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Romanticism 1798 - 1832. Learning Goals To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Romantic period. To identify the major authors.

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Presentation on theme: "Romanticism 1798 - 1832. Learning Goals To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Romantic period. To identify the major authors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanticism

2 Learning Goals To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Romantic period. To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Romantic period. To recognize the major literary characteristics of the period. To recognize the major literary characteristics of the period. To understand how the politics of a time period can influence its literature. To understand how the politics of a time period can influence its literature. To identify major vocabulary needed to analyze the literature of the period. To identify major vocabulary needed to analyze the literature of the period.

3 Whats going on at the time… Industrial Revolution ( ish) Industrial Revolution ( ish) American Revolution ( ) American Revolution ( ) French Revolution ( ) French Revolution ( )

4 The House of Hanover continues… George III 1760 – 1820 – very popular, though bouts of mental illness. Great interest in agricultural matters, science, and religious piety. Greatly helped forward the Industrial Revolution. Very fiscally conservative. George III 1760 – 1820 – very popular, though bouts of mental illness. Great interest in agricultural matters, science, and religious piety. Greatly helped forward the Industrial Revolution. Very fiscally conservative. George IV 1820 – 1830 – extravagant, ruled under regency from 1811 until his father died. Hated both his father and his wife, gentlemanly and cultured, but spoiled and a wasteful spender. George IV 1820 – 1830 – extravagant, ruled under regency from 1811 until his father died. Hated both his father and his wife, gentlemanly and cultured, but spoiled and a wasteful spender. William IV 1830 – 1837 – First child labor act passed, abolished slavery, Reform Act of 1832 (increased voting population) William IV 1830 – 1837 – First child labor act passed, abolished slavery, Reform Act of 1832 (increased voting population)

5 Where it begins… Sturm und Drang Storm and Stress Storm and Stress Anti-Aristocratic Anti-Aristocratic The name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment. The name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment.

6 Where it begins: The Sorrows of Young Werther Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1774) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1774) Werther spends an idyllic few months in the country and falls in love with Lotte, a peasant girl. Werther spends an idyllic few months in the country and falls in love with Lotte, a peasant girl. Shes engaged, and Werther leaves due to the pain of never being able to be with her. Shes engaged, and Werther leaves due to the pain of never being able to be with her. He eventually takes his own life, and is buried alone. He eventually takes his own life, and is buried alone. Becomes wildly popular among young men in Europe who attempt to imitate Werther and go on pilgrimages to Goethes home. Becomes wildly popular among young men in Europe who attempt to imitate Werther and go on pilgrimages to Goethes home.

7 Romanticism: A Reaction against Enlightenment Increasing interest in nature and natural, primitive, and uncivilized ways of life Increasing interest in nature and natural, primitive, and uncivilized ways of life Growing interest in scenery, especially untamed or disorderly scenery Growing interest in scenery, especially untamed or disorderly scenery Association of human mood with the moods of nature Association of human mood with the moods of nature

8 Characteristics of Romanticism Emphasis on need for spontaneity in thought and action Emphasis on need for spontaneity in thought and action Increasing importance of natural genius and the power of the imagination. Increasing importance of natural genius and the power of the imagination. Tendency to exalt the individual and his needs, free expression Tendency to exalt the individual and his needs, free expression

9 Characteristics of Romanticism Cult of the Noble Savage Cult of the Noble Savage Rejection of authoritarianism, materialistic values, and industrialization Rejection of authoritarianism, materialistic values, and industrialization Emphasis on natural religion Emphasis on natural religion

10 Main British Romantics William Blake William Blake Robert Burns Robert Burns William Wordsworth William Wordsworth Samuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge Percy Shelley Percy Shelley Lord ByronLord Byron Mary ShelleyMary Shelley John KeatsJohn Keats Ann RadcliffeAnn Radcliffe Transition FiguresTransition Figures Sir Walter ScottSir Walter Scott Jane AustenJane Austen Emily Bronte Emily Bronte

11 Main American Romantics ( ) Washington Irving Washington Irving Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne Herman Melville Herman Melville James F. Cooper James F. Cooper Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman Walt Whitman Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass Henry W. Longfellow Henry W. Longfellow William C. Bryant William C. Bryant Transcendentalists Transcendentalists Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson Margaret Fuller Margaret Fuller

12 Gothic Fiction Combines horror and romance Combines horror and romance Believed to have been popularized by the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. Believed to have been popularized by the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. Ann Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), Mary Shelleys Frankenstein. Ann Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), Mary Shelleys Frankenstein.

13 Gothic Fiction, continued Characteristics include: terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses. Characteristics include: terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses.

14 William Blake ( ) Largely unknown in his lifetime. Poet, Printer, Painter Considered a lunatic by his contemporaries Very religious, but anti-church. Hated scholars like Isaac Newton, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, etc. who had declared the world/nature/universe was measurable / scientific, etc. Believed in the autonomy of the imagination

15 William Blake Believed the physical, corporeal world was a trap meant to ensnare the senses from relying upon the imagination to see the true reality that lay beneath. Believed the physical, corporeal world was a trap meant to ensnare the senses from relying upon the imagination to see the true reality that lay beneath. Where man is not, Nature is barren Where man is not, Nature is barren If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, until he sees all things through the narrow chinks of his cavern. Where the band The Doors got their name… =)

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18 He who sees the infinite in all things sees God. He who sees the ratio only sees himself. The Ancient of Days

19 Blakes Songs of Innocence The mental state of childhood innocence. The mental state of childhood innocence. Point of view is important… how do you look at things? Point of view is important… how do you look at things? Songs about & from the POV of innocence Songs about & from the POV of innocence Prelapsarian (before the Fall) Prelapsarian (before the Fall) Blake does NOT consider innocence as perfect or utopian… experience is needed Blake does NOT consider innocence as perfect or utopian… experience is needed

20 Blakes Songs of Experience Postlapsarian world Innocence is too dependent on those who take care of it… parents, priests, governments, etc. Blake says, I must create my own system or be enslaved by another mans Without Contraries is No Progression Man creates mind-forgd manacles Envy, jealousy, selfishness, and fear pervade the poems of this section

21 Literary Terms to Know… Lyric poem/poetry Lyric poem/poetry Pastoral Pastoral Gothicism Gothicism Sturm and Drang Sturm and Drang Doppelganger Doppelganger Byronic Hero Byronic Hero Epistolary Novel Epistolary Novel


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