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Bike Lanes in the Door Zone Missoula Bike and Pedestrian Advisory Board November 18, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Bike Lanes in the Door Zone Missoula Bike and Pedestrian Advisory Board November 18, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bike Lanes in the Door Zone Missoula Bike and Pedestrian Advisory Board November 18, 2010

2 Relevant BPAB Duties per MMC 5.60.070 #5 – Make recommendations to the city regarding design standards for all types of bicycle and pedestrian facilities; #5 – Make recommendations to the city regarding design standards for all types of bicycle and pedestrian facilities; #8 – Consult and advise government agencies in order to promote bicycling and pedestrian activity as viable forms of urban transportation and recreation and reducing dependence on private automobiles as a primary mode of transportation; #8 – Consult and advise government agencies in order to promote bicycling and pedestrian activity as viable forms of urban transportation and recreation and reducing dependence on private automobiles as a primary mode of transportation;

3 Is There a Problem? Door Zone Crashes Door Zone Crashes Reported dooring incidents comprise 5% to 15% of reported bicycle crashes Reported dooring incidents comprise 5% to 15% of reported bicycle crashes Is less than 6 feet enough for bicyclist safety? Is less than 6 feet enough for bicyclist safety? Bicyclist comfort – encourage more bicyclists Bicyclist comfort – encourage more bicyclists City liability due to facility design City liability due to facility design Physical constraints of existing right of way Physical constraints of existing right of way

4 Recognition of Problem Montana Drivers License Manual 2010-2012 Section 5, pg 50 Montana Drivers License Manual 2010-2012 Section 5, pg 50 When approaching parked vehicles, many bicyclists will ride far enough away from a vehicle to avoid being doored. This term describes a situation when an individual within a parked vehicle suddenly opens their car door without checking for any bicyclists approaching from behind. Frequently, cities place bike lanes next to parking lanes, but bicyclists may be hesitant to use the designated lane due to the danger of being doored. When approaching parked vehicles, many bicyclists will ride far enough away from a vehicle to avoid being doored. This term describes a situation when an individual within a parked vehicle suddenly opens their car door without checking for any bicyclists approaching from behind. Frequently, cities place bike lanes next to parking lanes, but bicyclists may be hesitant to use the designated lane due to the danger of being doored.

5 Recognition of Problem MUTCD 2009 Edition Section 9C.07 Shared Lane Marking MUTCD 2009 Edition Section 9C.07 Shared Lane Marking Option: Option: The Shared Lane Marking shown in Figure 9C-9 may be used to: The Shared Lane Marking shown in Figure 9C-9 may be used to: A. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in a shared lane with on-street parallel parking in order to reduce the chance of a bicyclists impacting the open door of a parked vehicle, A. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in a shared lane with on-street parallel parking in order to reduce the chance of a bicyclists impacting the open door of a parked vehicle, B. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in lanes that are too narrow for a motor vehicle and a bicycle to travel side by side within the same traffic lane, B. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in lanes that are too narrow for a motor vehicle and a bicycle to travel side by side within the same traffic lane,

6 Recognition and Treatment of the Problem AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning Many factors should be considered in determining the appropriate bicycle facility type, location and priority for implementation. Many factors should be considered in determining the appropriate bicycle facility type, location and priority for implementation. Motor Vehicle ParkingThe turnover and density of on-street parking can affect bicyclist safety (e.g., opening car doors and cars leaving parallel parking spaces). Motor Vehicle ParkingThe turnover and density of on-street parking can affect bicyclist safety (e.g., opening car doors and cars leaving parallel parking spaces).

7 Recognition and Treatment of the Problem AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning On-Street Parking On-Street Parking On-street parking increases the potential for conflicts between motor vehicles and bicyclists. The most common bicycle riding location on urban roadways is in the area between parked cars and moving motor vehicles. Here, bicyclists are subjected to opening car doors, vehicles exiting parking spaces, extended mirrors that narrow the travel space, and obscured views of intersecting traffic. Therefore, 3.6 m (12 feet) of combined bicycle travel and parking width should be the minimum considered for this type of shared use. On-street parking increases the potential for conflicts between motor vehicles and bicyclists. The most common bicycle riding location on urban roadways is in the area between parked cars and moving motor vehicles. Here, bicyclists are subjected to opening car doors, vehicles exiting parking spaces, extended mirrors that narrow the travel space, and obscured views of intersecting traffic. Therefore, 3.6 m (12 feet) of combined bicycle travel and parking width should be the minimum considered for this type of shared use.

8 Recognition and Treatment of the Problem AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types Bike Lanes Bike Lanes Where motor vehicles are allowed to park adjacent to bike lane, ensure width of bike lane sufficient to reduce probability of conflicts due to opening vehicle doors and other hazards. Analyze intersections to reduce bicyclist/motor vehicle conflicts. Sometimes bike lanes are left "undesignated" (i.e. bicycle symbol and signs are not used) in urban areas as an interim measure. Where motor vehicles are allowed to park adjacent to bike lane, ensure width of bike lane sufficient to reduce probability of conflicts due to opening vehicle doors and other hazards. Analyze intersections to reduce bicyclist/motor vehicle conflicts. Sometimes bike lanes are left "undesignated" (i.e. bicycle symbol and signs are not used) in urban areas as an interim measure.

9 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types Shared Lanes (shared lane markings) Shared Lanes (shared lane markings) Space constrained roads with narrow travel lanes, or road segments upon which bike lanes are not selected due to space constraints or other limitations Space constrained roads with narrow travel lanes, or road segments upon which bike lanes are not selected due to space constraints or other limitations Useful where there is high turnover in on-street parking to prevent crashes with open car doors. Useful where there is high turnover in on-street parking to prevent crashes with open car doors. Where motor vehicles allowed to park along shared lanes, ensure marking placement reduces potential conflicts with opening car doors. Where motor vehicles allowed to park along shared lanes, ensure marking placement reduces potential conflicts with opening car doors.

10 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety 3.4.2 Overall Findings - Urban vs Rural 3.4.2 Overall Findings - Urban vs Rural …Hitting an open car door is estimated to represent between 3% and 6% of urban crashes; this percentage can be higher in cities with a high amount of on-street parking, lower in suburban areas with no on-street parking. (6)(7)(8) Overtaking or being struck from behind represents a small portion of crashes in urban areas, but a larger portion of crashes on rural roads. Overtaking crashes in urban areas often occur at night and are usually associated with poor lighting conditions. …Hitting an open car door is estimated to represent between 3% and 6% of urban crashes; this percentage can be higher in cities with a high amount of on-street parking, lower in suburban areas with no on-street parking. (6)(7)(8) Overtaking or being struck from behind represents a small portion of crashes in urban areas, but a larger portion of crashes on rural roads. Overtaking crashes in urban areas often occur at night and are usually associated with poor lighting conditions.

11 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle creashes and recommended countermeasures – Motorist striking bicyclist with vehicle door (dooring) 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle creashes and recommended countermeasures – Motorist striking bicyclist with vehicle door (dooring) …Remedies include educating motorists (training them to look for bicyclists before opening their door) and bicyclists (training them to not ride too close to parked cars and to be on the lookout for drivers opening their door, although the latter has become more difficult due to tinted windows and taller vehicle design). Design treatments can help to reduce the likelihood of this type of crash. …Remedies include educating motorists (training them to look for bicyclists before opening their door) and bicyclists (training them to not ride too close to parked cars and to be on the lookout for drivers opening their door, although the latter has become more difficult due to tinted windows and taller vehicle design). Design treatments can help to reduce the likelihood of this type of crash.

12 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes and recommended countermeasures – Bicyclists Struck from Behind 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes and recommended countermeasures – Bicyclists Struck from Behind While this crash type represents a small portion of urban crashes, it represents a significant portion of rural crashes, especially fatalities…. While this crash type represents a small portion of urban crashes, it represents a significant portion of rural crashes, especially fatalities….

13 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities 4.6.4 Bicycle Lane Widths 4.6.4 Bicycle Lane Widths Bike lane widths should be determined by context and anticipated use…. Bike lane widths should be determined by context and anticipated use…. As discussed in the previous chapter, a bicyclists preferred operating width is 5 feet (1.5m). Wider bicycle lanes may be desireable under the following conditions: As discussed in the previous chapter, a bicyclists preferred operating width is 5 feet (1.5m). Wider bicycle lanes may be desireable under the following conditions: Adjacent to a narrow parking lane (7 feet [2.1m]) with high turnover (such as those servicing restaurants, shops, or entertainment venues), a wider bicycle lane (6- 7 feet or 2.1m) provides more operating space for bicyclists to ride out of the area of opening vehicle doors. Adjacent to a narrow parking lane (7 feet [2.1m]) with high turnover (such as those servicing restaurants, shops, or entertainment venues), a wider bicycle lane (6- 7 feet or 2.1m) provides more operating space for bicyclists to ride out of the area of opening vehicle doors.

14 AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities 4.6.5 Bicycle Lanes and On-Street Parking 4.6.5 Bicycle Lanes and On-Street Parking When on-street parking is permitted, the bicycle lane should be placed between the parking lane and the travel lane (see Exhibit 4.13). The recommended bicycle lane width in these locations is 6 feet (1.8m) and the minimum bicycle lane width is 5 feet (1.5m). Care should be taken when providing wider bike lanes in areas where parking is scarce or otherwise in demand, as wider bicycle lanes may result in more double parking. When on-street parking is permitted, the bicycle lane should be placed between the parking lane and the travel lane (see Exhibit 4.13). The recommended bicycle lane width in these locations is 6 feet (1.8m) and the minimum bicycle lane width is 5 feet (1.5m). Care should be taken when providing wider bike lanes in areas where parking is scarce or otherwise in demand, as wider bicycle lanes may result in more double parking.

15 Automobile Comfort Distance 27 responses (multiple responses from individuals) 27 responses (multiple responses from individuals) Overall Average 74 – 6 2 Overall Average 74 – 6 2 Minimum 60 – 5 0 Minimum 60 – 5 0 Maximum 88 – 7 4 Maximum 88 – 7 4 Out of range maximum 140 – 11 8 Out of range maximum 140 – 11 8 Median 76 – 6 4 Median 76 – 6 4

16 Examples Bike Lanes and Dooring.wmv Bike Lanes and Dooring.wmv League of American Cyclists Training Session League of American Cyclists Training Session http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TQ7aID1j Hs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TQ7aID1j Hs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TQ7aID1j Hs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TQ7aID1j Hs Scaled bike lane comparisons Scaled bike lane comparisons

17 Other Documents: Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking Wayne Pein – Jan 2003 Wayne Pein – Jan 2003 Examples follow: Examples follow:

18 Dooring Fatality Cambridge, MA. Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking

19 Selected Door Widths Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking

20 Vehicle Widths Federal Maximum for commercial: Federal Maximum for commercial: 102.36 inches 8 feet 6.36 inches 102.36 inches 8 feet 6.36 inches Average sizes for vehicles in various segments 2007: Average sizes for vehicles in various segments 2007: Sedan Compact 68.8 – 5 8.8 Sedan Compact 68.8 – 5 8.8 Sedan Midsize 71.4 – 5 11.4 Sedan Midsize 71.4 – 5 11.4 Sedan Large 75.1 – 6 3.1 Sedan Large 75.1 – 6 3.1 SUV Compact 70.9 – 5 10.9 SUV Compact 70.9 – 5 10.9 SUV Midsize 73.8 – 6 1.8 SUV Midsize 73.8 – 6 1.8 SUV Large 78.2 – 6 6.2 SUV Large 78.2 – 6 6.2 Source: Edmunds.com Source: Edmunds.com

21 Existing Laws and Standards Uniform Vehicle Code Uniform Vehicle Code CHAPTER 11 - Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road - Pt. 3 CHAPTER 11 - Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road - Pt. 3 Montana Code Annotated Montana Code Annotated Missoula Municipal Code Missoula Municipal Code Subdivision Code: Article 3 Section 11, page 29 dated July 26, 1999. Requires bike lane on collector streets or greater. Specifies 5 feet to gutter edge or 12 feet when combined with parking lane. (Parallel?) Article three also specifies that parking is required on collector streets or greater. Specifies 8 feet as standard width. Subdivision Code: Article 3 Section 11, page 29 dated July 26, 1999. Requires bike lane on collector streets or greater. Specifies 5 feet to gutter edge or 12 feet when combined with parking lane. (Parallel?) Article three also specifies that parking is required on collector streets or greater. Specifies 8 feet as standard width. MUTCD 2009 Edition MUTCD 2009 Edition AASHTO 1999 Bike Book AASHTO 1999 Bike Book AASHTO 2010 DRAFT Bike Guide AASHTO 2010 DRAFT Bike Guide Administrative Rule 415 Administrative Rule 415

22 What can we influence? Missoula Municipal Code Missoula Municipal Code Administrative Rule 415 Administrative Rule 415

23 My Additional Thoughts 5 Bike lanes next to parked cars: 5 Bike lanes next to parked cars: Provide the illusion of safety Provide the illusion of safety Acclimate cyclists to riding too close to parked cars Acclimate cyclists to riding too close to parked cars How do you train passengers exiting on the bike lane side of parked cars? How do you train passengers exiting on the bike lane side of parked cars?


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