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The Architecture of School Safety Scott Vrooman, AIA Scott Vrooman, AIA Allison Broyles Allison.

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Presentation on theme: "The Architecture of School Safety Scott Vrooman, AIA Scott Vrooman, AIA Allison Broyles Allison."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Architecture of School Safety Scott Vrooman, AIA Scott Vrooman, AIA Allison Broyles Allison Broyles

2 Our Background Scott is a licensed architect in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado and has designed dozens of K-12 schools Allison has a background in communications, public relations, grant assistance, and marketing

3 Secure Entrances Tornado Safe Rooms Whats This Talk About?

4 CPTED--Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Physical Design--Passive access control and surveillance while creating perceptions to would-be offenders Technological Design--Hardware-intensive or mechanical means for control or surveillance Operational Design--rely on a combination of human resources. Develop procedures for daily and emergency situations. Security=Access Control + Surveillance + Response Secure Entrances

5 Security Opportunities To enhance access control byPhTeOp Securing the site perimeter Using barriers to prevent passage of vehicles Minimizing entrances into the building Securing vulnerable openings (e.g. doors, first floor windows) Installing electronic acess systems (e.g. parking, elevators, mag-locks) Securing critical functions (e.g. IT, mechanical rooms) To enhance surveillance by Placing windows and doors to allow for good visibiliy Avoiding spaces the permit concealment Defining public versus private interior zones Avoiding blocking lines of sight with fencing and landscaping Locating public areas (e.g. restrooms) where they can be observed Designing lighting to reinforce natural surveillance Installing intrusion devices and video systems Using screening and tracking systems

6 Number of incidents involving firearm or explosive possession in one year in U.S. K-12 schools (6% of all schools) 7,47 8

7 Number of incidents involving a knife or sharp object in one year in U.S. K-12 schools (16% of all schools) 30,19 3

8 Westside Middle School--Jonesboro, AR Columbine High School--Columbine, CO Sandy Hook Elementary--Newtown, CT Case Studies

9 250 students. 6th and 7th grade. 2 shooters, 11 and 13 years old Skipped school, one went in to set off fire alarm, waited in a field 100 yards away from a known fire escape area 4 students and 1 teacher were killed, 9 students and 1 teacher were injured. Doors locked behind the students and teachers during fire escape making it impossible for them to re-enter the building Entire shooting lasted 15 seconds. Westside Middle School March 28, 1998

10 Westside Middle School March 28, 1998 Shooter Location Victim Location

11 2000 students. 10th-12th grade. 2 shooters, both seniors Original plan was to plant bomb in cafeteria, wait outside to shoot students as they exited the building Bomb didnt go off so they went inside concealing guns in long trench coats Walked hallways shooting all they encountered, never entering or trying to enter locked classrooms Walked into Library and found 60 people and shot at them over the next 7 1/2 minutes. When police closed in they committed suicide. 12 students and 1 teacher were killed Shooting spree lasted 46 minutes, in part due to the confusion of law enforcement about where the shooters were Columbine High School April 20, 1999

12 Columbine High School April 20, 1999

13 450 students. K-4th grade. 1 shooter, 20 years old School had recently implemented security protocols including video monitoring, individual admittance of visitors after 9:30am, and secure entrances Shooter arrived at 9:35am and shot the glass on the doors to gain access Administrative staff were in a meeting while morning announcements were starting when they heard the shots. Three walked out to administration area and were killed instantly. Shooter walked into two 1st grade classrooms, both of which knew they were in danger prior to him entering yet did not lock the door. 20 of the fatalities came from these 2 rooms. Shooter bypassed a room that was locked with black construction paper over the window on the door and it is believed he thought the classroom was empty 20 students and 6 faculty & staff were killed Shooting spree lasted 5 minutes, shooter committed suicide when he saw police closing in Sandy Hook Elementary December 14, 2012

14 Sandy Hook Elementary December 14, 2012

15 No one believed or imagined what was happening at the time Operational errors were made in each instance People ignored warning signs in each case Westside Elementary--Shooters were seen walking toward the school heavily armed without being called in Columbine--bomb container in center of cafeteria for 15 minutes before shooters re-entered. Sandy Hook--Confrontation between shooter & staff the day before (allegedly) Training and response of law enforcement has increased dramatically with time Lessons Learned

16 4 Schools on 3 campuses 2500 students in Pre-K through 12th grade No secure entrances. High school and Intermediate school enter directly into cafeteria $1 Million to renovate all four schools to ensure secure entrances Solutions Skiatook Public Schools

17 Elementary School

18 Skiatook Public Schools Intermediate School

19 Skiatook Public Schools Middle School

20 Skiatook Public Schools High School

21 Resources Building Security Through Design, American Institute of Architects, 2001 FEMA 428, Primer to Design Safe School Projects, 2012 The Appropriate & Effective Us of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools, National Institute of Justice, 1999

22 Safe Rooms

23 Fortified Walls & Ceiling 10 thick or more Can Withstand EF5 Tornados Withstands winds of 250 mph Usually doubles as gymnasium or multipurpose room Safe Rooms Cast-in-place and Precast Concrete

24 Safe Rooms Concrete Domes

25 Withstands winds above 200 mph Typically less expensive to build Claim to be more energy efficient Less efficient functional space due to curved walls Controversial among structural engineers Safe Rooms Concrete Domes

26 Safe Rooms

27 Paying for Your Safe Room Typical Costs

28 Paying for Your Safe Room Typical Costs

29 Paying for Your Safe Room Typical Costs

30 Tornado Geography


32 Safe Rooms

33 Apply to Oklahoma Department of Emergency Management Submit a notice of intent Receive letter with e-grant login from state hazard mitigation officer Submit detailed application through e-grant with help of architect and contractor (200+ pages) Review OEM revisions & questions OEM submits to FEMA Review FEMA revisions & questions Wait for approval Entire process takes 18-24 months Paying for Your Safe Room FEMA Grant

34 Non-profit: Shelter Oklahoma Schools Capital Bonds State Government not getting involved in legislation (Mary Fallin quoted on June 5th) Non-FEMA Solutions

35 Bond climate is prime for passing school security and safety funding. Paying for Your Safe Room Passing a Bond

36 This slideshow and other valuable information on K-12 design, safety measures and getting bonds passed will be available on: Slideshare ( Facebook ( ure) Twitter (@TriArchOK) E-Newsletter To sign up for our e-newsletter, sign up on Facebook or email us: More Information

37 Melissa Moore Oklahoma Department of Emergency Management 405-521-0383 Dr. Angie Besendorfer Assistant Superintendent Joplin Schools 417-625-5200 ext 2006 FEMA P-361 construction-guidance-community-safe-roomsand- construction-guidance-community-safe-rooms More Information

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