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Pierre Zuber, Bombardier Transportation, Pittsburgh, USA

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1 Pierre Zuber, Bombardier Transportation, Pittsburgh, USA
The IEC / UIC / IEEE Train Communication Network for time-critical and safe on-board communication Pierre Zuber, Bombardier Transportation, Pittsburgh, USA Hubert Kirrmann, ABB Corporate Research, Baden, Switzerland • What is the Train Communication Network ? • Wire Train Bus • Multifunction Vehicle Bus • Real-Time and Deterministic data transfer • Message Services • Available and Safe Architecture • Standardization of Vehicle data • ROSIN -TrainCom - ERRI projects • Conclusion

2 The IEC Train Communication Network
Train Bus Vehicle Bus Vehicle Bus Vehicle Bus international IEC and IEEE standard for data communication aboard rail vehicles. developped by IEC TC9 (Electric Traction Equipment) with the collaboration of: railways operators: manufacturers: Chinese Railways Alstom (FR, GB, BE) DB (Germany) Bombardier - ADtranz (CH, DE, SE) FS (Italy) ANSALDO (IT) JRRI (Japan) CAF (ES) NS (Netherlands) Firema, Ercole Marelli Trazione (IT) RATP (France) Mitsubishi (JP) SNCF (France) Siemens (GB, DE) PKN (Poland) UIC (Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer) Toshiba (JP) UITP (Union Internationale des Transports Publics) Westinghouse Signals (GB)

3 Objectives of the TCN Define interfaces between programmable equipment's, with the aim of achieving plug-compatibility: 1) between vehicles 2) between equipment aboard a vehicle:

4 TCN’s network architecture
train bus node node node vehicle bus devices vehicle bus vehicle bus vehicle bus The Train Communication Network consists of: • a Train Bus which connects the vehicles (Interface 1) and of • a Vehicle Bus which connects the equipments within a vehicle (Interface 2).

5 standard communication interface between vehicles
Wire Train Bus (WTB) standard communication interface between vehicles node node node main application open trains with variable composition such as UIC trains covered distance 860 m, 22 vehicles (including passive, retrofit vehicles) number of nodes 32 (some vehicles may have more than one node) data rate 1 Mbit/s over shielded, twisted wires response time 25 ms cycle time inauguration assigns to each node its sequential address and orientation references thousand of vehicles in daily operation conformance ERRI (European Rail Research Institute, Utrecht, NL)

6 remote, multiple traction,... vehicle control:
WTB traffic diagnostic computer train attendant driver's cab locomotive coaches for destination Y coaches for destination X driving coach Vehicles of different types communicate over the train bus for the purpose of: 1) telecontrol traction control: remote, multiple traction,... vehicle control: lights, doors, heating, tilting, ... 2) diagnostics equipment failures, maintenance information 3) passenger comfort next station, delays, connections. seat reservation

7 Fritting (voltage pulses) is used to overcome oxidation of contacts
WTB wiring Wiring over shielded twisted pairs, jumpers or automatic couplers between vehicles. Fritting (voltage pulses) is used to overcome oxidation of contacts Since there are normally two jumpers, wiring is by nature redundant UIC specified a data cable ( 18 pole) compatible with the 13-pole UIC connector WTB cable redundant nodes vehicle vehicle jumper Line A Line B classic classic 2 WTB node 1 1 WTB node WTB node 2 UIC lines UIC lines jumper Line B Line A top view UIC data cable

8 MVB - the standard vehicle bus
Why standardize the vehicle bus ? MVB is important for: • small equipment manufacturers (reduced bus diversity) • vehicle assemblers (wider choice of suppliers, commissioning) • railways operators (less maintenance and spare parts) All MVB devices are interoperable: there exist no incompatible options MVB paves the way to interchangeability of equipment and simplified maintenance.

9 Multifunction Vehicle Bus (MVB)
“standard interface for plug-compatibility between equipment on-board vehicles” radio power line cockpit Train Bus diagnostics Multifunction Vehicle Bus brakes power electronics motor control track signals data rate 1,5 Mbit/s shortest period 1 ms delay shielded twisted pairs and optical fibers media up to 255 programmable stations number of stations up to 4095 simple sensors/actuators status tens of thousand of vehicles in service time distribution clock synchronization within a few microsecond

10 Example: Vehicle Control Units

11 The MVB can span several vehicles:
MVB wiring The MVB can span several vehicles: Train Bus repeater node MVB devices with short distance bus devices The number of devices under this configuration amounts to 4095. The MVB can serve as a train bus in trains with fixed configuration, up to a distance of 200 m (EMD medium) or 2000 m (OGF medium).

12 TCN combinations Open train WTB (standard) MVB MVB 0 node
860 m (without repeater) WTB (standard) MVB MVB 0 node 0 vehicle bus 1 vehicle bus 2 vehicle busses (conduction vehicle) (standard MVB) (standard & not) Connected train sets WTB MVB (standard) 1 vehicle bus not standard vehicle bus 200 m (without repeater) Closed train MVB or other MVB MVB (not standard) 1 vehicle bus 0 vehicle bus 200 m without repeater

13 TCN protocols both the train and the vehicle bus use the same protocols - deterministic (periodic) transmission of time-critical process variables - reliable, demand-driven messages in point-to-point and multicast Variables Messages Application Application Interface Interface common Presentation Network Management Session Transport Network Multifunction Wire Train other Vehicle Bus Bus bus

14 Train and Vehicle Bus Operation
State Variable Messages State of the Plant Events of the Plant Response at human speed: > 0.5 s Response in ms ... commands, position, speed • Diagnostics, event recorder • Initialization, calibration Periodic Transmission On-Demand Transmission Spurious data losses will be compensated at the next cycle Flow control & error recovery protocol for catching all events Basic Period Basic Period Periodic Data event time Sporadic Data Sporadic data determinism is the condition for safe and available operation

15 WTB and MVB: Integrity and availability principles
Both WTB and MVB comply with IEC integrity (HD = 4 on TWP, 8 on fiber) A study at Carnegie Mellon University fully confirmed TCN’s integrity. The TCN architecture allows to build a network without a single point of failure. Duplicated physical layer is the default, single line is also possible.

16 Further standardization
TCN laid the ground for standardization of data interchange not only between vehicles but also between vehicle and ground (signaling) and radio links

17 UIC (International Railways Union) train data
Electrical and data link interoperability is necessary, but not sufficient for interoperability Once vehicles are able to communicate, they exchange their identification and capabilities: e.g. “I am a traction vehicle, my weight is 50 T, my length 23 m,…. “I support diagnostic data, passenger information, multiple traction,…” The “mapping server” in each executes the protocol for cross-identification of the vehicles To ensure “plug-and-roll”, UIC defined all traffic on the WTB: UIC556 vehicle data UIC557 diagnostic data UIC647 traction data UIC176 passenger info operator- specific UIC556 cross-identification, process and message data formats IEC / IEEE 1473 train and vehicle bus, process and message protocols

18 To this purpose, safety protocols on top of TCN have been developed
ETCS - Eurocab MVB is used as the vital on-board bus for Eurocab (European Train Control System). To this purpose, safety protocols on top of TCN have been developed Data Clock Vital Radio Logger Computer MVB Man- Speed and Brake Machine Track Balise Distance Traction Interface Interface(s) Interface Measurement Interface

19 Safety protocols were developed for 2/3, 1/2 or coded processors,
Safe Architecture Vital and non-vital devices of different origin can interoperate over the same MVB. Single channel, dual redundant and triple redundant devices can interoperate. Safety protocols were developed for 2/3, 1/2 or coded processors, provide time-stamping, authentication and value check over cyclic services. coded diverse triple modular and/or and/or monoprocessor programming redundancy intelligent A B A B A B C devices (application F c F c F F 2 F 1 F 2 F F F 1 programs) untrusted bus dumb devices (no application programming) and/or and/or simplex sensor/actor duplicated sensor/actor triplicated sensor/actor

20 ROSIN - European Program
air conditioning power light doors brakes Device: Door control Made by: Westinghouse Year: 1995 Revision: 1998 May 19 Parameters: position, status, indication, ... ... Maintenance messages: .... 1996 Jun 25 10:43 23" low air pressure Universal Maintenance Tool 1996 Jun 26 10:55 09" emergency open 1996 Jun 26 11:01 17" manual reclose .... This multi-year (and multi-million $) project of European Union based on TCN. It defined data interchange for passenger vehicles, freight trains, radio links,… This work supported the parallel standardization in UIC 556 / 557

21 RoMain - Rosin Maintenance
Remote web access over radio was demonstrated on the Eusko train operators manufacturers remote Internet Explorer Netscape RoMain clients ADtranz server ERRI servers Ansaldo Secure TCP/IP server Network ROSIN server radio proxy RoGate node node Bus A Bus A Bus B

22 IEEE standardisation The IEEE Rail Transit Vehicle Interface Standard Committee influenced TCN WG1 adopted TCN as IEEE 1473 Type T and defined interoperation with foreign components. WG9 is working on information interchange standards and collaborates with UIC WTB WTB node other bus LVB MVB ML MVB MVB station gateway Administrator station MVB LSB Operation of mixed systems in the USA showed the importance of strict definition of interchanged data and how money spared by off-the-shelf is wasted in costly adaptations

23 TRAIN COM TrainCom The successful ROSIN project was followed by another European project: TrainCom. TrainCom considers in particular: - locomotive interoperability (multiple traction) in collaboration with UIC 647 - GSM radio links MORANE ERTMS kernel TrainCom

24 Acknowledgements To all engineers of ABB, Adtranz, AEG, Alstom, Duagon, ERRI, Firema, I.PRO.M, Siemens,… To the railways people in UIC which dedicated years of work in the standard groups

25 TCN source code is available on
Conclusion TCN imposed itself as the standard communication network in railways UIC did a great job in the definition of the application data, the industry could readily support this effort in the ROSIN and TrainCom projects. IEEE RTVISC WG9 has adopted UIC 556 as the basis for IEEE 1473-T train bus data communication. TCN is a suite of communication and application protocols tailored for the railways, not just a field bus. TCN is an open technology - there are no royalties, patents or copyrights. Anyone can build a TCN according to specs - chips are available. TCN source code is available on TCN (MVB) has been adopted in electrical substations and printing machines capitalizing on the work done by the railways community. Work on TCN is not finished - UIC, TrainCom and IEEE RTVISC WG9 are at work…

26 Reserve slides

27 Why not Ethernet instead of WTB ?
Ethernet uses a star topography (point-to-point to a hub). A train has a linear topography. Ethernet would need special hubs which recognizes right and left in each vehicle. Hubs would be a single point of failure, a battery failure in a vehicle would stop the bus. Hubs cannot be used for freight vehicles (no battery in the vehicles). In spite of providing 100 times more speed then WTB, Ethernet real-time response is not better, because of overhead associated with transmitting numerous, small data items. Ethernet is just a level 2 (up to data link) specification mutual identification of vehicles are yet to be developed. IP and UDP are too slow for time-critical data (traction data), reconfiguration in case of failure takes several minutes. there is no alternative to WTB as a train bus

28 Process Data transmission by source-addressed broadcast
Phase1: The bus master broadcasts the identifier of a variable to be transmitted: subscribed subscribed device device subscribed devices bus devices master sink source sink sink (slaves) bus variable identifier Phase 2: The device which sources that variable responds with a slave frame containing the value, all devices subscribed as sink receive that frame. subscribed subscribed device device subscribed devices bus devices master sink source sink sink (slaves) bus variable value

29 The concept of real-time, distributed database
cyclic cyclic cyclic cyclic algorithms algorithms algorithms algorithms cyclic application application application application poll 1 2 3 4 bus source master port Ports Ports Ports Ports Traffic Periodic List Stores sink sink port port bus bus bus bus bus controller controller controller controller controller bus port address port data Bus traffic and application cycles are asynchronous to each other. Bus and applications interface through a shared memory, the traffic store. Cyclic bus traffic blends with IEC style of programming

30 Hard Real-Time and Soft Real-Time
1 element 2 elements in series e.g. vehicle bus and train bus e.g. vehicle bus probability probability t1 t2 t1 t2 t4 t3 t2+t4 hard (cyclic) bounded ! response time t1+t3 still bounded ! t3 probability t1 t2 t1 soft (event-driven) response time t1+t3 unbounded ! unbounded ! Determinism is not a bus, but a system issue. 4

31 Locomotive 465 Frame Occupancy
% periodic time Already today, long frames dominate number of devices: 37 ( including 2 bus administrators) 37 of 16 bits 65 frames of 64 bits 30 frames of 128 bits 18 of 32 49 frames of 256 bits occupancy is proportional to surface total = 92% period 16 ms 32 ms 64 ms 128 256 1024

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