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June 2002 NBAA AIRCRAFT GROUND DAMAGE PREVENTION Best practices for preventing business aircraft ground damage events.

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Presentation on theme: "June 2002 NBAA AIRCRAFT GROUND DAMAGE PREVENTION Best practices for preventing business aircraft ground damage events."— Presentation transcript:

1 June 2002 NBAA AIRCRAFT GROUND DAMAGE PREVENTION Best practices for preventing business aircraft ground damage events

2 NBAA Safety Committee Introduction Purpose of program - reduce aircraft ground damage risk by providing best practices interventions Purpose of program - reduce aircraft ground damage risk by providing best practices interventions Focused audience - corporate flight and maintenance crews Focused audience - corporate flight and maintenance crews Intended use - training and awareness tool Intended use - training and awareness tool Self-audit tool - gap analysis, how do we manage these risks? (tbd) Self-audit tool - gap analysis, how do we manage these risks? (tbd) Incident analysis flow chart -tool to look at human factors issues Incident analysis flow chart -tool to look at human factors issues What this is not - a tool to manage FBOs What this is not - a tool to manage FBOs Size of the problem ? Many costs uninsured, estimated at over $100 million/year in direct costs Size of the problem ? Many costs uninsured, estimated at over $100 million/year in direct costs

3 NBAA Safety Committee Most significant risk factors for ground damages 1. Towing 2. Ramp movements 3. Ground service equipment 4. Hangar movements

4 NBAA Safety Committee Most significant human factors issues for ground damages 1. Time pressures - task saturation 2. Skill based errors - over/under skilled 3. Customer satisfaction 4. Direct rule based violations 5. Environmental i.e. illumination, visual obstructions, noise levels 6. Communications breakdowns 7. Loss of situational awareness

5 NBAA Safety Committee Maintenance Related Exposures

6 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Maintenance Related Exposures Mobile ladders/equip near aircraft control surfaces Mobile ladders/equip near aircraft control surfaces Walk paths near aircraft storage positions Walk paths near aircraft storage positions Use of non-rubber chocks while in hangars Use of non-rubber chocks while in hangars Static wick protection warning devices Static wick protection warning devices Complete a Job hazard analysis for specific aircraft maintenance exposures related to unique situations Complete a Job hazard analysis for specific aircraft maintenance exposures related to unique situations Situation/Exposure

7 NBAA Safety Committee Fire Protection - urea foam deluge systems should receive periodic inspection Fire Protection - urea foam deluge systems should receive periodic inspection Equipment that can move due to vibration or jet blast should be chocked or secured Equipment that can move due to vibration or jet blast should be chocked or secured Aircraft log books should be stored in a secure storage system when not in use Aircraft log books should be stored in a secure storage system when not in use Clothing - Belt buckles covered and shoe protectors used if required. Clothing - Belt buckles covered and shoe protectors used if required. Situation/Exposure Risk Exposure - Area: Maintenance Related Exposures

8 NBAA Safety Committee Aircraft Movement

9 NBAA Safety Committee Use of at least 2 wingwalkers while moving aircraft from or into hangars along with tug operator Use of at least 2 wingwalkers while moving aircraft from or into hangars along with tug operator Team completes an area risk assessment before moving aircraft Team completes an area risk assessment before moving aircraft Perimeter floor marking that delineates limits of aircraft placement near hangar walls Perimeter floor marking that delineates limits of aircraft placement near hangar walls Situation/Exposure Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage

10 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage Hangar doors - securing methods to prevent inadvertent closure due to jet blast or high winds Hangar doors - securing methods to prevent inadvertent closure due to jet blast or high winds Aircraft wings should not overlap other aircraft due to settling hazard Aircraft wings should not overlap other aircraft due to settling hazard Hangar doors should be fully opened before aircraft movement Hangar doors should be fully opened before aircraft movement Aircraft should not be moved through propeller arcs Aircraft should not be moved through propeller arcs Situation/Exposure

11 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage Floor/ramp markings delineate best aircraft positions for entry or exit from hangars Floor/ramp markings delineate best aircraft positions for entry or exit from hangars Suggested hangar staking diagrams should be provided as visual aids Suggested hangar staking diagrams should be provided as visual aids Overhead doors systems should have a periodic inspection process Overhead doors systems should have a periodic inspection process Situation/Exposure

12 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage A Job hazard analysis should be completed for aircraft movement exposures in hangar areas related to unique situations A Job hazard analysis should be completed for aircraft movement exposures in hangar areas related to unique situations Written procedures for aircraft movement should be available in both the flight and maintenance operations manuals Written procedures for aircraft movement should be available in both the flight and maintenance operations manuals Employees who move aircraft receive should receive training on company procedures Employees who move aircraft receive should receive training on company procedures Situation/Exposure

13 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage A visual inspection of the aircraft should be completed before any tow initiates A visual inspection of the aircraft should be completed before any tow initiates The team should complete an area risk assessment briefing before moving aircraft - all sides of aircraft perimeter visually inspected for hazards The team should complete an area risk assessment briefing before moving aircraft - all sides of aircraft perimeter visually inspected for hazards Towing equipment - tugs/lektro tugs visually inspected, brakes checked, correct tow bar verified Towing equipment - tugs/lektro tugs visually inspected, brakes checked, correct tow bar verified Situation/Exposure

14 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage Towbars should be labeled as to aircraft type Towbars should be labeled as to aircraft type Tugs are marked as to rated maximum loads Tugs are marked as to rated maximum loads A post tow inspection should completed of aircraft A post tow inspection should completed of aircraft For aircraft pushes, the rear area must be inspected before movement For aircraft pushes, the rear area must be inspected before movement A written job hazard analysis should be completed for aircraft towing exposures A written job hazard analysis should be completed for aircraft towing exposures Situation/Exposure 15,000lb

15 NBAA Safety Committee Aircraft Towing

16 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas Verification that aircraft brakes are off is completed before the tow or push is initiated Verification that aircraft brakes are off is completed before the tow or push is initiated Employees who move aircraft should receive training on procedures Employees who move aircraft should receive training on procedures Aircraft are towed at a safe walking speed Aircraft are towed at a safe walking speed Towing safety rules marked on tugs Towing safety rules marked on tugs Situation/Exposure

17 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas Large/heavy aircraft should require a person acting as a brake monitor during movement - in cockpit Large/heavy aircraft should require a person acting as a brake monitor during movement - in cockpit If the tow operator loses sight of wing walker, an immediate STOP should occur If the tow operator loses sight of wing walker, an immediate STOP should occur If there is any doubt as to having adequate space/clearance,an immediate STOP should occur If there is any doubt as to having adequate space/clearance,an immediate STOP should occur Situation/Exposure

18 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas Aircraft should only be moved by approved vehicles Aircraft should only be moved by approved vehicles Situation/Exposure

19 NBAA Safety Committee Aircraft Taxi Flight Crew Procedures

20 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Initial Aircraft Taxi Approach to Ramp Area Pilots should visually scan the ramp for risks while taxing in Pilots should visually scan the ramp for risks while taxing in Ground marshallers should provide the correct hand signals - if in doubt, stop Ground marshallers should provide the correct hand signals - if in doubt, stop While taxiing, the area should continually be scanned for threats such as: drain grates, narrow rows of positioned aircraft, ramp slope, blind spots,jet blast hazards, wind direction, loose chocks, vehicle movements While taxiing, the area should continually be scanned for threats such as: drain grates, narrow rows of positioned aircraft, ramp slope, blind spots,jet blast hazards, wind direction, loose chocks, vehicle movements Situation/Exposure

21 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Initial Aircraft Taxi Approach to Ramp Area Pilots should communicate (radio) with unicom or for taxi in assistance from FBO, etc. Pilots should communicate (radio) with unicom or for taxi in assistance from FBO, etc. Pilots should observe any hazards related to ground service equipment movements or positioning hazards - plan ahead for departure routes Pilots should observe any hazards related to ground service equipment movements or positioning hazards - plan ahead for departure routes Situation/Exposure

22 NBAA Safety Committee Flight Crew Precautions (departure) Flight crew should complete a visual inspection of the aircraft prior to departure Flight crew should complete a visual inspection of the aircraft prior to departure Pilots should ensure that wing walkers are used in confined areas or areas where marshalling person cannot see all positions of the aircraft. Pilots should ensure that wing walkers are used in confined areas or areas where marshalling person cannot see all positions of the aircraft. Pilots should visually survey the ramp area for risks during pre-start and taxi Pilots should visually survey the ramp area for risks during pre-start and taxi

23 NBAA Safety Committee Aircraft Parking Flight Crew Precautions

24 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Parking/Tie Down - Ramp Areas Warning cones should be placed at wing tips and tail Warning cones should be placed at wing tips and tail Potential jet exhaust blast hazards should be planned for Potential jet exhaust blast hazards should be planned for Aircraft should be positioned to avoid wing overlap hazards Aircraft should be positioned to avoid wing overlap hazards Triple chocks should be placed at mains and nose gear for overnight parking Triple chocks should be placed at mains and nose gear for overnight parking Situation/Exposure

25 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Aircraft Parking/Tie Down - Ramp Areas The main gear should be chocked at all ramp parking situations The main gear should be chocked at all ramp parking situations A ground marshler should be used to aid for taxi in and departure from parking spots A ground marshler should be used to aid for taxi in and departure from parking spots Ground air stair mats should be removed before engine start Ground air stair mats should be removed before engine start Situation/Exposure

26 NBAA Safety Committee Ground Service Equipment

27 NBAA Safety Committee Risk Exposure - Area: Ground Service Equipment Fuel Trucks should be chocked when servicing aircraft Fuel Trucks should be chocked when servicing aircraft All mobile equipment should be positioned to not face aircraft All mobile equipment should be positioned to not face aircraft Ground power units should not be positioned under tail sections and must be chocked Ground power units should not be positioned under tail sections and must be chocked Special precautions should be followed to insure the removal of GPU plugs before the unit is moved Special precautions should be followed to insure the removal of GPU plugs before the unit is moved Tugs and other types of GSE such as golf carts should be shut-off, parking brakes set, and chocked when left unattended Tugs and other types of GSE such as golf carts should be shut-off, parking brakes set, and chocked when left unattended

28 NBAA Safety Committee Flight crew communications with ground crews Pilot Ground crew Hey, do you have crew cars? Fuel her up and I will see you in the AM

29 NBAA Safety Committee Crew Communications Flight and Ground - Towing

30 NBAA Safety Committee Crew Communications Flight and Ground - Towing

31 NBAA Safety Committee Crew Communications Flight and Ground - Hangar operations

32 NBAA Safety Committee Crew Communications Between Flight and Ground Crews - Fueling

33 NBAA Safety Committee Case studies of what can go wrong Aircraft Towing (Hangar) Event: Two ground crew employees were positioning a Falcon 50 into a hangar when the left wing tip struck a golf cart. One employee was operating the Lektro tug and the other employee was acting as the wing walker. The aircraft was being nosed into the hangar. There was a golf cart being charged on the left side of the hangar and a car was parked on the right side of the hangar. As the aircraft was being pulled in, the wing walker was at the rear of the aircraft going between the right wing and left wing to monitor clearance. As the right wing cleared the car the wing walker started to move back to the left wing when the left wing tip struck the golf car` ` Lear–60 Ground Power Unit Event: A Lear-60 requested a GPU start assist. Upon completion of both engine starts, and proper shut down procedures of the GPU, the line service technician noticed the GPU cable plug head felt very hot to the touch during disconnect from the aircraft GPU receptacle. The crew was notified, shut down the engines, and requested a maintenance inspection of the GPU receptacle and related components. The aircraft maintenance representative discovered a lose wire on the internal bracket of the GPU receptacle located within the fuselage..

34 NBAA Safety Committee Case studies of what can go wrong Aircraft Towing and Hangar Storage Event: Two line service employees with the additional assistance of two aircraft crewmembers were preparing to pull an aircraft from a hangar. The tractor operator misjudged the gear pattern noted on the transmission stick selector, and upon release of the clutch pedal the tractor lurched forward several inches pushing the aircraft into another aircraft positioned directly behind. The intended tow aircraft suffered a dent to the right outboard flap, and the other aircraft suffered a scratch to the nose cone. Use of Approved Tow Bars Event: The owner of a Mitsubishi MU-2 recently requested his aircraft to be towed from a hangar utilizing the customer owned tow bar. Upon the initial tow bar inspection, it was noticed the tow bar was not equipped with manufacturer identification tags and the tow bar was bent. The line crew notified their supervisor of their findings, and the supervisor instructed the crew not to use the tow bar. The supervisor notified the pilot of the issue and requested the manufacturer labeled tow bar, designed for the aircraft be used. The pilot understood the concern and had no issue with utilizing the approved tow bar. The approved tow bar was used with no further incident.

35 NBAA Safety Committee Case studies of what can go wrong Crew miscommunication Event: The ground crew was informed by the flight crew that the aircraft ( King Air 200 ) brakes were set in the off position. A tow was initiated which resulted in damage to the brake and wheel assembly. Aircraft Towing - lektro tug Event An employee used the Lektro 8750 to tow a Cessna 425 Corsair to a hangar. After the employee captured the C-425 he installed the front gate guard on the bucket of the Lektro. The aircraft was towed to and placed in the common hangar. The operator of the Lektro unit lowered the bucket and released the winch strap prior to chocking the aircraft. The C-425 rolled backwards into the front gate guard crushing the nose wheel fender. The nose wheel fender, which covers the rear of the nose wheel, was crushed against the tire and the fender brackets were broken.

36 NBAA Safety Committee Case studies of what can go wrong The result of unauthorized vehicle operation on ramp areas

37 NBAA Safety Committee Case studies of what can go wrong The result of no chocks on a sloping ramp

38 NBAA Safety Committee Self-audit tool:Gap Analysis We have written standard operating procedures Y N We have written standard operating procedures Y N Employees trained on procedures Y N Employees trained on procedures Y N Employees provided risk awareness training Y N Employees provided risk awareness training Y N Incident investigations conducted Y N Incident investigations conducted Y N We have completed a risk assessment Y N We have completed a risk assessment Y N Compliance evaluations completed Y N Compliance evaluations completed Y N We have the correct ground equipment Y N We have the correct ground equipment Y N We monitor FBO actions Y N We monitor FBO actions Y N We have an accountability system in place Y N We have an accountability system in place Y N Access to ramp areas is controlled Access to ramp areas is controlled Flight crews provided ground damage awareness training Flight crews provided ground damage awareness training

39 NBAA Safety Committee For Each At-Risk Behavior Did Condition Result from a Behavior? Unforced Behavior Was the Behavior Simply an Error by the Individual? Forced Behavior Was the Behavior Out of Control of the individual? Explore Hard System Issues Workstation Design Tool/Equipment Design Tool/Equipment Availability Influenced Behavior Was there a Risk/Reward Influence on the Behavior? Conduct an Analysis to Determine What Drives the At-Risk Behavior Redesign Workstation Redesign Tool/Equipment Purchase Necessary Tool/Equipment Incident Explore Soft System Issues Procedures Training Human Factors Identify and Implement Antecedents and Consequences that Support Desired Behaviors and Reduce At-Risk Behaviors Yes No Yes No Ground damage incident review process Make Improvements to: Procedures Training Human Factors For Each UnSafe Condition

40 NBAA Safety Committee Special Thanks to: Home Depot FTY Home Depot FTY Hill Aircraft FTY Hill Aircraft FTY Signature Flight Support Signature Flight Support Purdue University Purdue University


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