3 BaalbekThe Temple of Bacchus is located in the town called Baalbek (modern day Lebanon).
4 Temple of Bacchus – Basics Location & background to the area: The temple is next to a sacred sanctuary for Jupiter Heliopolitanus (Helipolis ‘sun city’ was the Greek name for Baalbek).Dates of construction: Began in 150AD and finished in 250AD.Material: limestone was used in the constructionMeaning of name: Temple dedicated to the god, Bacchus/Dionysus (Roman and Greek names). This can be seen through the decorations surrounding the entrance which shows scenes of the god’s birth and life. It was for the cult of Bacchus.
5 Temple of Bacchus - Basics Dimensions: The temple is of a great size, an eastern feature, 66m long, 35m wide and 31m high. The temple stands on a high podium 5m tall – larger than that of the Maison Caree. The cella door is 6.3m wide and 12.6 m tall, with its interior width equal to its interior height.Purpose: Temple for Bacchus. The size of the temple and the nearby complex, is designed to give the Semitic (Lebanese & Middle Eastern) citizens of this Roman province of Syria, the feeling of the grandeur of Rome and o the emperor and pride in their own province.
6 Temple of JupiterReconstruction of how the sanctuary may have appeared.Temple of Bacchus
7 Temple featuresAdd text boxes and arrows to the plan on the following slide to indicate the following features:Entrance staircaseProstyle porchCella doorsCellaStairs to adytonAdytonCult statuePeripteral colonnade
9 Add text boxes and arrows identifying THREE features of the columns What type of columns?Add text boxes and arrows identifying THREE features of the columns
10 How many columns along the Front? What is a word we useFor that number?
11 Side walls of the cella project out to form ‘antae’ in the front and there is a deep ‘prostyle’ porch where the porch columns are in front of the projecting ends of the cella.Unfluted Corinthian columns are used for the colonnade and the front row of the porch, while the interior columns of the porch are fluted and smaller than the exterior columns.
12 Interior fluted columns of the porch are shown in this image
13 It has a colonnade on all 4 sides (peripteral) It has a colonnade on all 4 sides (peripteral). This is made up of 8 free-standing, columns (octastyle) at the front & back 15 on each long side.The statue was not in the cella like most temples, but within another structure called an adyton (an eastern feature), a very elaborate canopy in marble.
14 Portico/Peristyle - ceiling The ceiling of the portico (the roof between the temple walls and the colonnade) is elaborately carved with busts of Mars, Ceres, Vulcan and Ganymede.Image source:
15 Cella entranceHas a vaulted ceiling and two towers with steps (an Eastern feature) on either side of the doorway.The doorway to the cella is elaborately carved with scenes of the birth and life of Bacchus.On the exterior, surrounding entrance to the cella, is two bands of elaborate patterning – a vine motif (grape or ivy) represents Dionysus.- Acanthus leaves that sprout ears of wheat representing fertility and rebirthImage source:
17 InteriorThe western end opposite the doorway had a stairway of 9 nine steps, the full width of the cella.The inner raised podium had a central set of steps flanked by piers with two engaged Corinthian columns. This central set of 6 steps lead to another podium where the statue of the god was in its shrine.Image source:
18 InteriorEngaged Corinthian columns and their pilasters divide the two interior side walls vertically, and these walls are also divided horizontally with a bottom row of arched niches carried on pilasters and an upper row of pedimented niches, which once held statues.Image source:
19 Interior featuresInterior: The projecting engaged columns and the spaces between, on the interior, give a feeling of movement. The elaborate and deeply carved decoration produces the effects of light and shade, reminiscent of Antonine Baroque sculpture.
20 Comparing two temples, Maison Carree and Temple of Bacchus Similarities between Bacchus & Maison CarreeDifferences between Bacchus & Maison CarreeBoth have a rectangular shapeBoth focus on frontal entranceBoth have a podiumBoth are in a sanctuary (Maison Carree had a 3-sided portico, Bacchus next to temple of Jupiter)Both have Corinthian capitalsBoth have engaged columns (but in different locations)Both use local limestone as building materialHeight of podium is bigger on Bacchus (5m)3 flights of steps, not one, on BacchusFree-standing exterior columns, not engaged, 2 interior towers, interior raised podium, & adyton, baroque style & interior decoration on BacchusMaison Carree is half the size of Bacchus
21 Influences present in the temple of Bacchus GreekSemiticRomanDecoration from life of Bacchus (Greek - Dionysus)Freestanding peripteral colonnadeCorinthian column capitalsFluted columns (be precise about where exactly)Busts of Ganymede /Mars/Ceres on ceiling of porticoOn a monumental scaleInner shrine inside cella (Adyton) for cult statueUse of local limestoneThe two towers flanking the entrance.A high podiumA deep entrance porch – (prostyle)Frontal emphasis
22 Images and activitiesImage 1: Describe specific features of the area highlighted inside the yellow box.
23 Describe the way in which the section inside the yellow box may have appeared in the second century AD.
24 Compare and contrast the ground plan of the Temple of Bacchus (left) with that of the Maison Carree in Nimes (right).
25 Aspects for examination A question on the Temple of Bacchus at Baalbek may focus on any of the following features:The combination of various cultural and/or architectural influences in its design and decoration.Aspects that have may impressed a viewer.Propagandistic aspects of the design and/or decoration (this may use similar material to the first point above).Compare and contrast between with another temple (Maison Carree and/or Pantheon).Contrast between exterior and interior, effect on viewer of such (may work in comparison with Pantheon also).
26 Interior Reconstruction Use the image on the following slide to consider ways in which the interior of the Temple of Bacchus may have IMPRESSED a viewer.Make at least FOUR main points about features that are IMPRESSIVE.It may be useful to base you description on an imaginary walk-through of the temple, starting from the entrance door and finishing at the cult statue.See also the top image on Artus Page 96.