Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction in Earthquake Devastated Areas SWOT Analysis for Minimum Cost, Fast Track & Pay Back Solutions Dr Engr Javed Yunas Uppal Pakistan Foundation."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction in Earthquake Devastated Areas SWOT Analysis for Minimum Cost, Fast Track & Pay Back Solutions Dr Engr Javed Yunas Uppal Pakistan Foundation for the Advancement of Engineering and Technology 1-A, Aibeck Block, Garden Town, Lahore, Pakistan Tel: Fax: Web:
Earthquake of Oct 2005 in Kashmir and Northern Areas has played havoc Will of the government is there Helping bodies are keen Yet Reconstruction of housing, public buildings, and infrastructure, with all its urgencies is a heavy load on economy
We need capacity building of the affected population Participatory and indigenous system is required If it is not done Cash inflow from donors will dry out Speed of reconstruction work will remain very low
People of the affected areas should be trained to make the needed goods from the raw materials and supporting services and finances from donors People should be trained to do construction themselves from the machinery provided to them
Recent Disaster Recovery World Experience Tsunami in South Asia Vigorous and extensive civil society and financial networks -System of netted participatory capacity building production cells -Recovered half to two-thirds their pre-disaster levels of local domestic product within a year
Recent Disaster Recovery World Experience Hurricane Mitch in Honduras Training and production cells and technical services specifically designed address traditional and new product and production capacity needs, train local people, build and reinforce local capacity and entrepreneurial partnerships
Recent Disaster Recovery World Experience Earthquake in Northridge 1994 Proposed system of netted participatory capacity building production cells includes an approach to rapid crisis response and contingency and preparatory services
Recent Disaster Recovery World Experience Earthquake of Gujarat 2001 CARE India and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Provided support to communities Provided shelter and infrastructure Provided livelihoods and employment Applied integrated systems approach to capacity building
Survey of Extent and Nature of Damage in Kashmir Earthquake According to a preliminary estimates, there are a total of about 5 million housing units in the earthquake affected areas. Sixty-six percent of these were in Rural and 34 percent in urban areas. The study indicates that the predominant types of building construction, as non engineered structures, offer almost no resistance to ground shaking following the level of exposure in a major earthquake.
Turkey 1999 earthquake: 34 killed in wood frame houses and 40,000 in masonry and concrete
Buildings that performed better A century and half a century old buildings in Murree, Muzafarabad and Balakot, including old barracks of British Army, with a canopy roof made of iron sheets, survived and resulted in less damages. New buildings using concrete slabs were erased to the ground and did not allow rescue teams to rescue trapped people inside buildings because concrete slabs were not only heavy to remove rather difficult to cut or break. Muzafarabad President House and Prime Minister House of similar construction have received serious damage.
Buildings that performed better Abbotabad can be taken as prime example to understand this issue. Abbotabad Cantonment, which was established during British Era, was constructed on Gothic style mostly with canopy rooftops using wooden pillars. These buildings have survived while new buildings with concrete slabs and no seismic frames have erased to ground. Mushroom like growth of buildings with structural design similar to plain areas played havoc.
Cleavage in Roads: Intact Microwave Tower
Intact Prefabricated Building at 10,500 ft High Peak Pir Chinasi
High levels of socio-economic dysfunction a major cause of disaster Construction done in land slide areas suffered greatest damage Category A (Steel sheeted roofs over timber trusses and bonded stone walls) -suffered least collapse Category B (RCC roof slabs 9 brick walls) suffered frequent collapse Category C (Multistoried RCC slabs over 9 brick walls no frames) suffered greatest collapse Category D (Single or multistoried RCC moment resistant frames) –suffered least collapse
Faulty construction on sliding soil: root cause of death in earthquake-hit areas
Collapse of Sangam Hotel, a 5 story RC frame building in Domel
Gaps between Bye Laws and Compliance Earthquake Code exists. Intl practices are available. Compliance is very weak. Awareness and know how is required. Easy to comprehend guidelines are required. Weak soil areas need to be demarcated.
Beware of large openings in their ground floor exterior walls, big windows, patio doors, and garage doors
Three Stories Cribbage Structure, Fongkha Fort, Shigar Skardu, Built by Hassan khan in 1634 It is resting on a massive platform using the huge rock as its foundation.
Lessons We Learn – Recommendations for improvements (a)mandate compliance of earthquake resistant designs & sound ground siting. (b)earthquake ground motion recording stations and warning system are needed. (c)sample housing and infrastructures reqd. (d)training in disaster management reqd. (e)strengthening social fabric reqd.
Strategy coordinated effort by public and private sector and the people themselves. expertise to build & implement systems. system approach encompassing all aspects of community well being. bold applications of simplest technologies. address indigenous needs and utilize local resources.
Sensitivity Levels of Stake Holders wrt Disaster Recovery People Jobs, work and livelihood are the main worries Easily prone to any kind of intervention Any thing touching self pride, caste religion or tribe must be repelled Least knowledge of facts about the disaster and its effects Least botheration of technicalities involved in the recovery
Civil Society Working in their own narrow fields having pride in own selves. Must be seen doing and serving good to some cause no matter what it may be. Lack of team spirit or working with others, or respecting others view points. Least knowledge of facts about the disaster and its effects Least botheration of technicalities involved in the recovery
Experts Living in their own narrow fields having pride in own selves. World outside is non-entity Promotions, pay scales, and pleasure of the boss is paramount Lack of team spirit or working with others, or respecting others view points Knowledge of only their field and little knowledge of its impact in entirety Most technical knowledge is restricted to its own compartments
Politicians Must gain power and importance and must raise issues touching peoples nerves Must be seen doing and serving good to own people no matter what it may be Least knowledge of administrative procedures and constraints Least knowledge of facts about the disaster and its effects Least botheration of technicalities involved in the recovery
Authorities Born to rule because of special talent and connections. Must exercise authority without sharing Promotions, pay scales, and pleasure of the boss is paramount. Extra curricular income is a right too Public is a non-entity. Politicians are goofs. Only authorities know what is best for the people Knowledge of the disaster just for discussion of the elite Technicalities are matters of lower intellect. Great minds are above them
Experience with Design and Construction of Shelters Low Cost Prefabricated Insulated Steel Panel Housing, or Expanded Polystyrene Mesh Reinforced Cement Plaster Panel Housing units, provided a reasonable balance between the urgency, maintainability and durability and low cost requirements.
Design and Construction of Shelter Homes Light weight for swift carriage. Insulated for protection against extreme cold. Instant construction for immediate rescue. Robust for seismic resistance. Simple for minimum craftsmanship required at site. Built for fire resistance. Low cost for displaced population.
Plan of a Prefabricated Shelter
Prefabricated Shelters Exterior View
Doors and Windows
Prefabricated House Interior View
Plaster and Fabric on Polystyrene Sheet
Application of External Layers
Designs were made and the renowned companies were asked to quote rates. Exorbitant rates were received with a lot of ifs and buts. The volunteers were then trained to fabricate the units from the basic material and tools and kits provided to them. The basic material and the tools and kits were purchased from the donations received from helping parties. Fabrication of the units was the part of work that required some skills. As units were fabricated and the volunteers trained more local people were effectively used and served.
This was an income generating activity for these people itself. The fabrication units were given to the end users in the devastated areas who could assemble them with almost no prior skills. The end users purchased these units from the funds given to them by the government and other donor agencies. In this system the cost of the units in total was only 43 % to 50 % People got trained and got into income generating positions too.
Cell System Cell System is a system of independently working individuals or organizations registered as Members, and interlinked with each other, through specific give and take mechanisms, geared towards the common broad objective, as guided, trained and regulated by a central coordinated unit which would operate the individual cells through an efficient hierarchy of distributive subordinate control centers.
Central Coordination Unit Central Coordination Unit is a group of highly devoted resource persons, appointed by Members, whose function is to: train the trainers, coordinate the activity, ensure quality, and disburse the Central Fund. manage the subordinate units
Individual Cell Units Design development centers, technology providers-apply low technology indigenous innovative solutions. Develop and maintain Fabrication units where related machines, tools, kits and s will be provided. Provide Training and out reach centers. Prepare and distribute Literatures, books and guidelines producing units. Credit extending institutions and philanthropists. Marketing units of young pass out graduates for marketing. Production cell units at small businesses, workshops, and households.
Central Core Task Force Of Highly Committed & Dedicated Work group training institutions technology sources design & development houses production houses consumer associations marketing houses driver trainers & quality driver monitors, trainers managers incentive
Donor agencies to search for best modern practices Know-how of the modern world to be translated in local culture Local trainers to be developed Assessment by development councils Training needs identified by communities Trainers nominated by communities