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A Role for Social Policy in Resilience Building in SIDS Presented by Cletus I. Springer Chief Caribbean Division OAS Department for Sustainable Development.

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Presentation on theme: "A Role for Social Policy in Resilience Building in SIDS Presented by Cletus I. Springer Chief Caribbean Division OAS Department for Sustainable Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Role for Social Policy in Resilience Building in SIDS Presented by Cletus I. Springer Chief Caribbean Division OAS Department for Sustainable Development at Conference on Economic Resilience Malta, April 23-25, 2007

2 2 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The plea for a new paradigm …the GDP includes air pollution, cigarette advertising, the ambulances cleaning our streets of accidents, the special locks in our doors and the prisons for those who break them. It includes the destruction of pinewoods and the death of Lake Superior. It rises with the production of missiles and nuclear heads…and if the GDP includes all this, there is more that is not comprised (such as) the heath of our families, the quality of our education or the enjoyment of games. It is indifferent to the indecency of our factories and the safety of our streets…it does not measure our ingenuity or our courage, our wisdom or our understanding. To sum up it measures everything except what makes life worth living… Robert Kennedy

3 3 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Abstract This presentation proposes an integrated policy framework that could support the attainment of sustained Human/Social Development in small states. It is set upon a foundation of evolving theories on economic vulnerability, economic resilience and social vulnerability in small states. It accepts that small states are inherently vulnerable, economically, socially and environmentally; it contends that the interplay between these various types of vulnerability demands an integrated policy and strategic response, that seeks to build resilience in all three spheres, simultaneously. The presentation will explore some of the main challenges to creating resilient economies, societies and environments through effective social policy. It concludes with an examination of key imperatives for the attainment of the objectives of any Integrated Social or Human Development Policy in small states. In this regard, it will focus on the requirements for the establishment of an Integrated Development Planning (IDP) framework in small states.

4 4 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Objectives of presentation Build consensus on theoretical underpinnings of vulnerability and resilience building Build consensus on theoretical underpinnings of vulnerability and resilience building Examine linkages between economic, social and environmental vulnerability Examine linkages between economic, social and environmental vulnerability outline elements of an integrated social/human development policy outline elements of an integrated social/human development policy Examine challenges to an integrated policy landscape Examine challenges to an integrated policy landscape

5 5 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Theoretical underpinnings Vulnerability – propensity of a social, economic and environmental system to suffer harm from exposure to internal and external stresses and shocks; Vulnerability – propensity of a social, economic and environmental system to suffer harm from exposure to internal and external stresses and shocks; Economic vulnerability refers to risks faced from exogenous shocks to systems of production, distribution and consumption; Economic vulnerability refers to risks faced from exogenous shocks to systems of production, distribution and consumption; Environmental Vulnerability refers to risk of damage to natural eco-systems Environmental Vulnerability refers to risk of damage to natural eco-systems

6 6 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Theoretical Constructs Social vulnerability reflects …the degree to which societies or socio-economic groups are affected by stresses and hazards, whether brought about by external forces or intrinsic factors – internal and external – that negatively impact the social cohesion of a country (UNDP 2000). Social vulnerability reflects …the degree to which societies or socio-economic groups are affected by stresses and hazards, whether brought about by external forces or intrinsic factors – internal and external – that negatively impact the social cohesion of a country (UNDP 2000).

7 7 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Theoretical Constructs Links between social, economic and environmental system render SIDS more vulnerable Links between social, economic and environmental system render SIDS more vulnerable Inherent economic vulnerability has impeded economic growth and development Inherent economic vulnerability has impeded economic growth and development Failure to anticipate shocks and their knock-on effects can lead to only partial solutions and a deepening of vulnerability. Failure to anticipate shocks and their knock-on effects can lead to only partial solutions and a deepening of vulnerability.

8 8 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Linkages Society Environment Economy

9 9 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of Economic Vulnerability in SIDS Small domestic markets Small domestic markets High dependence on exports High dependence on exports Limited resource endowments Limited resource endowments Limited diversification opportunities Limited diversification opportunities Dependence on a narrow range of products Dependence on a narrow range of products Inability to influence international prices Inability to influence international prices High per unit transport costs High per unit transport costs Peripherality Peripherality Trade vulnerability Trade vulnerability High dependence on preferential trading preferences High dependence on preferential trading preferences

10 10 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of Social Vulnerability in SIDS ECONOMY–RELATED IMPACTS: ECONOMY–RELATED IMPACTS: Impacts of globalisation Impacts of globalisation High rates of unemployment/under-employment High rates of unemployment/under-employment High dependency ratios High dependency ratios High poverty rates High poverty rates Poor labour market flexibility; Poor labour market flexibility; Susceptibility to brain drain Susceptibility to brain drain Cultural penetration. Cultural penetration.

11 11 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of social vulnerability contd SERVICE PROVISION ISSUES: SERVICE PROVISION ISSUES: dispersed rural settlements with implications for cost of service provision dispersed rural settlements with implications for cost of service provision Small populations but high population densities in urban/peri-urban/ coastal/valley areas with implications for health and sanitation Small populations but high population densities in urban/peri-urban/ coastal/valley areas with implications for health and sanitation Marginalisation of women, children and the elderly Marginalisation of women, children and the elderly Undeveloped social sectors Undeveloped social sectors High rates of internal (rural to urban migration) and international migration High rates of internal (rural to urban migration) and international migration High levels of crime/drug addiction High levels of crime/drug addiction

12 12 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of social vulnerability contd HEALTH-RELATED ISSUES: HEALTH-RELATED ISSUES: Susceptibility to infectious diseases Susceptibility to infectious diseases High unit costs of health, administrative education, judicial services High unit costs of health, administrative education, judicial services Thinness of insurance market Thinness of insurance market High transportation costs (inter and intra island) High transportation costs (inter and intra island) Aging populations with implications for viability of social safety nets Aging populations with implications for viability of social safety nets Low levels of educational achievement/high dropout rates and illiteracy. Low levels of educational achievement/high dropout rates and illiteracy.

13 13 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of Social vulnerability contd FOOD SECURITY ISSUES: FOOD SECURITY ISSUES: Increased consumption rates due to growing populations; Increased consumption rates due to growing populations; Insecure food situation/high food import bill with negative dietary/health implications Insecure food situation/high food import bill with negative dietary/health implications Poor access to land/ water links to food security and sanitation Poor access to land/ water links to food security and sanitation Systems and transmission of values Systems and transmission of values Vulnerability to man-made and natural disasters Vulnerability to man-made and natural disasters

14 14 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of social vulnerability POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES: POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES: Underdeveloped public and private sectors Underdeveloped public and private sectors Low institutional capacity due limited HR capacity; Low institutional capacity due limited HR capacity; Weak development planning capacity Weak development planning capacity Lack of integration between economic, social and environmental aspects of planning Lack of integration between economic, social and environmental aspects of planning Lack of integration between the national and regional aspects of planning Lack of integration between the national and regional aspects of planning Lack of participation in the planning and decision-making process Lack of participation in the planning and decision-making process Lack of effective decision-support systems Lack of effective decision-support systems

15 15 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Features of Environmental Vulnerability Increasing Water stress Increasing Water stress Fragile ecosystems Fragile ecosystems Susceptibility to pollution effects Susceptibility to pollution effects Extreme vulnerability to natural disasters including: Extreme vulnerability to natural disasters including: Climate change and climate vulnerability Climate change and climate vulnerability Increased frequency and intensity of hurricanes, storms Increased frequency and intensity of hurricanes, storms Floods and droughts Floods and droughts Sea level rise Sea level rise Landslides Landslides Land and soil degradation Land and soil degradation Coastal erosion Coastal erosion

16 16 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Notion of Resilience Originally: used in narrow context to mean the ability/capacity of a country to recover from external shocks and disturbance; Originally: used in narrow context to mean the ability/capacity of a country to recover from external shocks and disturbance; Now: goes beyond mere survival and envisages the capacity of a country to (a) return at least to the status quo; Now: goes beyond mere survival and envisages the capacity of a country to (a) return at least to the status quo; (b) go beyond status quo to address ability to thrive.

17 17 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Role of Social Policy Social policy is state intervention that: Social policy is state intervention that: directly affects social welfare, social institutions and social relations directly affects social welfare, social institutions and social relations Involves overarching concerns with redistribution, production, reproduction and protection Involves overarching concerns with redistribution, production, reproduction and protection Works in tandem with economic (and environmental policy) Works in tandem with economic (and environmental policy) Establishes and enforces standards and regulations that shape the role of non-state actors and markets in social provisioning Establishes and enforces standards and regulations that shape the role of non-state actors and markets in social provisioning UN Research Institute for Social development - Policy Brief #5

18 18 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Tasks of Social Policy Social policy concerned with: Social policy concerned with: Redistributive effects of economic policy Redistributive effects of economic policy Protecting the vulnerable from the vagaries of the market Protecting the vulnerable from the vagaries of the market Enhancing the productive potential of the members of the society Enhancing the productive potential of the members of the society Reconciling the burden of reproduction Reconciling the burden of reproduction Sharing the burden of reproduction Sharing the burden of reproduction

19 19 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Case for an Integrated Approach Social policy goals are naturally synergistic and complementary Social policy goals are naturally synergistic and complementary The pursuit of one social policy goal to the exclusion of others can impede the attainment of the chosen goal The pursuit of one social policy goal to the exclusion of others can impede the attainment of the chosen goal Distributive functions cannot be pursued without a focus on productive functions and vice versa Distributive functions cannot be pursued without a focus on productive functions and vice versa A focus on productivist approach alone will breed disunity. A focus on productivist approach alone will breed disunity.

20 20 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Social Policy Functions Investment in human capital (education, health, housing etc)- prerequisite for economic growth and resilience Investment in human capital (education, health, housing etc)- prerequisite for economic growth and resilience Social compensation ( stable, predictable, social protection networks) Social compensation ( stable, predictable, social protection networks) Influences the levels and structures of demand as well as supply Influences the levels and structures of demand as well as supply Social cohesion (…creation of an integrated society in which the population behaves according to socially accepted norms and patterns and an adjustment is created between cultural goals, the structure to attain them and the acquisition of the necessary skills to take advantage of these opportunities. Social cohesion (…creation of an integrated society in which the population behaves according to socially accepted norms and patterns and an adjustment is created between cultural goals, the structure to attain them and the acquisition of the necessary skills to take advantage of these opportunities. ECLAC, 1997:III.73

21 21 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Social Policy Imperatives Effective social policies are those that are: Effective social policies are those that are: Arrived at with full participation of major actors Arrived at with full participation of major actors Are fully ventilated Are fully ventilated Reinforced in Constitutions, Social Charters, laws and other written policy statements Reinforced in Constitutions, Social Charters, laws and other written policy statements Kept under constant review Kept under constant review In consonance with local value systems, cultures structures and institutions In consonance with local value systems, cultures structures and institutions Aligned with institutional capacity Aligned with institutional capacity

22 22 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Integrated Development Policy Imperatives Strengthening development policy analysis, formulation and implementation arrangements across and within sectors Strengthening development policy analysis, formulation and implementation arrangements across and within sectors Develop institutional and technical capacity to formulate and implement integrated development policy Develop institutional and technical capacity to formulate and implement integrated development policy Strengthening channels for continuous participation in policy and planning processes Strengthening channels for continuous participation in policy and planning processes

23 23 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Imperatives for policy Implementation Establish IDP arrangements that: Establish IDP arrangements that: Reflect a common set of guiding principles ; Reflect a common set of guiding principles ; Allow for incorporation of physical and/or social impacts of economic activities or for environmental protection measures; Allow for incorporation of physical and/or social impacts of economic activities or for environmental protection measures; Routinely incorporate environmental, social, physical and spatial consequences of planning Routinely incorporate environmental, social, physical and spatial consequences of planning

24 24 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Imperatives for Policy Implementation Develop the capacity of key national and regional institutions; Develop the capacity of key national and regional institutions; Increase the supply, use and retention of trained human resources; Increase the supply, use and retention of trained human resources; Institutionalize dynamic planning and decision- making frameworks based on participatory processes; Institutionalize dynamic planning and decision- making frameworks based on participatory processes; More participation by CSOs in dev. process More participation by CSOs in dev. process

25 25 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Imperatives for Policy Implementation Generate sustained and comprehensive labour market information to better guide interventions in the labour market; Generate sustained and comprehensive labour market information to better guide interventions in the labour market; Reform education systems to ensure better fit between trained HR and national/regional development goals Reform education systems to ensure better fit between trained HR and national/regional development goals Enhance labour market flexibility to meet productivity/competitiveness targets Enhance labour market flexibility to meet productivity/competitiveness targets

26 26 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Social Policy Imperatives Develop national and sub-regional policy frameworks for poverty eradication using the sustainable livelihood approach; Develop national and sub-regional policy frameworks for poverty eradication using the sustainable livelihood approach; Provide social safety nets for the poor; Provide social safety nets for the poor; Undertake macro-economic and social analyses of social development programmes; Undertake macro-economic and social analyses of social development programmes; Enhance human and physical infrastructure Enhance human and physical infrastructure

27 27 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development Social Policy Imperatives Promote conflict resolution at h/hold, and community and national level Promote conflict resolution at h/hold, and community and national level Empower marginalised groups Empower marginalised groups Ensure the livelihoods and income security of older persons Ensure the livelihoods and income security of older persons Build leadership capacity at community level Build leadership capacity at community level Better management of the expectations of the population Better management of the expectations of the population

28 28 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge …it is important to monitor changes along time in a number of life qualities, both at the level of the population as a whole and for significant sub-groups, since such information when combined with other data may generate new knowledge about how to increase the quality of life through more effective social policies… Andrews, F.M 1989 – The Evolution of a Movement

29 29 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge Key challenge: Key challenge: Developing a social indicators system Developing a social indicators system Still no global consensus on a conceptual model or statistical image of the society Still no global consensus on a conceptual model or statistical image of the society Absence of a common, precise measurement unit for social phenomena such as education, households, health or crime Absence of a common, precise measurement unit for social phenomena such as education, households, health or crime

30 30 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge Some progress since the mid-1990s Some progress since the mid-1990s Declaration on Statistics for Social Progress: Declaration on Statistics for Social Progress: Monitoring the attainment of outcomes of social policies and programmes (e.g changes in unemployment levels, income distribution and populations health; Monitoring the attainment of outcomes of social policies and programmes (e.g changes in unemployment levels, income distribution and populations health; Identifying those factors that seem to be linked to specific outcomes (desirable or undesirable) and that are a target for intervention via social programmes or policies. Identifying those factors that seem to be linked to specific outcomes (desirable or undesirable) and that are a target for intervention via social programmes or policies.

31 31 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge Statistics Commission of UNECOSOC Statistics Commission of UNECOSOC Five major policy themes Five major policy themes Population and development (health, material welfare, education); Population and development (health, material welfare, education); Poverty eradication (income and expenditures, economic resources); Poverty eradication (income and expenditures, economic resources); Expansion of productive employment and un-employment reduction (labour, labour environment, education and training); Expansion of productive employment and un-employment reduction (labour, labour environment, education and training); Social Integration (Housing, work, crime and criminal justice Social Integration (Housing, work, crime and criminal justice Condition of men and women (health care, work, income). Condition of men and women (health care, work, income).

32 32 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge The Minimum National Social data Set (MNSDS) – 15 indicators The Minimum National Social data Set (MNSDS) – 15 indicators Population estimates by age, sex and ethnic group Population estimates by age, sex and ethnic group Life expectancy at birth by sex Life expectancy at birth by sex Infant mortality by sex Infant mortality by sex Child mortality by sex Child mortality by sex Maternal mortality Maternal mortality Percentage of infants weighing less that 2500 grams at birth Percentage of infants weighing less that 2500 grams at birth Average number of years of schooling completed by sex and income category Average number of years of schooling completed by sex and income category GDP per capita GDP per capita Household income per capita (level and distribution) Household income per capita (level and distribution)

33 33 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge MNSDS Contd MNSDS Contd Monetary value of the food basket required for minimum nutritional requirements; Monetary value of the food basket required for minimum nutritional requirements; Unemployment rate by sex Unemployment rate by sex Employment – population ratio by sex and where appropriate by formal and informal sector Employment – population ratio by sex and where appropriate by formal and informal sector Access to safe water Access to safe water Access to sanitation Access to sanitation Number of people per room, excluding kitchen and bathroom Number of people per room, excluding kitchen and bathroom

34 34 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge The Millennium Development Goals – 48 indicators relating to 8 goals: The Millennium Development Goals – 48 indicators relating to 8 goals: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Achieve universal primary education Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Diseases Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development Develop a global partnership for development

35 35 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge The Human Development Index The Human Development Index Threshold 21 Threshold 21 Common Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) Common Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) Survey of Living Conditions (SLC) Survey of Living Conditions (SLC)

36 36 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development The Monitoring Challenge Social indicators must be: Social indicators must be: simple in their construction simple in their construction Relevant to the national/regional context Relevant to the national/regional context permit accurate measurement of progress permit accurate measurement of progress towards the attainment of social (development) policy towards the attainment of social (development) policy Enable the knock-on effects of economic, social and environmental policy to be properly assessed Enable the knock-on effects of economic, social and environmental policy to be properly assessed

37 37 Cletus I. Springer OAS - Department of Sustainable Development THE END THANK YOU! THANK YOU! MERCI BEAUCOUP! MERCI BEAUCOUP! MUCHAS GRACIAS! MUCHAS GRACIAS!


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