Presentation on theme: "Data Center Thermal Management and Efficiency"— Presentation transcript:
1 Data Center Thermal Management and Efficiency Jay RiesRegional Sales ManagerLiebert Thermal ManagementEmerson Network Power
2 Agenda Where is energy consumed in the data center? 3/31/2017AgendaWhere is energy consumed in the data center?Energy consumption exampleCooling energy consumption breakdownStrategies for saving energyLow cost strategiesMedium cost strategiesHigher cost strategiesTaking it a step further (beyond cooling)Summary
4 Where is Energy Consumed in the Data Center? 52% is consumed by IT equipment48% is consumed by power and cooling support
5 Energy Consumption Example Baseline Building designExisting buildingLimitation to physical changes that can be madeBest suited for modifications to existing equipmentFull equipment replacement is a last resort1MW of facility power usage (all data center)Baseline Cooling designCentrifugal water cooled chillerNo economizationStandard computer room cooling unitsNo variable speed fans or advanced controlsReturn air control45° F chilled water72° F return air, 50% RH
6 Energy Consumption Example Power UsageProcessors – 150kWOther Services – 150kWServer Power Supply – 140kWStorage – 40kWCommunication Equipment – 40kWCooling – 380kWUPS – 50kWMV Transformer and Switchgear – 30kWLighting – 10kWPDU – 10kWIT Power Usage = 520kWSupport Power Usage = 480kWTotal Facility Power Usage = 1000kWAnnualized Facility PUE = 1.92 Work our way to 1.35Cooling is the only area that will be modified. In the real world, each variable will have an impact on the others
7 Cooling Energy Consumption Breakdown Air Cooled SystemWater Cooled SystemChilled Water System
8 Low Cost Strategies Implementing best practices Adjust the unit control methodsDew point controlUnit operating rangeChange to supply air controlRunning at higher chilled water temperatures
9 Low Cost Strategies 1. Implementing Best Practices If you have a raised floor, use it properly. Underfloor resistance wastes energy.Utilize hot aisle / cold aisle, regardless if you have a raised floor
10 Low Cost Strategies 1. Implementing Best Practices Get air where it is supposed to go.Blanking panelsFix unplanned outside infiltrations and any unecessary gaps in the raised floorReturn plenums to the cooling unitIsolate the room, particularly if you want to control humidity
11 Low Cost Strategies 2. Adjust Unit Settings Dew PointStandard design points used to be 72° return air temperature and 50% relative humidity (RH)New, more aggressive design points can be 90°+ return air temperature and an unspecified relative humidityWhy shouldn’t you fix at 50% relative humidity (RH)Dew 72°, 50% = 52°Dew 95°, 50% = 74°If the return temperature is increased at a fixed RH, the dew point will rise, requiring the equipment to waste energy to remove moisture that didn’t need to be there in the first place
12 Low Cost Strategies 2. Adjust Unit Settings Unit operation settingsExpanding the operating range for the temperature and humidity keeps unit components from cycling too frequently.Higher return air temperatures allow CRAH units to run more efficientlyCapacity increase up to 70% for chilled water unitsCapacity increase up to 50% for compressor based unitsThe more efficiently the units operate, the fewer that are required to control the space, saving energy.
13 Increased Capacity at Higher Temps 3/31/2017Low Cost Strategies 2. Adjust Unit SettingsIncreased Capacity at Higher TempsOperating at a higher return air temperature increases the CRAC unit’s capacity. This graph shows how the sensible cooling capacity typically increases at different return air temperatures for Liebert CW and DX CRAC units.75 degrees F is used as the base point, so the percentage increases are the sensible capacity increase above the 75 degree capacity.These are general curves and the actual values will vary slightly from model to model but not significantly.We are going to look at the results for our DX units in a second but before we leave this graph I want to look briefly at the CW curve. For a CW unit – shown as red line -- the capacity increase is higher than the DX unit. You must remember however that here are many other components involved in the overall chilled water system that must be sized correctly to produce these results…… This requires a whole separate study.Next slide
14 Low Cost Strategies 3. Supply Air Control Supplies a consistent temperature to the cold aisleSaves energy because it allows the return air temperature to be increased, allowing the CRAH unit to run more efficiently.
15 Low Cost Strategies 4. Running At Higher Water Temperatures 45° chilled water temperature has been the standard design point for many yearsHigher chilled water temperatures are starting to become more prevalentWhy? At higher temperatures, there are huge potential savings on the chillerFor every 1 degree increase in the chilled water supply temperature, a 2% energy savings can be realized on the chiller plant45°chilled water = Baseline55°chilled water = 20% energy savings
16 Low Cost Strategies The Results of Implementation Applying Low Cost StrategiesChanges to cooling systemBest practices implementedSupply air control50° F chilled water85° F return air with dew point controlSupport Power Usage = 480kWTotal Facility Power Usage = 1000kWAnnualized Facility PUE = 1.92Total cooling power usage drops from 380kW to 314kW. The number of units stay the same, but some units can be turned off.414kW934kW1.79
17 Medium Cost Strategies Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD)Aisle containmentControl retrofitsRack level sensors
18 Medium Cost Strategies 1. Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD) Floor-mount cooling fans typically run at 100% rated rpmBy utilizing variable speed technology, fan speed can be varied based upon room conditionsEnergy savings based on a single 10HP motorFan SpeedEnergy ConsumedSavings100%8.1kWH90%5.9kWH27%80%4.2kWH48%70%2.8kWH65%60%1.8kWH78%
19 Medium Cost Strategies 2. Aisle Containment Allows for proper air separationAble to be done either the hot or cold aisle, though it is easier to retrofit the cold aisle of an existing roomPhysical containment varies from simple curtains to a pre-fabricated system designed to match the racks.
20 Medium Cost Strategies 2. Aisle Containment Containment StrategiesContained hot aisleRequires full containment to trap hot airCan be difficult to retrofit in perimeter designsEasier to retrofit in row cooling designsOverhead fire suppression concerns on full containmentContained cold aisleMultiple containment optionsDoors onlyCurtains onlyFull containmentCan be easier to retrofit in all cooling designs
21 Medium Cost Strategies 3. Control Retrofits Allows for upgraded control schemes that save energyNew controls allow units to be networked togetherGive more visibility of full systemEliminate fighting of units, - one cooling while one is heating
22 Medium Cost Strategies 4. Remote Sensors Usually associated with a control retrofit or a designed scheme through a building management systemIncreased visibility and quicker reaction to changes at the rackGenerally applied with supply air sensors“Bath tub effect”
23 ROI is generally less than 1 year for these strategies Low + Medium Cost Strategies The Results of ImplementationApplying Low + Medium Cost StrategiesChanges to cooling systemBest practices implementedSupply air control+55° F chilled water+90° F return air with dew point control+ Remote sensors+ Aisle containment+ Variable speed fans+ Control retrofitsSupport Power Usage = 414kWTotal Facility Power Usage = 934kWAnnualized Facility PUE = 1.79Total cooling power usage drops from 314kW to 184kW. All units are now on, running at a reduced speed.284kW804kW1.55ROI is generally less than 1 year for these strategies
24 Higher Cost Strategies (Major Capital Expenditures) Bringing cooling closer to the sourceVariable capacity compressorsEconomizationAir economizersWater economizersRefrigerant Economizers
25 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Rack-based configurationRear door configurationRow-based configurationBring the cooling closer minimizes the need for large fans, reducing energySome rear door designs don’t have fans, instead utilizing the server fans to move the airGenerally produce a better sensible cooling to power ratio than a typical system – more cooling for less energy
26 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source 3/31/2017Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the SourceRack Based SolutionsPump Refrigerant TechnologyDew Point ControlledPumped Refrigerant CoolingBase Infrastructure (160 kw)Cooling Modules (mix and match)
27 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Rear Door SolutionsRefrigerant Based Rear DoorRefrigerant based, rear door heat exchangerA rear door with 10kW to 40kW of coolingConnect up to 16 doors onto a single pumped refrigerant loopDesigned to accommodate various racksEnergy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server fans to transfer air through the coilPerformanceProvides room neutral high density rack coolingApplicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configurationProduct Overview:Extension of the Liebert XD high density cooling product line using pumped refrigerantA rear door for a computer rack which supplies up to 20 KW of cooling.Cooling module swings out of the way to allow free access to the back of the server rackDesigned to accommodate various racksServer fans transfer air from rack front through coilsOpen architecture design provides room cooling for back-up protectionPiping connections from the cabinet topStatus:Limited availability in April 2009Full availability at end of Q2 2009PerformanceProvides room neutral high density rack coolingApplicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configuration
28 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Rear Door SolutionsChilled Water Based Rear DoorChilled water based, rear door heat exchangerA rear door with 16kW to 35kW of coolingDesigned to accommodate various racksEnergy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server fans to transfer air through the coilPerformanceProvides room neutral high density rack coolingApplicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configurationProduct Overview:Extension of the Liebert XD high density cooling product line using pumped refrigerantA rear door for a computer rack which supplies up to 20 KW of cooling.Cooling module swings out of the way to allow free access to the back of the server rackDesigned to accommodate various racksServer fans transfer air from rack front through coilsOpen architecture design provides room cooling for back-up protectionPiping connections from the cabinet topStatus:Limited availability in April 2009Full availability at end of Q2 2009PerformanceProvides room neutral high density rack coolingApplicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot aisle / cold aisle configuration
29 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source 3/31/2017Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the SourceRow Based SolutionsRow Based SolutionsPrecise temperature and Humidity control12” or 24” wide designsAir, Water, Glycol and Chilled Water modelsEnergy efficient, load matchingDigital scroll compressor, % cooling capacity modulationVariable speed EC plug fansPerformanceReal-time environment controlAutomatic performance optimizationAdaptive component monitoringAdjustable air baffle directionLots of features, same frame construction as Sys/3, powder coated panels, IR, pump-down cycle….
30 Higher Cost Strategies 1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source Rack-based configurationRear door configurationRow-based configurationFan Energy for 30kW of CoolingPerimeter Unit = 4.24 kWRack Based = 0.54 kWRow-Based Unit = 1.38 kWRear Door = 0.00 kW (no fans)
31 Higher Cost Strategies 2. Variable Capacity Compressors Digital Scroll CompressorsMatches room load in unlimited step incrementsReliableNot field repairable. Must be replaced.4-step Semi-Hermetic CompressorsMatches room load in 4 step incrementsField repairableCompressors w/ VFD ControlUsually not field repairable.The digital scroll also operates to save energy but does it in a slightly different. The control band is set up exactly like the 4-step. Since the digital is a proportional capacity from 10 to 100% compressor operation begins at 10% (72.2F) and will increase to precisely match the % call for cooling. The compressor is controlled by a solenoid valve, when the valve is open it operates at no load and when closed it operates at full load. The solenoid is controlled over a 15 second duty cycle to vary the capacity. As example, at a 33% (72.66F) call for cooling the solenoid valve would be closed for 5 seconds of the cycle and open for 10 seconds of the cycle. The energy savings of the digital scroll is realized during the no load cycle. During the no load cycle compressor consumes only enough energy to maintain the motor speed while doing no work on the refrigeration cycle.Intended for partially loaded rooms. May be used in conjunction with variable speed fans for even greater energy savings.
32 Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization Air side economizersFor chilled water or compressorized systemsUtilize outside air based on dew point, minimizing compressor and/or chiller usageWater side economizersFor chilled water systemsUses water cooled by a cooling tower or a dry cooler (fluid cooler) in low temperature conditions to minimize chiller operationPumped refrigerant economizersNew technology for compressorized systemsUses refrigerant cooled in low temperature conditions to minimize condenser and compressor operationSimilar utilization as water side economizers
33 Annual Utility Cost ($1000’s) Reliable, Low-Maintenance Operation Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization – Pumped RefrigerantLiebert DSE –The Most Efficient DX Data Center Cooling SystemAnnual Utility Cost ($1000’s)60%Reliable, Low-Maintenance OperationNo water usageNo water treatmentNo outside air contaminationNo dampers and louvers to maintainInstant, automatic economizer changeoverLiebert DSE with EconoPhase Pumped Refrigerant EconomizerCooling PUE
34 Thermal System Manager with iCOM Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization – Pumped RefrigerantLiebert DSE System OverviewThermal System Manager with iCOMLiebert EconoPhaseFirst ever pumped refrigerant economizerLiebert MCIntelligent, high efficiency condensersLiebert Proprietary Data Center Management Intelligence and Optimized AisleLiebert DSE Indoor UnitNext generation data center cooling system
39 Minneapolis, MN Bin Data – EconoPhase, Partial, Compressor
40 Higher Cost Strategies 3. Economization 1MW of IT load90°F return air; 20% + redundancy; No humidity controlWhich is best? It depends on the customer driversFirst cost/capital costEnergy savings/PUETotal cost of ownershipRedundancy/availabilityReliabilityLIEBERT® DSE
41 ROI is generally less than 3 years for these strategies Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies The Results of ImplementationApplying Low + Medium + Higher Cost StrategiesKey cooling system featuresSupply air control90° F return air with dew point controlRack level sensorsAisle containmentVariable Speed FansAdvanced Controls+ Pumped Refrigerant Economizers+ Variable Capacity CompressorsSupport Power Usage = 284kWTotal Facility Power Usage = 804kWAnnualized Facility PUE = 1.55Total cooling power usage drops from 184kW to 83kW. All CW units have been replaced with new units.183kW703kW1.35ROI is generally less than 3 years for these strategies
42 Taking It a Step Further The annualized cooling PUE for cooling only is 1.09 for the last scenario. Why is the overall PUE 1.35?Not implementing virtualization with the serversInefficiencies in the power distribution:UPS modulesPDUsGeneratorsBatteriesSwitchgearLightingLack of monitoringNot having real time data means you cannot react quickly
43 Taking It a Step Further How can I get an even better cooling PUE?Raise water and air temperatures even higherImplement alternate technologies that remove or greatly reduce coolingImprove server monitoringRISKPUEAVAILABILITYPUESERVER LOADS
44 Implementing the Strategies Multiple strategies to considerLow costMedium costHigher costCombination of any or all of the aboveImplementing any of these strategies can be somewhat difficultWhere do I start?What can I implement?Can the current equipment be upgraded?Do I have budget for equipment upgrades?Do I need outside help?
45 SummaryYou don’t have to spend a fortune to get energy savingsHowever, to get to a world class level, major changes generally have to be madeTotal energy consumption needs to be considered along with PUEFocusing only on PUE can increase risk and availabilityWorks with some data center models, but not for allFor more information on this topic, please check out the updated vendor neutral Energy Logic 2 white paper, available on the Emerson Network Power website
46 Or call Uptime Solutions Inc. Thank you!Questions ?Or call Uptime Solutions Inc.
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