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Data Center Thermal Management and Efficiency Jay Ries Regional Sales Manager Liebert Thermal Management Emerson Network Power Jay Ries Regional Sales.

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Presentation on theme: "Data Center Thermal Management and Efficiency Jay Ries Regional Sales Manager Liebert Thermal Management Emerson Network Power Jay Ries Regional Sales."— Presentation transcript:

1 Data Center Thermal Management and Efficiency Jay Ries Regional Sales Manager Liebert Thermal Management Emerson Network Power Jay Ries Regional Sales Manager Liebert Thermal Management Emerson Network Power

2 AgendaAgenda Where is energy consumed in the data center? Energy consumption example – Cooling energy consumption breakdown Strategies for saving energy – Low cost strategies – Medium cost strategies – Higher cost strategies Taking it a step further (beyond cooling) Summary

3 3

4 Where is Energy Consumed in the Data Center? 48% is consumed by power and cooling support 52% is consumed by IT equipment

5 Energy Consumption Example Baseline Building design Existing building Limitation to physical changes that can be made Best suited for modifications to existing equipment Full equipment replacement is a last resort 1MW of facility power usage (all data center) Baseline Cooling design Centrifugal water cooled chiller No economization Standard computer room cooling units No variable speed fans or advanced controls Return air control 45° F chilled water 72° F return air, 50% RH

6 Energy Consumption Example Power Usage Processors – 150kW Other Services – 150kW Server Power Supply – 140kW Storage – 40kW Communication Equipment – 40kW Cooling – 380kW UPS – 50kW MV Transformer and Switchgear – 30kW Lighting – 10kW PDU – 10kW IT Power Usage = 520kW Support Power Usage = 480kW Total Facility Power Usage = 1000kW Annualized Facility PUE = 1.92 Work our way to 1.35 Cooling is the only area that will be modified. In the real world, each variable will have an impact on the others

7 Cooling Energy Consumption Breakdown Air Cooled System Water Cooled System Chilled Water System

8 Low Cost Strategies 1. Implementing best practices 2. Adjust the unit control methods – Dew point control – Unit operating range 3. Change to supply air control 4. Running at higher chilled water temperatures

9 If you have a raised floor, use it properly. Underfloor resistance wastes energy. Utilize hot aisle / cold aisle, regardless if you have a raised floor Low Cost Strategies 1. Implementing Best Practices

10 Get air where it is supposed to go. – Blanking panels – Fix unplanned outside infiltrations and any unecessary gaps in the raised floor – Return plenums to the cooling unit Isolate the room, particularly if you want to control humidity Low Cost Strategies 1. Implementing Best Practices

11 Dew Point – Standard design points used to be 72° return air temperature and 50% relative humidity (RH) – New, more aggressive design points can be 90°+ return air temperature and an unspecified relative humidity – Why shouldnt you fix at 50% relative humidity (RH) Dew point @ 72°, 50% = 52° Dew point @ 95°, 50% = 74° – If the return temperature is increased at a fixed RH, the dew point will rise, requiring the equipment to waste energy to remove moisture that didnt need to be there in the first place Low Cost Strategies 2. Adjust Unit Settings

12 Unit operation settings – Expanding the operating range for the temperature and humidity keeps unit components from cycling too frequently. – Higher return air temperatures allow CRAH units to run more efficiently Capacity increase up to 70% for chilled water units Capacity increase up to 50% for compressor based units The more efficiently the units operate, the fewer that are required to control the space, saving energy. Low Cost Strategies 2. Adjust Unit Settings

13 Increased Capacity at Higher Temps

14 Supplies a consistent temperature to the cold aisle Saves energy because it allows the return air temperature to be increased, allowing the CRAH unit to run more efficiently. Low Cost Strategies 3. Supply Air Control

15 45° chilled water temperature has been the standard design point for many years Higher chilled water temperatures are starting to become more prevalent Why? At higher temperatures, there are huge potential savings on the chiller – For every 1 degree increase in the chilled water supply temperature, a 2% energy savings can be realized on the chiller plant – 45°chilled water = Baseline – 55°chilled water = 20% energy savings Low Cost Strategies 4. Running At Higher Water Temperatures

16 Low Cost Strategies Low Cost Strategies The Results of Implementation Applying Low Cost Strategies – Changes to cooling system Best practices implemented Supply air control 50° F chilled water 85° F return air with dew point control Support Power Usage = 480kW Total Facility Power Usage = 1000kW Annualized Facility PUE = 1.92 Total cooling power usage drops from 380kW to 314kW. The number of units stay the same, but some units can be turned off. 414kW 934kW 1.79

17 Medium Cost Strategies 1. Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD) 2. Aisle containment 3. Control retrofits 4. Rack level sensors

18 Floor-mount cooling fans typically run at 100% rated rpm By utilizing variable speed technology, fan speed can be varied based upon room conditions Energy savings based on a single 10HP motor 18 Fan Speed Energy Consumed Savings 100% 8.1kWH 90% 5.9kWH 27% 80% 4.2kWH 48% 70% 2.8kWH 65% 60% 1.8kWH 78% Medium Cost Strategies Medium Cost Strategies 1. Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD)

19 Medium Cost Strategies Medium Cost Strategies 2. Aisle Containment Allows for proper air separation Able to be done either the hot or cold aisle, though it is easier to retrofit the cold aisle of an existing room Physical containment varies from simple curtains to a pre-fabricated system designed to match the racks.

20 Containment Strategies Contained hot aisle – Requires full containment to trap hot air – Can be difficult to retrofit in perimeter designs – Easier to retrofit in row cooling designs – Overhead fire suppression concerns on full containment Contained cold aisle – Multiple containment options Doors only Curtains only Full containment – Can be easier to retrofit in all cooling designs – Overhead fire suppression concerns on full containment Medium Cost Strategies Medium Cost Strategies 2. Aisle Containment

21 Medium Cost Strategies Medium Cost Strategies 3. Control Retrofits Allows for upgraded control schemes that save energy New controls allow units to be networked together – Give more visibility of full system – Eliminate fighting of units, - one cooling while one is heating

22 Usually associated with a control retrofit or a designed scheme through a building management system Increased visibility and quicker reaction to changes at the rack Generally applied with supply air sensors Bath tub effect Medium Cost Strategies Medium Cost Strategies 4. Remote Sensors

23 Low + Medium Cost Strategies Low + Medium Cost Strategies The Results of Implementation Applying Low + Medium Cost Strategies Changes to cooling system Best practices implemented Supply air control +55° F chilled water +90° F return air with dew point control + Remote sensors + Aisle containment + Variable speed fans + Control retrofits Support Power Usage = 414kW Total Facility Power Usage = 934kW Annualized Facility PUE = 1.79 Total cooling power usage drops from 314kW to 184kW. All units are now on, running at a reduced speed. 284kW 804kW 1.55 ROI is generally less than 1 year for these strategies

24 Higher Cost Strategies (Major Capital Expenditures) 1. Bringing cooling closer to the source 2. Variable capacity compressors 3. Economization – Air economizers – Water economizers – Refrigerant Economizers

25 Bring the cooling closer minimizes the need for large fans, reducing energy Some rear door designs dont have fans, instead utilizing the server fans to move the air Generally produce a better sensible cooling to power ratio than a typical system – more cooling for less energy Row-based configuration Rack-based configuration Rear door configuration Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source

26 Base Infrastructure (160 kw) Cooling Modules (mix and match) Dew Point Controlled Pumped Refrigerant Cooling Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Rack Based Solutions Pump Refrigerant Technology

27 Refrigerant Based Rear Door Refrigerant based, rear door heat exchanger A rear door with 10kW to 40kW of cooling Connect up to 16 doors onto a single pumped refrigerant loop Designed to accommodate various racks Energy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server fans to transfer air through the coil Performance Provides room neutral high density rack cooling Applicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configuration Rear Door Solutions Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source

28 Chilled Water Based Rear Door Chilled water based, rear door heat exchanger A rear door with 16kW to 35kW of cooling Designed to accommodate various racks Energy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server fans to transfer air through the coil Performance Provides room neutral high density rack cooling Applicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configuration Rear Door Solutions Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source

29 Row Based Solutions Precise temperature and Humidity control 12 or 24 wide designs Air, Water, Glycol and Chilled Water models Energy efficient, load matching - Digital scroll compressor, 20-100% cooling capacity modulation - Variable speed EC plug fans Performance Real-time environment control Automatic performance optimization Adaptive component monitoring Adjustable air baffle direction Row Based Solutions Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source

30 Fan Energy for 30kW of Cooling Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Row-based configuration Rack-based configuration Rear door configuration Perimeter Unit = 4.24 kW Row-Based Unit = 1.38 kW Rack Based = 0.54 kW Rear Door = 0.00 kW (no fans)

31 Digital Scroll Compressors – Matches room load in unlimited step increments – Reliable – Not field repairable. Must be replaced. 4-step Semi-Hermetic Compressors – Matches room load in 4 step increments – Reliable – Field repairable Compressors w/ VFD Control – Matches room load in unlimited step increments – Reliable – Usually not field repairable. Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 2. Variable Capacity Compressors Intended for partially loaded rooms. May be used in conjunction with variable speed fans for even greater energy savings.

32 Air side economizers – For chilled water or compressorized systems – Utilize outside air based on dew point, minimizing compressor and/or chiller usage Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization Water side economizers For chilled water systems Uses water cooled by a cooling tower or a dry cooler (fluid cooler) in low temperature conditions to minimize chiller operation Pumped refrigerant economizers New technology for compressorized systems Uses refrigerant cooled in low temperature conditions to minimize condenser and compressor operation Similar utilization as water side economizers

33 Liebert DSE with EconoPhase Pumped Refrigerant Economizer Cooling PUE 1.3 - 1.05 Liebert DSE with EconoPhase Pumped Refrigerant Economizer Cooling PUE 1.3 - 1.05 Annual Utility Cost ($1000s) 60% Reliable, Low-Maintenance Operation No water usage No water treatment No outside air contamination No dampers and louvers to maintain Instant, automatic economizer changeover Liebert DSE –The Most Efficient DX Data Center Cooling System Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization – Pumped Refrigerant

34 Liebert DSE Indoor Unit Next generation data center cooling system Liebert EconoPhase First ever pumped refrigerant economizer Liebert MC Intelligent, high efficiency condensers Thermal System Manager with iCOM Liebert Proprietary Data Center Management Intelligence and Optimized Aisle Liebert DSE System Overview Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization – Pumped Refrigerant

35 8.5 kW 3.2 kW 3.9 kW Check Valve Compressor Evaporator Electronic expansion valve Check Valve Refrigerant Pump Solenoid Valve Circuit 2 Circuit 1 8.7 kW 3.4 kW 4.1 kW Liebert DSE System: DX Operation Mode Cooling Mode Outdoor Temp Cooling pPUE SCOP System kW DX 95º F1.263.824.9

36 Check Valve Compressor Evaporator Electronic expansion valve Check Valve Refrigerant Pump Solenoid Valve Circuit 2 Circuit 1 9.8 kW 0.0 kW 3.4 kW 0.3kW 3.9 kW 0.1 kW Liebert DSE System: DX + Pump Operation Mode Cooling Mode Outdoor Temp Cooling pPUE SCOP System kW DX 95º F1.263.824.9 Partial60º F1.14 7.013.6

37 Check Valve Compressor Evaporator Electronic expansion valve Check Valve Refrigerant Pump Solenoid Valve Circuit 2 Circuit 1 0.0 kW 3.4 kW 0.4 kW 3.9 kW 4.8 kW Liebert DSE System: Pump Operation Mode 0.4 kW Cooling Mode Outdoor Temp Cooling pPUE SCOP System kW DX 95º F1.263.824.9 Partial60º F1.14 7.013.6 Full45º F1.09 10.69.0

38 Check Valve Compressor Evaporator Electronic expansion valve Check Valve Refrigerant Pump Solenoid Valve Circuit 2 Circuit 1 0.0 kW 3.4 kW 0.5 kW 3.9 kW 0.2 kW Liebert DSE System: Pump Operation Mode 0.5 kW Cooling Mode Outdoor Temp Cooling pPUE SCOP System kW DX 95º F1.263.824.9 Partial60º F1.14 7.013.6 Full45º F1.09 10.69.0 Full30º F1.05 20.74.6

39 Minneapolis, MN Bin Data – EconoPhase, Partial, Compressor

40 1MW of IT load 90°F return air; 20% + redundancy; No humidity control Which is best? It depends on the customer drivers – First cost/capital cost – Energy savings/PUE – Total cost of ownership – Redundancy/availability – Reliability LIEBERT® DSE Higher Cost Strategies Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization

41 Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies The Results of Implementation Applying Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies Key cooling system features Supply air control 90° F return air with dew point control Rack level sensors Aisle containment Variable Speed Fans Advanced Controls + Pumped Refrigerant Economizers + Variable Capacity Compressors Support Power Usage = 284kW Total Facility Power Usage = 804kW Annualized Facility PUE = 1.55 Total cooling power usage drops from 184kW to 83kW. All CW units have been replaced with new units. 183kW 703kW 1.35 ROI is generally less than 3 years for these strategies

42 Taking It a Step Further The annualized cooling PUE for cooling only is 1.09 for the last scenario. Why is the overall PUE 1.35? – Not implementing virtualization with the servers – Inefficiencies in the power distribution: UPS modules PDUs Generators Batteries Switchgear Lighting – Lack of monitoring Not having real time data means you cannot react quickly

43 Taking It a Step Further How can I get an even better cooling PUE? – Raise water and air temperatures even higher – Implement alternate technologies that remove or greatly reduce cooling – Improve server monitoring RISK PUE AVAILABILITY PUE SERVER LOADS

44 Implementing the Strategies Multiple strategies to consider – Low cost – Medium cost – Higher cost – Combination of any or all of the above Implementing any of these strategies can be somewhat difficult – Where do I start? – What can I implement? Can the current equipment be upgraded? Do I have budget for equipment upgrades? Do I need outside help?

45 You dont have to spend a fortune to get energy savings However, to get to a world class level, major changes generally have to be made Total energy consumption needs to be considered along with PUE Focusing only on PUE can increase risk and availability – Works with some data center models, but not for all Summary For more information on this topic, please check out the updated vendor neutral Energy Logic 2 white paper, available on the Emerson Network Power website

46 Thank you! Questions ? jay.ries@emerson.com Or call Uptime Solutions Inc. 937-237-3400


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