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2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 1 The IEC / UIC / IEEE Train Communication Network for time-critical and safe on-board communication Pierre.

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Presentation on theme: "2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 1 The IEC / UIC / IEEE Train Communication Network for time-critical and safe on-board communication Pierre."— Presentation transcript:

1 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 1 The IEC / UIC / IEEE Train Communication Network for time-critical and safe on-board communication Pierre Zuber, Bombardier Transportation, Pittsburgh, USA Hubert Kirrmann, ABB Corporate Research, Baden, Switzerland What is the Train Communication Network ? Wire Train Bus Multifunction Vehicle Bus Real-Time and Deterministic data transfer Message Services Available and Safe Architecture Standardization of Vehicle data ROSIN -TrainCom - ERRI projects Conclusion

2 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 2 The IEC Train Communication Network international IEC and IEEE standard for data communication aboard rail vehicles. Vehicle Bus Train Bus Vehicle Bus manufacturers: Bombardier - ADtranz (CH, DE, SE) ANSALDO (IT) CAF (ES) Firema, Ercole Marelli Trazione (IT) Mitsubishi (JP) Siemens (GB, DE) Toshiba (JP) Westinghouse Signals (GB) railways operators: Chinese Railways DB (Germany) FS (Italy) JRRI (Japan) NS (Netherlands) RATP (France) SNCF (France) UIC (Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer) PKN (Poland) developped by IEC TC9 (Electric Traction Equipment) with the collaboration of: UITP (Union Internationale des Transports Publics) Alstom (FR, GB, BE)

3 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 3 Objectives of the TCN Define interfaces between programmable equipment's, with the aim of achieving plug-compatibility: 1) between vehicles 2) between equipment aboard a vehicle:

4 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 4 TCNs network architecture The Train Communication Network consists of: a Train Bus which connects the vehicles (Interface 1) and of a Vehicle Bus which connects the equipments within a vehicle (Interface 2). vehicle bus devices train bus vehicle bus node vehicle bus

5 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 5 Wire Train Bus (WTB ) thousand of vehicles in daily operationreferences 1 Mbit/s over shielded, twisted wiresdata rate 32 (some vehicles may have more than one node) number of nodes 860 m, 22 vehicles (including passive, retrofit vehicles) covered distance assigns to each node its sequential address and orientation ERRI (European Rail Research Institute, Utrecht, NL)conformance inauguration standard communication interface between vehicles 25 ms cycle timeresponse time open trains with variable composition such as UIC trainsmain application node

6 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 6 WTB traffic Vehicles of different types communicate over the train bus for the purpose of: telecontroltraction control: vehicle control: diagnostics passenger comfort seat reservation 1) 2) 3) lights, doors, heating, tilting,... remote, multiple traction,... next station, delays, connections. coaches for destination Xcoaches for destination Ylocomotivedriving coach driver's cab train attendant diagnostic computer equipment failures, maintenance information

7 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 7 WTB wiring UIC specified a data cable ( 18 pole) compatible with the 13-pole UIC connector Since there are normally two jumpers, wiring is by nature redundant Fritting (voltage pulses) is used to overcome oxidation of contacts UIC data cable Line B Line A jumper Line A vehicle WTB cable Line B WTB node 1 1 top view 2 classic UIC lines jumper classic UIC lines redundant nodes 2 WTB node Wiring over shielded twisted pairs, jumpers or automatic couplers between vehicles.

8 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 8 MVB paves the way to interchangeability of equipment and simplified maintenance. MVB is important for: small equipment manufacturers (reduced bus diversity) vehicle assemblers (wider choice of suppliers, commissioning) railways operators (less maintenance and spare parts) All MVB devices are interoperable: there exist no incompatible options MVB - the standard vehicle bus Why standardize the vehicle bus ?

9 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 9 Multifunction Vehicle Bus (MVB) data rate delay media number of stations tens of thousand of vehicles in service status up to 4095 simple sensors/actuators 1,5 Mbit/s shortest period 1 ms shielded twisted pairs and optical fibers up to 255 programmable stations cockpit power line diagnostics radio Train Bus motor control power electronicsbrakestrack signals Multifunction Vehicle Bus standard interface for plug-compatibility between equipment on-board vehicles clock synchronization within a few microsecondtime distribution

10 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 10 Example: Vehicle Control Units MVB

11 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 11 MVB wiring The MVB can span several vehicles: The number of devices under this configuration amounts to 4095. Train Bus devices node devices with short distance bus repeater MVB The MVB can serve as a train bus in trains with fixed configuration, up to a distance of 200 m (EMD medium) or 2000 m (OGF medium).

12 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 12 TCN combinations MVB 860 m (without repeater) WTB (standard) Open train 0 vehicle bus2 vehicle busses (standard & not) 1 vehicle bus (standard MVB) MVB or other (not standard) Closed train 1 vehicle bus0 vehicle bus WTB (standard) Connected train sets 1 vehicle bus 200 m (without repeater) 200 m without repeater not standard vehicle bus 0 node (conduction vehicle)

13 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 13 TCN protocols both the train and the vehicle bus use the same protocols - deterministic (periodic) transmission of time-critical process variables - reliable, demand-driven messages in point-to-point and multicast Network Management Multifunction Vehicle Bus Variables Network Session Transport Presentation Application Interface Messages Application Interface other bus Wire Train Bus common

14 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 14 Train and Vehicle Bus Operation State of the Plant Response in 1..200 ms Spurious data losses will be compensated at the next cycle event Sporadic dataSporadic Data time On-Demand Transmission Events of the Plant Response at human speed: > 0.5 s Initialization, calibration Flow control & error recovery protocol for catching all events Diagnostics, event recorder Basic Period State VariableMessages... commands, position, speed Periodic Transmission Periodic Data determinism is the condition for safe and available operation

15 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 15 WTB and MVB: Integrity and availability principles Both WTB and MVB comply with IEC 60870-5-1 integrity (HD = 4 on TWP, 8 on fiber) A study at Carnegie Mellon University fully confirmed TCNs integrity. The TCN architecture allows to build a network without a single point of failure. Duplicated physical layer is the default, single line is also possible.

16 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 16 Further standardization TCN laid the ground for standardization of data interchange not only between vehicles but also between vehicle and ground (signaling) and radio links

17 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 17 UIC (International Railways Union) train data Electrical and data link interoperability is necessary, but not sufficient for interoperability UIC556 cross-identification, process and message data formats UIC556 vehicle data Once vehicles are able to communicate, they exchange their identification and capabilities: e.g. I am a traction vehicle, my weight is 50 T, my length 23 m,…. I support diagnostic data, passenger information, multiple traction,… To ensure plug-and-roll, UIC defined all traffic on the WTB: The mapping server in each executes the protocol for cross-identification of the vehicles UIC557 diagnostic data UIC647 traction data UIC176 passenger info IEC 61375 / IEEE 1473 train and vehicle bus, process and message protocols operator- specific

18 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 18 ETCS - Eurocab MVB is used as the vital on-board bus for Eurocab (European Train Control System). To this purpose, safety protocols on top of TCN have been developed Machine Interface Man- MVB Interface Brake Interface Track Interface(s) Balise Speed and Distance Measurement Traction Data Logger Radio Clock Computer Vital

19 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 19 Safe Architecture Safety protocols were developed for 2/3, 1/2 or coded processors, provide time-stamping, authentication and value check over cyclic services. coded monoprocessor FF c triple modular redundancy F 1 simplex sensor/actorduplicated sensor/actor triplicated sensor/actor diverse programming dumb devices (no application programming) intelligent devices (application programs) F 1 F 2 c A B A B and/or F 2 untrusted bus Single channel, dual redundant and triple redundant devices can interoperate. Vital and non-vital devices of different origin can interoperate over the same MVB. ACB FFF

20 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 20 ROSIN - European Program Device: Door control Made by: Westinghouse Year: 1995 Revision: 1998 May 19 Parameters: position, status, indication,...... Maintenance messages:.... 1996 Jun 25 10:43 23" low air pressure 1996 Jun 26 10:55 09" emergency open 1996 Jun 26 11:01 17" manual reclose.... air conditioning power light doors Universal Maintenance Tool It defined data interchange for passenger vehicles, freight trains, radio links,… This multi-year (and multi-million $) project of European Union based on TCN. brakes This work supported the parallel standardization in UIC 556 / 557

21 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 21 RoMain - Rosin Maintenance Remote web access over radio was demonstrated on the Eusko train remote RoMain clients ROSIN server ADtranz server Ansaldo server Netscape Internet Explorer Secure TCP/IP Network servers operatorsmanufacturers ERRI Bus A node Bus B Bus A node RoGate radio proxy

22 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 22 IEEE standardisation The IEEE Rail Transit Vehicle Interface Standard Committee influenced TCN WG1 adopted TCN as IEEE 1473 Type T and defined interoperation with foreign components. WG9 is working on information interchange standards and collaborates with UIC LVB LSB WTB other bus MVB ML gateway MVB station MVB station MVB Administrator WTB node Operation of mixed systems in the USA showed the importance of strict definition of interchanged data and how money spared by off-the-shelf is wasted in costly adaptations

23 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 23 TrainCom The successful ROSIN project was followed by another European project: TrainCom. TrainCom considers in particular: - locomotive interoperability (multiple traction) in collaboration with UIC 647 - GSM radio links MORANE TrainCom ERTMS kernel TRAIN COM

24 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 24 Acknowledgements To all engineers of ABB, Adtranz, AEG, Alstom, Duagon, ERRI, Firema, I.PRO.M, Siemens,… To the railways people in UIC which dedicated years of work in the standard groups

25 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 25 Conclusion TCN is a suite of communication and application protocols tailored for the railways, not just a field bus. TCN imposed itself as the standard communication network in railways TCN (MVB) has been adopted in electrical substations and printing machines capitalizing on the work done by the railways community. Work on TCN is not finished - UIC, TrainCom and IEEE RTVISC WG9 are at work… UIC did a great job in the definition of the application data, the industry could readily support this effort in the ROSIN and TrainCom projects. IEEE RTVISC WG9 has adopted UIC 556 as the basis for IEEE 1473-T train bus data communication. TCN is an open technology - there are no royalties, patents or copyrights. Anyone can build a TCN according to specs - chips are available. TCN source code is available on

26 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 26 Reserve slides

27 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 27 Why not Ethernet instead of WTB ? Ethernet uses a star topography (point-to-point to a hub). A train has a linear topography. Ethernet would need special hubs which recognizes right and left in each vehicle. Hubs would be a single point of failure, a battery failure in a vehicle would stop the bus. Hubs cannot be used for freight vehicles (no battery in the vehicles). In spite of providing 100 times more speed then WTB, Ethernet real-time response is not better, because of overhead associated with transmitting numerous, small data items. Ethernet is just a level 2 (up to data link) specification mutual identification of vehicles are yet to be developed. IP and UDP are too slow for time-critical data (traction data), reconfiguration in case of failure takes several minutes. there is no alternative to WTB as a train bus

28 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 28 Process Data transmission by source-addressed broadcast The device which sources that variable responds with a slave frame containing the value, all devices subscribed as sink receive that frame. The bus master broadcasts the identifier of a variable to be transmitted:Phase1: Phase 2: devices (slaves) bus subscribed variable value bus master devices (slaves) source sink subscribed devices sink subscribed device subscribed device variable identifier bus master source sink subscribed devices sink device

29 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 29 The concept of real-time, distributed database cyclic algorithms cyclic algorithms cyclic algorithms cyclic algorithms port address application 1 Traffic Stores Ports application 2 4 source port sink port port data bus controller bus controller bus controller sink port cyclic poll bus controller bus master application 3 bus controller bus Periodic List Ports Bus and applications interface through a shared memory, the traffic store. Bus traffic and application cycles are asynchronous to each other. Cyclic bus traffic blends with IEC 61331-style of programming

30 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 30 Hard Real-Time and Soft Real-Time response time probability unbounded ! 1 element2 elements in series still bounded ! t2 t4 t2+t4 t2t1 t1+t3 t1 t3 hard (cyclic) t1+t3 t1 t3 Determinism is not a bus, but a system issue. response time probability unbounded ! soft (event-driven) t2t1 e.g. vehicle bus and train bus e.g. vehicle bus bounded !

31 2002 June 10, APTA, Baltimore, Zuber-Kirrmann 31 number of devices: 37 ( including 2 bus administrators) 37 of 16 bits 16 ms32 ms64 ms128256 49 frames of 256 bits 30 frames of 128 bits 1024 65 frames of 64 bits 18 of 32 period % periodic time occupancy is proportional to surface total = 92% Already today, long frames dominate Locomotive 465 Frame Occupancy

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