2 Learning GoalsTo identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Romantic period.To recognize the major literary characteristics of the period.To understand how the politics of a time period can influence its literature.To identify major vocabulary needed to analyze the literature of the period.
3 What’s going on at the time… Industrial Revolution ( ish)American Revolution ( )French Revolution ( )
4 The House of Hanover continues… George III 1760 – 1820 – very popular, though bouts of mental illness. Great interest in agricultural matters, science, and religious piety. Greatly helped forward the Industrial Revolution. Very fiscally conservative.George IV 1820 – 1830 – extravagant, ruled under regency from 1811 until his father died. Hated both his father and his wife, gentlemanly and cultured, but spoiled and a wasteful spender.William IV 1830 – 1837 – First child labor act passed, abolished slavery, Reform Act of 1832 (increased voting population)
5 Where it begins… Sturm und Drang Storm and StressAnti-AristocraticThe name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment.
6 Where it begins: The Sorrows of Young Werther Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1774)Werther spends an idyllic few months in the country and falls in love with Lotte, a peasant girl.She’s engaged, and Werther leaves due to the pain of never being able to be with her.He eventually takes his own life, and is buried alone.Becomes wildly popular among young men in Europe who attempt to imitate Werther and go on pilgrimages to Goethe’s home.
7 Romanticism: A Reaction against Enlightenment Increasing interest in nature and natural, primitive, and uncivilized ways of lifeGrowing interest in scenery, especially untamed or disorderly sceneryAssociation of human mood with the moods of nature
8 Characteristics of Romanticism Emphasis on need for spontaneity in thought and actionIncreasing importance of natural genius and the power of the imagination.Tendency to exalt the individual and his needs, free expression
9 Characteristics of Romanticism Cult of the Noble SavageRejection of authoritarianism, materialistic values, and industrializationEmphasis on natural religion
10 Main British Romantics William BlakeRobert BurnsWilliam WordsworthSamuel Taylor ColeridgePercy ShelleyLord ByronMary ShelleyJohn KeatsAnn RadcliffeTransition FiguresSir Walter ScottJane AustenEmily Bronte
11 Main American Romantics (1770-1860) Washington IrvingEdgar Allan PoeNathaniel HawthorneHerman MelvilleJames F. CooperEmily DickinsonWalt WhitmanFrederick DouglassHenry W. LongfellowWilliam C. BryantTranscendentalistsHenry David ThoreauRalph Waldo EmersonMargaret Fuller
12 Gothic Fiction Combines horror and romance Believed to have been popularized by the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto.Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein .
13 Gothic Fiction, continued Characteristics include: terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses.
14 William Blake ( )Largely unknown in his lifetime. Poet, Printer, PainterConsidered a lunatic by his contemporariesVery religious, but anti-church.Hated scholars like Isaac Newton, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, etc. who had declared the world/nature/universe was measurable / scientific, etc.Believed in the autonomy of the imagination
15 William Blake“If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, until he sees all things through the narrow chinks of his cavern.”Where the band The Doors got their name… =)Believed the physical, corporeal world was a trap meant to ensnare the senses from relying upon the imagination to see the true reality that lay beneath.“Where man is not, Nature is barren”
18 “He who sees the infinite in all things sees God “He who sees the infinite in all things sees God. He who sees the ratio only sees himself.”The Ancient of Days
19 Blake’s Songs of Innocence The mental state of childhood innocence.Point of view is important… how do you look at things?Songs about & from the POV of innocencePrelapsarian (before the Fall)Blake does NOT consider innocence as perfect or utopian… experience is needed
20 Blake’s Songs of Experience Postlapsarian worldInnocence is too dependent on those who take care of it… parents, priests, governments, etc.Blake says, “I must create my own system or be enslaved by another man’s”“Without Contraries is No Progression”Man creates “mind-forg’d manacles”Envy, jealousy, selfishness, and fear pervade the poems of this section
21 Literary Terms to Know… Lyric poem/poetryPastoralGothicismSturm and DrangDoppelgangerByronic HeroEpistolary Novel
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