Presentation on theme: "Imperator Gaius Iulius Caesar Augustus, divi filius, first emperor of Rome 63 BCE-14CE."— Presentation transcript:
Imperator Gaius Iulius Caesar Augustus, divi filius, first emperor of Rome 63 BCE-14CE
Vergil on Augustus Jupiters prophecy: Aen (pp. 56-7) Anchises prophecy: Aen (pp ) Shield of Aeneas (ecphrasis): Aen (pp )
Temple of Rome and Augustus, Ankara, Turkey (Monumentum Ancyranum) Res Gestae Divi Augusti Achievements of the divine Augustus
Gaius Octavius Thurinus Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Imperator Caesar Augustus 63: birth (grandnephew of Julius Caesar) 44: named in Caesars will as principal heir & adopted son 43: forms 2 nd Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus proscriptions (e.g., Cicero)
Octavian succeeds Caesar & defeats Antony 42: Caesar proclaimed a god, making Octavian divi filius – son of a god; Philippi: when both consuls had fallen in battle, the people appointed me consul and triumvir for the organization of the republic (RG 1.4) 37: Antony marries Cleopatra (having married Octavia in 40) and in two years, Octavian breaks with Antony 31: Octavian/Agrippa defeat Antony & Cleopatra at Actium
Coin of Augustus celebrating the triple triumph in 29 BCE: Dalmatia, Actium, Egypt
It was the will of our ancestors that the gateway of Janus Quirinus should be shut when victories had secured peace by land and sea throughout the whole empire of the Roman people; from the foundation of the city down to my birth, tradition records that it was shut only twice, but while I was the leading citizen the senate resolved that it should be shut on three occasions (RG 13). Closing of the Doors of the Temple of Janus Quirinus: 29 BCE
Augustan aureus, 28 BCE: Augustus seated on the sella curulis LEGES ET IURA P(OPULI) R(OMANI) RESTITUIT He restored the laws and the rights of the Roman people
27 BCE: First settlement: auctoritas, Imperator Caesar Augustus & princeps In my sixth and seventh consulships [28-27 BC], after I had extinguished civil wars, and at a time when with universal consent I was in complete control of affairs, I transferred the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome. For this service of mine I was named Augustus by the decree of the senate …. After this time I excelled all in influence [auctoritas], although I possessed no more official power [potestas] than others who were my colleagues in the several magistracies (RG ).
23 BCE: Second settlement: maius imperium & tribunicia potestas My name was inserted in the hymn of the Salii by a decree of the senate, and it was enacted by law that my person should be inviolable for ever and that I should hold the tribunician power for the duration of my life (RG 10.1). … the consulship was also offered to me, to be held each year for the rest of my life, and I refused it (RG 5.3).
I added Egypt to the empire of the Roman people (RG 27.1) – 23 BCE Imp(erator) Caesar divi f(ilius) Augustus pontifex maximus imp(erator) XII, co(n)s(ul) XI, trib(unicia) pot(estate) XIV Aegypto in potestatem populi Romani redacta Soli donum dedit Emperor Caesar Augustus son of the divine, chief priest, hailed imperator 12 times, consul 11 times, holding tribunician power for the 14 th time once Egypt had been reduced to the power of the Roman people gave this as a gift to the Sun.
Augustus clupeus virtutis (shield of virtue) the door-posts of my house were publicly wreathed with bay leaves and a civic crown was fixed over my door … on account of my courage, clemency, justice and piety (RG 34.2) The senate and people of Rome, to Imp(erator) Caesar Augustus, s(on) of the divine, consul eight times, gave a shield of (his) courage, clemency, justice and piety towards the gods and fatherland
Details on the cuirass: Tiberius(?) receives the standards of Crassus and Antony from a Parthian I recovered … Spain and Gaul (RG 29.1; 13 BCE) Personification of Tellus (Mother Earth) with horn of abundance (cornucopia): 2.4B sesterces (RG App. 1) I compelled the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people (RG 29.2; 20 BCE)
Augustus benevolence: I paid …, I gave … (RG 15-18) Five donations of sesterces to each citizen 240 sesterces to each citizen on the grain-dole 12 rations of grain to each citizen (100K +) 1000 sesterces to soldier-colonists 880 million sesterces for land for soldiers 400 million sesterces to soldiers 320 million sesterces to the state treasury
I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble (Suetonius Life of Augustus 28) I built [13 temples +] (RG 19) I restored [the Capitol, the theater of Pompey; aqueducts; the Forum of Julius Caesar, the Basilica of Julius Caesar; and 82 temples] (RG 20)
I built the temple of Mars the Avenger and the Forum Augustum on private ground from the proceeds of booty (RG 21.1) Vowed in 42 BCE after Philippi (defeat of Caesars Republican assassins) Begun in 20 BCE after Parthian standards recovered Inaugurated in 2 BCE
Temple of Mars Ultor (Avenger)
Venus & Mars & Iulius Caesar Aeneas & Romulus Summi Viri (greatest men of Romes history) Augustus
In my thirteenth consulship [2 BCE] the senate, the equestrian order and the whole people of Rome gave me the title of father of my country (pater patriae) and resolved that this should be inscribed in the porch of my house and in the Curia Julia and in the Forum Augustum below the chariot which had been set there in my honor by decree of the senate (RG 35.1)
Augustus as Pontifex Maximus after 12 BCE I declined to be made pontifex maximus in the place of my colleague who was still alive, when the people offered me this priesthood which my father had held. Some years later, after the death of the man who had taken the opportunity of civil disturbance to seize it for himself, I received this priesthood, in the consulship of Publius Sulpicius and Gaius Valgius [12 BC], and such a concourse poured in from the whole of Italy to my election as has never been recorded at Rome before that time (RG 10.2)
Augustan complex: Ara Pacis Augustae Horologium Augusti Mausoleum Augusti
Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE
Ara Pacis When I returned from Spain and Gaul, in the consulship of Tiberius Nero and Publius Quintilius, after successful operations in those provinces, the senate voted in honour of my return the consecration of an altar to Pax Augusta in the Campus Martius, and on this altar it ordered the magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins to make annual sacrifice (RG 12.2; 13 BCE, finished in 9)
Augustus Mausoleum Res Gestae would have been displayed on the doorposts
Reconstruction of Mausoleum At the time of writing I am in my 76 th year (RG 35.2)
On them I set no limits, space or time. / I have granted them power, empire without end (Aen )
Augustus and his Res Gestae What did he omit? 40Antony marries Octavia, Augustus sister 38Divorces Scribonia at Julias birth, marries pregnant Livia 35Antony divorces Octavia, marries Cleopatra 31Names of the defeated at the Battle of Actium 30Suicides of Antony & Cleopatra 23Death of Marcellus dies at 18; Julia forced to marry Agrippa 18Laws on marriage and adultery 13Death of Lepidus, thus vacating office of pontifex maximus for Augustus 12Agrippa dies; Julia forced to marry Tiberius, Livias son 2Exile of daughter Julia 4CEWith both grandsons dead, adopts Tiberius, awards tribunician power 8Exile of daughter Julia & poet Ovid (carmen et error: poem & mistake) 23BCEMultiple illnesses; conspiracies; assassination attempts - 13CE
How do we assess Augustus? What are the values that matter to Augustus? How does he present himself to the reader? What does he consider his most important accomplishments? How does this autobiography compare with the correspondence and philosophical works of Cicero? That is, do we get a complete picture of either man from the literary works they left behind?