the slaughter operation to fabrication and further processing. Carcass Irradiation is not currently an option. 4.Apply RTE principles in fabrication and further processing operations. 5.N-60 Testing provides useful verification that the process is working and is under control.

9 Theoretical System vs. Actual Implementation It is much easier to lay out a theoretical system than it is to make it a reality. Dan Schaefer, assistant vice president of R&D for Cargill Beef and Dean Danilson, vice president of food safety and quality assurance for Tyson Foods will explain what their companies have done to meet the objective of safe and clean beef carcasses.


11 Topics Existing Technology –Hide On Carcass Wash systems Emerging Technologies –E. coli O157 Vaccine –Sodium Chlorate

12 Pre-Harvest Objective To lower pathogen contamination on beef carcasses Target this Not this

13 Hide On Carcass Wash High Pressure (>600 psi), Moderate Flow Three Stages Bosilevac et al. (2005) J. Food Prot. V.68 N.2 pp Caustic Wash Chlorine Rinse Water Removal Existing Technology Treatment E. coli O157 Prevalence (%) Before HOCW44%88% After HOCW16%_____ Carcasses before Pre- Evisceration Intervention 2%17%

14 Hide On Carcass Wash Low pressure, High Flow (231g/min) Two stages Arthur et al. (2007) J. Food Prot. V.70 N.5 pp Water Wash Chlorine Rinse Existing Technology Treatment E. coli O157 Prevalence (%) E. coli O157 Enumerable (% with >40 cfu) Salmonella spp. Prevalence (%) Salmonella spp. Enumerable (% with >40 cfu) Before98%35%95%40% After90%13%69%7%

15 Bioniche Product –Targets Type III secreted proteins that are involved in E. coli O157 attachment to mucosal epithelial cells –Builds herd immunity to Type III secreted proteins –Fully Licensed in Canada –Marketed as Econiche TM E. coli O157 Vaccine Emerging Technology

16 Bioniche Product E. coli O157 Vaccine Treatment Number of Fecal Cultures Positive for E. coli O157 (%) Vaccinates (3 doses)36/564 (6.4%) Non-Vaccinates43/564 (7.5%) NOTE: Fecal samples were taken serially on Days 14, 28, 42, and 56 (harvest) post final dose vaccination. Vaccinates showed numerically lower prevalence on all sampling days except day 56, cattle harvest. The authors noted a significant weather event occurred just prior to Day 56 sampling. Peterson, et al (2007) J. Food Prot. V.70 N.11 pp Emerging Technology

17 Epitopix Product –Targets Siderophore Receptors and Porins (SRPs) –SRPs are highly conserved outer cell membrane proteins that transport iron through the bacterial cell wall –Causes bacterial cell death due to inability to intake iron –Conditionally licensed in the United States E. coli O157 Vaccine Emerging Technology

18 Vaccine Targets Siderophore Receptors and Porins (SRPs) Epitopix, LLC Emerging Technology

19 E. coli O157 Vaccine 86% reduction in fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 98% reduction in fecal concentration of E. coli O157 Both comparisons associated with P 0.02 Thomson et al. Foodborne Path and Disease. 6(7): Emerging Technology

20 Sodium Chlorate Emerging Technology Mode of action –Under anaerobic conditions, Gram negative bacteria utilize a nitrate reductase enzyme to respire by converting Nitrate (NO 3 ) Nitrite (NO 2 ) –The enzyme will also convert Sodium Chlorate (NaClO 3 ) Sodium Chlorite (NaClO 2 ) –NaClO 3 is inert to bacteria & organisms lacking nitrate reductase enzyme –To bacteria with the enzyme the resulting NaClO 2 is Cytotoxic

21 Intended Usage –To be fed the day prior to slaughter –Feed additive –No withdrawal Regulatory Clearance (Food additive petition) –In progress, Pivotal study Summer 2010 –Demonstrate efficacy on beef carcasses Sodium Chlorate Emerging Technology

22 Challenge Study –Experimentally challenged cattle with a 3-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 –Administered via water 24-hours prior to slaughter –Decreased E. coli O157 strains by 3 logs (10 6 to 10 3 ) in fecal samples Sodium Chlorate Emerging Technology Callaway et al. (2002) J. Anim. Sci. v.80 pp

23 Objective: To lower pathogen contamination on beef carcasses –Hide On Carcass Washes are current technologies that can be implemented within a harvest facility. –Vaccines and Sodium Chlorate are emerging technologies to be utilized prior to arrival at a harvest facility. Summary

24 A Few Words From Our Sponsor WAYNE BENSON Director, Sales and Marketing For more information, visit us at or call


26 Multiple Hurdle Interventions Slaughter Phase Pre-Harvest Mechanical Antimicrobials Procedures

27 Pathogen Control Of Beef Carcass Production – An INTEGRATED Approach Executive Management Plant / Corporate Operations–Maintenance–Engineering-Safety QA-HACCP-R&D Procurement – Raw Materials Cattle Buyers Scheduling – Logistics Sales Team [not Marketing] Customers [domestic, export] USDA

28 Interventions – Pre-Harvest Seasonal [April-September; October-March] Climate-Region [dry-arid, wet-humid] Dust Management – Hide & Air [summer] Pen Washing/Cleaning Hide Wetting/Washing Water [water troughs, sprinklers, cleaning] Mud Scores ? Bacteriophage Other

29 Interventions – Mechanical I Air Flows [positive-negative differential pressures & alarms; clean-to-dirty; roof, floor, doors, drains] Traffic Patterns [clean-to-dirty, inside/outside traffic] H ide Wetting/Washing – [pre-slaughter; post- slaughter] Hide Removal [physical; aerosols] Hide/Viscera to Carcass Preventions PECS – on/off; water only; hot water [ recirc-validation ]; antimicrobials – see later slide ]

30 Interventions – Mechanical II Head Wash [water only; temp-time-nozzles, antimicrobials?] Steam Vacs & Knife Trimming Dual Knives & Dual Equipment [i.e., weasand, etc] Sterilizers [water temp; time-dwell, flow-thru/overflow] Equipment Wash [water temp; splash] Cross-Contamination Potentials [rub; drip; splash; air] Flaps & Folds – Carcass Trimming

31 Interventions – Mechanical III Carcass Wash [engineered cabinet or hand wash] Carcass Thermal – Steam; Hot Water [freeflow or recirc]; temps, dwell time, validations] Maintenance of Wash-Steam Cabinets [nozzles, flows-patterns, water temp/volume/pressure, exhausts, drains, doors, over-heads, rub points] Coolers – chill rate, spacing, spray chill water temp; cooler cleanout [routine/periodic], cooler fogging, condensation, drains [floor & roof]; spray chill antimicrobial [ PAA~30ppm ]

32 Interventions – Antimicrobials I PECS – hot water >160F carcass surface; lactic mist ~4%; full flow PAA-peroxyacetic ~175ppm, ….] Head Wash [post wash spray – lactic mist~4%, PAA~175ppm] Offals [head, cheek, weasand, hearts] – PAA~175ppm; lactic mist~4%, N60 lot tested] Carcass Wash [water only; bromous acid ~230ppm] Carcass Thermal [>160F carcass surface; dwell time; top-to-bottom mapping; validation] Carcass PreChill – [ASC pH/ppm ; lactic~4%; PAA~175ppm]

33 Interventions – Antimicrobials II Validations & On-Going Applicatons academic / plant data; operating paramaters – Range vs Target Concentrations Flow Rates Water temperature / quality Dwell times Other Mechanical Performance of Equipment During Routine and Non-Routine operations

34 Interventions – Procedural I Hygienic Carcass Dress Procedures Conditional Chain Speed Management Air Balance Controls & Alarm Procedures In-Process Controls - Slaughter Dress [fecal] Zero Tolerance on Carcass & Offals HACCP/SSOP programs QA support systems BioMap system analysis – micros

35 Poll Question: N60-Trim testing by the slaughter plant is best defined as: Verification of production systems Verification of process controls Validation of HACCP programs A Waste of Time and Money

36 Interventions – Procedural II N60 Testing of Offals for System Verification N60 Testing of 100% Trim for System Verification Equipment SOPs & PMs Event Procedures [trim test data] Emergency Evisceration Procedures Downed Carcass & Red Beef Procedures Construction/Deconstruction Procedures Incident Investigation – each incident requires investigation; corrective action and further preventive actions when root cause identified.

37 Poll Question: Direct contamination from hide-to-carcass is the primary vector for E. coli O157:H7? Agree Disagree Dont Know

38 Worker Training and Hygiene Methods Implementation Multiple Hurdles – mechanical, antimicrobial, procedures –Pre-Harvest – Hide Wetting-Washing; Phage Live Animal] –Steam Vacuums to Treat Pattern Marks –Pre-Evisceration Carcass [PECS] & Offal Treatments –Equipment Sanitation – Dual Knife/Equipment –Carcass Cleansing – Final Carcass Wash –Final Carcass Intervention (Thermal, Acidified Sodium Chlorite; Bromous Acid] Environmental Controls – Differential Pressure, Air Flows, Air Treatments On-Going System Review – HACCP/SSOP; GMP Verification Testing - N60 Trim and Offal Testing Incident Investigation & Event Program Integration Elements

39 A Few Words From Our Sponsor WAYNE BENSON Director, Sales and Marketing For more information, visit us at or call


41 Poll Question: Do you think that pasteurizing carcasses is the key to solving the E. coli problem? Yes No Dont know

42 Carcass Pasteurization The theory behind carcass pasteurization is to eliminate pathogen contamination at the one point in the process where it is limited to a single site – the surface of the carcass – The Cantaloupe Theory After the carcass is cut into subprimals and trimmings, it is much more difficult to eliminate microbiological contaminants

43 Carcass Pasteurization Technologies for Pasteurizing Chilled Carcasses: E-Beam Irradiation – Not Approved Advanced Oxidation – Exposure to Oxidative gases – H2O2 and O3 Treatment using Ammonia Gas - ? Chemical Treatments – PAA; Sanova and Bromous Acid

44 Carcass Pasteurization Options are Limited Research on Advanced Oxidation Technologies is promising – 2-3 Log reduction Exposure to Reactive Oxygen Species can be accomplished during the chilling process – hours

45 Environmental Management System (EMS) EMS uses electricity to produce low levels of oxidative gases, including H2O2 and O3 Levels are very low and do not pose a risk to employees EMS has applications for controlling airborne and vapor borne contaminants during the slaughter process and fabrication

46 Environmental Management System (EMS) EMS also has applications for carcass pasteurization Since the antimicrobials – O3 and H2O2 are in gas form, they reach every exposed surface EMS also prevents recontamination of carcasses during chilling from environmental sources

47 Environmental Management System (EMS) KSU Study on Inoculated Beef Carcass Tissue One hour of exposure to EMS resulted in a 2.1 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and a 2.2 log reduction in Salmonella Research is continuing to evaluate exposure times up to 24 hours

48 Environmental Management System (EMS) Chemical treatments also provide a 2-3 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Future research will evaluate combining EMS with a UV treatment and with PAA, Bromous Acid and Sanova Carcass pasteurization objective: 5 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella

49 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean Summary Beef safety is a continuum that requires a commitment from producers, packers, processors and consumers Technologies are available that allow for the production of beef carcasses that are visually and microbiologically clean Microbiological sampling and testing systems provide verification that the systems are working

50 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean An integral part of the solution to the problem of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef is to produce pasteurized beef carcasses that are virtually free of enteric contamination – This includes E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Extraordinary measures are required n order to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella from beef carcasses and consumer beef products

51 Objective: Beef Carcasses that are Visually and Microbiologically Clean Ideally, the slaughter process should employ interventions that result in a minimum 5 log reduction in these pathogens. In the December Webinar, technologies were discussed that provide for a > 2 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella during processing. The universal implementation of these interventions combined with consumer education on proper handling and cooking will go a long way to a real solution to the problem


53 For More Information: Dr. James Marsden: Dan Schaefer: Dean Danilson: Bill McDowell: Tom Johnston: Webinar recording and PowerPoint presentation available at:

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