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Presentation on theme: "THE HIGHLAND COUNCIL BUILDING STANDARDS SERVICE"— Presentation transcript:

Dissemination Event 09 February 2011 The Highland Council Building Standards Service

2 Scottish Building Standards _____________________________________________________________________
Section 2: FIRE Domestic Handbook

3 Erratum’s Note: importance of amending the standards generally – two erratum’s – Feb 2011 and October 2010

4 General changes: Section 2 does not apply to any dwelling with an individual storey with an area in excess of 200m² (requires alternative approach i.e. “A simplified approach to alternative fire safety strategies” or fire safety engineering as outlined in 2.0.7) How to achieve? – early consultation essential

5 2.2 Separation 2.2.9 Openings and service penetrations:
Any ventilation system with ductwork passing through a separating wall or floor should shut down automatically if fire is detected Standard states : “Any damper used in the design should be activated by smoke detection. For more detailed guidance, see BS 5588: Part 9: 1999.” However erratum clarifies…..

6 2.9 Escape 2.9.2 Escape within dwellings – options:
First Stage means of escape Table introduced which summarises options based on topmost storey heights (or depths for basements) for escape within dwellings (includes houses, flats and maisonettes)


8 2.9.2 – Open plan (Domestic) Sprinkler Protection (BS ) plus enhanced fire detection and alarm system ( BS 5839 pt GradeLD1) Protected Enclosure option or→ Sprinkler Smoke detector 8

9 2.9.7 Escape within dwellings - open plan option with suppression and enhanced early warning system
Kitchen should be remote from the exit door Fire suppression system and fire detection and alarm system should be installed throughout the dwelling and not just to the upper or topmost storeys Category LD1 system (BS 5839:Pt6: 2004) of AFD required for early warning

10 2.9.5 Escape within dwellings – protected enclosures
Clarifies protected enclosures must lead directly to an exit door – shouldn’t require to leave enclosure to exit the dwelling Junction of walls with floors should be firestopped within the depth of the floor to protect the route of escape Clarifies that cupboard doors need to be fire resisting but don’t require self closing devices unless there is an ignition source e.g. boiler, hot water tank or distribution board

11 2.9.8 Escape within dwellings - ducted heating and ventilation systems
For dwellings with basements or storeys in excess of 4.5m requirement for dampers or fire resistant ductwork to be fitted to ductwork passing through fire resistant constructions – e.g. protected enclosures Guidance identifies limitations on the passage of ductwork e.g. no transfer grilles between any room and protected enclosures, if system is re-circulatory smoke detectors to be installed within the ductwork to provide early warning and shut down extract air. Heat recovery systems – dampers or fire resistant ductwork where leaving the kitchen

12 2.9.9 Escape routes – general principles
Second stage which introduces means of escape from the entrance doors of flats and maisonettes

13 2.9.10 Escape routes - options
Options are in large part similar to those in previous standards but the table to this standard has introduced a further option of providing fire suppression which allows removal of protected lobbies in flats maisonettes having a topmost storey not exceeding 7.5m in height Travel distance (dash distance) from door of flat/maisonette to door of exit stair increased from 7.5m to 10m within the protected lobby




17 Protected lobbies: If protected lobbies are chosen as an option for flats they need either: Natural ventilation by: automatic ventilator in external wall (1.5m²) or smoke shaft or Mechanical ventilation by: Depressurisation or Pressurisation or Heating and ventilation systems

18 2.9.15 Escape routes – natural smoke ventilation
Smoke shafts now introduced as an alternative to automatic opening ventilators. In effect a chimney within the protected lobby which naturally draws smoke from an opened fire door to a flat Guidance clarifies how they should be constructed and designed to operate on activation of the smoke detection system within the protected lobby What to specify? - full details of the smoke detection systems linked to the smoke shaft or automatic ventilators and a specification for the smoke shaft or ventilator construction and operation

19 2.9.20 Escape routes - openings
Refers to shutters or dampers installed on a ducted system (heating or ventilation) being activated by localised smoke detection rather than heat activation to limit the spread of fire and smoke in escape routes from the flat or maisonette

20 2.9.22 Escape routes – external escape routes and escape stairs
Guidance on external escape stairs as before but additional guidance identifies need to provide a 1.1m high fire protected (short duration) route past openings in an external wall where it’s not possible to freely disperse from the final exit to a place of safety How to show compliance? – elevation highlighting the minimum 1100mm height of the protected area and a specification for the short duration wall (oddly no requirement for insulation element of fire resistance)

21 2.11 Communication 2.11.0 Introduction
Enhanced statistical information on the causes and locations of most domestic fires e.g. 62% of fire related deaths occur within the living room or kitchen

22 2.11.1 Fire detection and fire alarm systems
Now a requirement for a minimum Grade D fire detection and alarm system in accordance with BS 5839:Pt6: 2004 for all dwellings (previously only where a storey in excess of 200m²) Smoke alarms now required in every: principal habitable room (normally living room, lounge etc) circulation space such as hallways and landings inner room and their access room Heat alarms needed for every kitchen

23 2.11.2 Choice of fire detector:
Major change is the requirement for the designer to consider the most appropriate type of detector for each space to reduce the possibility of false alarms Guidance lists the different types of detectors: • optical smoke alarms; • ionisation smoke alarms; • multi sensor alarms; and • heat alarms

24 Choice of detector – : Descriptions of each type of detector/alarm and their recommended locations e.g. : optical smoke alarms are generally recommended within principal habitable rooms and circulation spaces adjacent to kitchens ionisation alarms generally in circulations spaces adjacent to bathroom/shower-rooms heat alarms within kitchens

25 What information should be provided at assessment stage?
location of heads on floor plans specification for the type of heads dependant on location - key specification for the type of system installed i.e. BS and grade What information needed at inspection/completion stage? : certification from the installer of the grade and type of system installed – design/installation/testing pro forma as previously for houses in excess of 200m²

26 Inner rooms an conversions:
Need for detection in inner room and its access room – also applies to extensions or alterations which create inner rooms Conversions to comply - including conversions of attic or garage to accommodation

27 2.13 Fire and rescue service water supply
Major change to re-introduce this standard back into the domestic handbook Every domestic building requires a water supply to assist fire-fighting either from a public water supply or an alternative water supply (or by alternative solution) Standards for public and alternative supplies as per Non-Domestic Handbook

28 2.13.2 & 2.13.3 Public and alternative water supplies
3 options: Compliant hydrant Alternative supply Alternative solution (suppression system)

29 Options: Hydrant should be within 100m of proposed dwelling – may be existing or if >100m - HIFRS to agree Alternative supply as before for Non-Domestic e.g. 45000 litre storage tank or pond, river, stream or loch with at least litres available all year round with suitable access and stance – HIFRS to agree Alternative solution – suppression (residential sprinkler) system – BS and HIFRS to agree

30 Consultation: Protocol developed with HIFRS to highlight need for designer to give early consideration of compliance at planning stage HIFRS not to be consulted directly. All proposals at time of building warrant application to be directed to Building Standards and a pro forma used to put forward case for consideration. BS to consult direct with HIFRS.

31 2.14 Fire service facilities
Number and type of facilities: No requirement for facilities within a house Facilities that may be necessary for flats and maisonettes include: • fire-fighting stairs (see clause ); • fire-fighting lifts (see clause ); • fire-fighting lobbies (see clause ); • heat and smoke control e.g. natural or mechanical ventilation (see clause2.14.6); and • fire mains i.e. wet or dry risers (see clause ).

32 Fire-fighting stairs at least one fire-fighting stair should be provided to all multi-storey buildings containing flats and maisonettes has to be at least 1m clear width to assist fire-fighters carrying equipment can also double as an escape stair

33 2.14.5 Fire-fighting lobbies
Only required where height of storey in excess of 7.5m. Important to remember storey height is measured from fire and rescue service access level not from ground floor level for the purposes of the table to

34 Heat and smoke control Methods of smoke clearance to escape stairs has been extended to include smoke shafts as well as the existing vent at head or opening ventilators at each level A local control (simple handle or lock) to open the ventilator/s should be provided at the access level and topmost storey to assist fire service personnel in escape stairs and fire-fighting stairs

35 Fire mains Dry fire main (dry riser) only required where storey in excess of 7.5m from fire service access level Where an automatic fire suppression system is installed in the building no part of any flat or maisonette should be more than 60m from the dry fire main outlet within the stair or lobby. 45m if no suppression system

36 2.15 Automatic fire suppression systems
Automatic life safety fire suppression systems are required in 2* categories of domestic building: dwellings which form part of a sheltered housing complex; and high rise domestic buildings. *But could be used as an alternative solution to providing features such as protected enclosures within flats and maisonettes or for water supplies for firefighting purposes for new houses

37 2.15 Automatic fire suppression systems
Reference to “alternative or innovative suppression systems” but makes it clear that alternatives such as water-mist systems must be designed and tested for use in domestic buildings and proven fit for their intended purpose Assessment and Completion acceptance?: FIRAS or LPC accreditation for designers and installers of Residential Sprinkler systems– required to ensure competency and experience levels

38 2.A.1 Fire resistance duration
Clarifies the need for test evidence and certification to be provided and checked to ensure the performance criteria is being met by the proposed design e.g. small differences in detail of a fire door assembly or installation may impact on the fire tests and rating - need for this evidence to be submitted as part of the application for fire resistant elements and constructions e.g.: Walls and floors Doors and glazed openings Dampers and collars Intumescent firestopping Cavity barriers Including fixing and installation methods


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