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TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation. Trace Martin Luthers role in the religious movement.

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Presentation on theme: "TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation. Trace Martin Luthers role in the religious movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation. Trace Martin Luthers role in the religious movement to reform the Catholic Church. Analyze the impact of Luthers religious revolt. Explain the spread of Protestantism to England during King Henry VIIIs reign. AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom ! WARM-UP – Read History Makers Martin Luther, Text p. 429 NEXT ASSIGNMENT: Read Chapter 17, Sec. 4, complete p. 27 in your packet. Begin studying - CHAPTER 17 Test is Thursday! AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50 Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts the Reformation

2 Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts the Reformation 1. LIST FOUR PROBLEMS that existed in the Catholic Church during the time of Martin Luther that he and others criticized and wished to reform: (see packet, p. 26) Answer question #1. on handout now ! PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

3 Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts the Reformation 2. Even before Luther, there were other people who called for reforms in the Church. Name three of these precursors to the Protestant Reformation. (see text, p. 428) Answer questions #2. – 5. on handout ! Wycliff, Hus, and Savonarola 3. What problem did Luther have with a monk named Tetzel? (see text, p. 429) He was selling indulgences. 4. What are indulgences? (see text, p. 429) These were pardons from sin that one could buy from the Church in order to not have to perform any other penalty. 5. Define Reformation: (see text, p. 429) A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church. What did this event lead to in the history of the Western Christian Church? (see text, p. 429) A split between western Catholics and the Protestants. See chart on back of handout. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

4 Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts the Reformation Answer questions #5. – 7. on handout ! 5. Define Reformation: (see text, p. 429) A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church. What did this event lead to in the history of the Western Christian Church? (see text, p. 429) A split between western Catholics and the Protestants. 6. Define Protestant: (see text, p. 430) Originally the term for Luthers supporters who protested against Catholic loyalists in Germany. Today, a general term for any Christian who attends a non-Catholic church. Following Luthers break with the Pope, name three of Christianitys Protestant branches? (see back of handout) Lutheran, Baptist, Anglican (Church of England), Methodist, Presbyterian…. 7. What pivotal event sparked this Protestant Reformation? (see text, p. 429) Luther nailing his 95 Theses on his church doors in Wittenberg Germany. Examining a Primary Source: Ninety-five Theses of Martin Luther, packet p. 25

5 Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 1. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 Theses on the church doors at Wittenberg. Luther attacks a monk named Tetzel for selling indulgences. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS Above: The church doors At Luthers church in Wittenberg. Other pics, Wittenberg, 2002. Luthers words are printed and spread all over Germany and attract many followers. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

6 Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 SAXONY Luther is sheltered by the prince of Saxony where he translates Bible into German. When he returns to Wittenberg, his followers have become a separate religious group – the Lutherans. The Pope realizes Luther is a threat to papal authority. The H.R.E., is a devout Catholic, and also feels threatened by the uproar. 2. In 1520, Luther refuses to recant at Worms and is excommunicated. In 1521, he is declared an outlaw and heretic. Charles V Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo X Martin Luther Frederick, Prince of Saxony offered protection to Luther CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS

7 Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS 3. The German peasants revolt in 1524. Excited by Luthers talk about religious freedom, peasants revolt hoping for social / economic freedom (an end to serfdom). When the armies of German princes (at Luthers request) brutally crush this revolt (killing thousands), previous supporters now turn against Luther. Religious Wars begin between Catholics and Protestants.

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9 Luther Starts the Reformation; Text, p. 429; Packet p. 22 The peace settlement ended the war and allowed the ruler of each German state to decide his own states religious preference. Charles V fought a 20 year war against the German Protestant princes and defeated them in 1547. But he could not force them to remain in the Catholic Church. 4.The Peace of Augsburg is signed in 1555. Charles V Holy Roman Emperor Martin Luther continued his writings and lectures until his death in 1546. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS In 1525 Luther had married a former nun named Katharine von Bora. She bore him eight children and outlived him by six years. Even today, unlike Catholic priests who take a vow of celibacy, ministers in Protestant churches can get married. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

10 King Henry VIII of England [1491-1547] He broke Englands ties to the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther. Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish Queen Catherine of Aragon was not able to produce one. Catherine of Aragon 1509-1533 (divorced) Anne Boleyn 1533-1536 (beheaded) Daughter will be Bloody Mary I 1553-1558 (Catholic). Daughter Elizabeth I 1558-1603 (Protestant). Jane Seymour 1536-1537 (died) Son Edward VI 1547-1553 (sickly) Anne of Cleves 1540 (divorced) Kathryn Howard 1540-1542 (beheaded) Kathrine Parr 1543-1548 (survived) England becomes Protestant Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 Henrys Six Wives :

11 Henry closes all English monasteries; seizes their lands and other Catholic holdings in England; thereby increasing his royal power, as well as his own personal wealth. Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine so he could remarry in order to get a male heir. The Pope would not allow. So Henry calls Parliament into session and passes the Act of Supremacy. 5. English Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS The Act of Supremacy made the ruler of England the official head of the Church of England – no longer the Catholic Pope. Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect – Queen Elizabeth II of England is officially the head of the Anglican Church. England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

12 King Henry VIII of England [1491-1547] He broke Englands ties to the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther. Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish Queen Catherine of Aragon was not able to produce one. Catherine of Aragon 1509-1533 (divorced) Anne Boleyn 1533-1536 (beheaded) Daughter will be Bloody Mary I 1553-1558 (Catholic). Daughter Elizabeth I 1558-1603 (Protestant). Jane Seymour 1536-1537 (died) Son Edward VI 1547-1553 (sickly) Anne of Cleves 1540 (divorced) Kathryn Howard 1540-1542 (beheaded) Kathrine Parr 1543-1548 (survived) England becomes Protestant Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 Henrys Six Wives :

13 The Anglican church becomes the only legal church in England and people were required to attend. Elizabeth tried to create a church that both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept. Henrys daughter Mary had tried to restore Catholicism in England after her fathers break with the Pope. Elizabeth I restores Protestantism and asks Parliament to create a national Church of England. 6. Parliament establishes the Anglican Church in 1559. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Elizabeth I The Virgin Queen Ruled England for 45 years! After everything her father went through trying to get a male heir – even executing her own mother – it is ironic then that his daughter Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the most politically skilled and well-remembered monarchs in Englands history. She was a master at diplomacy with other European powers and at achieving compromises in her own kingdom in order to maintain peace among squabbling religious groups.

14 CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS England becomes Protestant - Text, p. 431; Packet p. 23 The Spanish Armada tries to invade England. Philip II of Spain had been married to Mary I of England. A loyal Catholic, he did not think Elizabeth was a legitimate heir to the English throne. He also believes Elizabeth is condoning her English navys piracy of his Spanish galleys. When England sides with the Dutch against Philips rule in the Netherlands and Elizabeth has her cousin Mary (Queen of Scots) executed for treason, Philip decides to invade England. Elizabeth I gives a rallying speech to British troops instilling confidence in her ability to rule as a woman. Bad weather and English fire ships destroy the Spanish Armada. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School The Protestant Wind ?

15 TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Analyze the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation. Trace Martin Luthers role in the religious movement to reform the Catholic Church. Analyze the impact of Luthers religious revolt. Explain the spread of Protestantism to England during King Henry VIIIs reign. AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50 Ch. 17 Section 3: Luther Starts the Reformation AGENDA: WARM-UP – Read History Makers Martin Luther, Text p. 429 NEXT ASSIGNMENT: Read Chapter 17, Sec. 4, complete p. 27 in your packet. Begin studying - CHAPTER 17 Test is Thursday!

16 TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Explain John Calvins Protestant teachings and their spread throughout northern and western Europe. Describe the beliefs of other Reformers and the role of women in the Reformation. Trace the reforms begun by the Catholic Church itself in its Counter-Reformation. AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom ! WARM-UP – Read History Makers John Calvin, Text p. 433 NEXT ASSIGNMENT: CHAPTER 17 Test is tomorrow! Study! Come to Tutorials! Begin collecting all of this past semesters Test Answer Sheets. You will need them in order to Review for Final Exam! AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50 Ch. 17 Section 4: The Reformation Continues

17 The Spread of Protestant Reformation Groups - Textbook MAP, p. 434; Packet p. 21 According to the maps, by 1560 or so, which European countries became mostly Protestant? Which ones remained mostly Roman Catholic? Judging from the way religious beliefs were distributed in Christian Europe, where would you predict religious conflicts were certain to take place? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

18 Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 John Calvin was born in France and was only 12 years old when Martin Luther was standing trial and refusing to recant at the Council of Worms. But Calvin heard about the controversy and, even at 12, was intrigued by the excommunicated monk Luthers bold defense of himself and his belief in the Scriptures. To stand in a courtroom and defend oneself against the powerful Church was an enticing scenario to young Calvin who decides to study law at the University of Paris. Taking up what Luther had begun, Calvin would organize the doctrine (organized system of thought, or theology) to the new Protestant faith. John Calvin 1509-1564 B. Perceiving Relationships predestination – a doctrine (teaching) held by Calvinists; the belief that God has pre-destined (already decided) who will be saved and / or damned even before we are born. [Those who God has chosen beforehand to be saved are known as the elect.] Calvinism – Christian religion or ideas even today that are based on Calvins teachings. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

19 Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 John Calvin 1509-1564 B. Perceiving Relationships predestination – a doctrine (teaching) held by Calvinists; the belief that God has pre-destined (already decided) who will be saved and / or damned even before we are born. [Those who God has chosen beforehand to be saved are known as the elect.] Calvinism – Christian religion or ideas even today that are based on Calvins teachings. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 1. Calvinism People are sinful in their nature; only the elect will be saved; the doctrine of predestination says that God has known who the elect will be since the beginning of time. Also believes the government should be in the hands of religious leaders (a theocracy) and society should be governed by strict laws of morality.

20 John Calvin was asked to create his vision of the ideal society by the citizens of Geneva Switzerland – a strict theocracy where religious leaders rule and rigid moral conduct was demanded. Punishments for rule breakers could be severe – such as excommunication and banishment. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Calvin Begins Another Protestant Church - Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 In England, the Puritans would adopt the ideas of Calvin and would oppose both the Catholic as well as the Protestant Anglican Church in England. Calvinist followers In France will be called Hugenots. French Hugenots suffered a long period of persecution in this largely Catholic country. Read about the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre in your text, p. 434.

21 Calvinism Spreads- Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 2. Presbyterianism John Knox 1505-1572 John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland. This Protestant group takes it name from the elders who were chosen to govern each religious community – they were called presbyters. Protestant nobles of Scotland were led by Knox (a former Catholic priest) in making Calvinism Scotlands official religion. They even overthrew the Catholic queen Mary, Queen of Scots and her young son James VI was placed on the throne. Now we can read the Bible…if only we could agree on what it says? DIFFERENCES IN INTERPRETATION CAUSE EVEN MORE DIVISIONS FAITH ALONE? Or, is there need for GOOD WORKS? Infant? Adult? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

22 Calvinism Spreads- Textbook, p. 433; Packet p. 27 3. Anabaptists Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531 Believed only adults are mature enough to make a decision to be baptized; believed in clear separation of Church and State; were pacifists (refused to fight in wars). Anabaptists were the forerunners of the Mennonites and Amish. They also influenced the Quakers and Baptists who both split from the Anglican Church. All four of these groups exist in the U.S. and, except for the Baptist, continue to practice pacifism and staunchly defend the ideas of Free Thinking and Conscience. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

23 Women of the Reformation- Textbook, p. 434 - 5; Packet p. 27 NOTABLE WOMEN Marguerite of Navarre was the sister of the King of France, Francis I. She was an important protector of John Calvin and other early reformers of the church, she expressed her intensely felt religious views in poetry and plays. There were other women too who played active, outspoken roles in the call for Church Reformation. But as time passed the Protestant religions became more formally organized, male leaders narrowly limited the roles or activities women could perform. FAVORITE QUOTES from Marguerite God always helps madmen, lovers, and drunkards. When one has one good day in the year, one is not wholly unfortunate. Blessed is he who has it in his power to do evil, yet does it not. People pretend not to like grapes when they are too high for them to reach. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

24 The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 435; Packet p. 27 B. Perceiving Relationships As Protestantism spread and numerous other sects appeared, the Catholic church undertook measures to reform itself in order to help Catholics remain loyal. This movement to reform the Catholic church from within is known as the Catholic Reformation. Ignatius of Loyola left his fathers castle in Loyola, Spain to go fight in Spains war with France in 1521. A cannon ball struck his legs and he was severely wounded. During his recuperation he gave serious examination to his spiritual life and began writing a book, Spiritual Exercises. This daily meditation guide attracted many followers over the next 18 years. Eventually Pope Paul III made the group founded by Ignatius of Loyola into a religious order named the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, – the group focused on the education of Catholics in the 1500s in order to be better informed about the Scriptures and able to defend themselves against the preaching of the Protestants. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

25 The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 435; Packet p. 27 4. What were the three major activities of the Jesuits? They founded and staffed schools meant to educate Catholics in Europe; they sent out missionaries all over the world to convert non-Christians; and sought to stop the spread of Protestantism – even conducting trials of the Inquisition where Protestants were tried for heresy. Arriving in the New World with the Spanish conquerors, the Jesuits worked to convert native Americans, establishing missions and schools. 5. Why were the effects of the work of the Jesuits so long lasting? They sent out missionaries to all the continents, founding schools, colleges, and universities throughout the world – many of which are still around today. Famous Jesuit Schools in the U. S. Boston College Loyola Marymount Univ. in Los Angeles Loyola University in Chicago University of San Francisco PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

26 The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV drew up the Index of Prohibited Books collected and burned these! carried out the decisions of the Council of Trent B. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the churchs official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

27 Michelangelo's Last Judgment of Christ was unveiled in the Sistine Chapel in 1541. Christ is shown as a muscular young man and the scene is dominated by nude figures. Many criticized the work as an example of the licentiousness that had pervaded the Catholic church. Four years later, the Council of Trent gathered for its first session in 1545. The Council convened to discuss and consider Luther's Theses, the threat of Protestantism, and to verbalize a defense against the charges being made by critics of the Catholic Church. In response to those who criticized the Churchs emphasis on art, the Council stated that art is an integral part of the process of helping the layperson to understand the Scriptures. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

28 The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV drew up the Index of Prohibited Books collected and burned these! carried out the decisions of the Council of Trent B. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the churchs official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

29 INDEX AVCTORVM ET LIBRORVM, QVI AB OFFICIO S. Rom. & vniuerfalis inquifi- tionis caueri ab omnibus & fin- gulis in vniuerfa Chriftiana Re publica mandantur, fub cenfu- ris contra legentes, vel tenen- tes libros prohibitos in bulla, quæ lecta eft in cœna Do- mini, expresfis & fub alijs pœnis in de creto eiufdem facri officij conten- tis. R O M AE. EX OFFICINA Saluiana. XV. Menf. Feb. 1 5 5 9. The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 The INDEX of PROHIBITED BOOKS was drawn up by Pope Paul IV and bishops and cardinals were ordered to hunt down, collect, and burn these books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith. – this included all Protestant Bibles written in the vernacular languages. The writings of Wycliff, Hus, Luther, Henry VIII, Calvin, and other reformers were proclaimed heretical and ordered found and destroyed in all Catholic regions. Later big names found on the list included Machiavelli, Erasmus, Galileo, French philosophers Voltaire (18 th c.) and Satre (20 th c.), Victor Hugo, Daniel Defoe, and even the first published Encyclopedia. The list was relaxed by the Catholic Church in 1966. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

30 The Catholics Counter with a Reformation of their own - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 6. What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Pope Paul III had Cardinals investigate corruption within the Church. gave approval to the Jesuits, focusing on education. used the Inquisition to identify and punish heretics convened the Council of Trent Pope Paul IV drew up the Index of Prohibited Books collected and burned these! carried out the decisions of the Council of Trent B. Perceiving Relationships Council of Trent – a meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals [1545-1563] held in order to reach agreements on the churchs official teachings (doctrine). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

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33 The Legacy of the Reformation - Textbook, p. 436; Packet p. 27 7. What were some effects of the Reformation? Religion no longer unites Europe. Church power declines; while the power of kings increased – paving the way for unified nation-states. More people questioned the teachings of the Church they had always simply been indoctrinated into and began to pursue instead their own independent thinking, scientific study and other intellectual interests. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

34 STUDY! Packet, p. 26 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School

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36 TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Explain John Calvins Protestant teachings and their spread throughout northern and western Europe. Describe the beliefs of other Reformers and the role of women in the Reformation. Trace the reforms begun by the Catholic Church itself in its Counter-Reformation. AGENDA: WARM-UP – Read History Makers John Calvin, Text p. 433 NEXT ASSIGNMENT: CHAPTER 17 Test is tomorrow! Study! Come to Tutorials! Begin collecting all of this past semesters Test Answer Sheets. You will need them in order to Review for Final Exam! AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50 Ch. 17 Section 4: The Reformation Continues


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