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U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Senior Capstone Ryan Rice.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Senior Capstone Ryan Rice."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Senior Capstone Ryan Rice

2 Overview Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:Open-DoorDoor-AjarPet-DoorRevolving-DoorStorm-Door Including Important Legislation and Court Cases Including Important Legislation and Court Cases

3 Overview Following Historical Breakdown: Following Historical Breakdown: Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal. Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.AssimilationEconomicsBilingualismMulticulturalism National Security

4 Open-Door Era Founding of the United States until 1880. Founding of the United States until 1880. Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged. Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged. Old-Wave Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe. Old-Wave Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe. 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization

5 Open-Door Era Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act. Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act. Two-year residency requirement Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813 Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship

6 Open-Door Era 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875 Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875 First- Predominantly Irish and German Second – Included British and Scandinavian

7 Open-Door Era 1862 – Homestead Act 1862 – Homestead Act 1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment 1868 – Ratification of the 14 th Amendment 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native- born Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native- born

8 Door-Ajar Era Began in 1880 and lasted 1920 Began in 1880 and lasted 1920 Rate of 1 million per year continued Rate of 1 million per year continued Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude. Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.

9 Door-Ajar Era 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality. 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality. Virtually stopped Chinese immigration ten years. Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904 Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904

10 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

11 Door-Ajar Era 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others. 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others. 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return. 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return. 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act. 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.

12 Door-Ajar Era 1892 – Ellis Island 1892 – Ellis Island 1894 – Bureau of Immigration 1894 – Bureau of Immigration 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States: 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States: Native born are eligible for nat. even if parents are not. 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s

13 Pet-Door Era The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965 The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965 Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929 Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929 Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe. Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe. Era of restrictive legislation Era of restrictive legislation

14 Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census. 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census. only 4 million entered from 1920-1930 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census. 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census. Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe Barred most Asians – aliens ineligible for citizenship 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census. 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census. Only 150,000 admitted.

15 Decrease in Immigration

16 Pet-Door Era 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien. 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien. Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol

17 Great Depression Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939 Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act Required all citizens to register address annually. Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.

18 Pet-Door Era 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps. 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps. 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld military necessity 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld military necessity 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier. 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.

19 Revolving-Door Era Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 Replaced quota system with preference system Replaced quota system with preference system Immigration in the following decade was up 60% Immigration in the following decade was up 60% Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees

20 Revolving-Door Era 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally 5.4 million immigrants entered 5.4 million immigrants entered 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.

21 Revolving-Door Era 1980 Refugee Act 1980 Refugee Act 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT) Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT) Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP 1993 - NAFTA 1993 - NAFTA

22 Revolving-Door Era California passed Proposition 187 California passed Proposition 187 Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)

23 Storm-Door Era Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks 2001 – USA Patriot Act 2001 – USA Patriot Act 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act

24 Current Immigration Issues Assimilation Assimilation Economics Economics Bilingualism Bilingualism Multiculturalism Multiculturalism National Security National Security

25 Assimilation 1 st step – Naturalization process 1 st step – Naturalization process Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country

26 Assimilation Assimilate by acquiring skills Assimilate by acquiring skills Naturalization – more job opportunities Naturalization – more job opportunities Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating Age is greatest distinguishing factor Age is greatest distinguishing factor

27 Economics Pros: Pros: more workers create more wealth provide basis for S. Security and Medicare most still pay income and property taxes benefit from brain-drain of other nations

28 Economics Cons: Cons: Immigrant wages are decreasing Create a strain on taxpayers and government Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr

29 Bilingualism Economic and Ideological detriment Economic and Ideological detriment Single language unifies incredible diversity Single language unifies incredible diversity Multiple languages are inefficient Multiple languages are inefficient Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway

30 Multiculturalism Distinct Culture Groups Distinct Culture Groups Organizational and Conceptual Borders Organizational and Conceptual Borders Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years

31 National Security Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s 7,000 miles of border 7,000 miles of border Department of Homeland Security Department of Homeland Security Struggle until recently Advances in transportation security Creative thinking to prevent attacks

32 Summary and Review Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door Immigration: history of legislation Immigration: history of legislation Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security


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