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Heating Losses- Infiltration and Ventilation ARCH-432

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Attendance Which civilization made it a point to layout whole cities to take advantage of passive heating? In what direction did the city streets run? A. Greece B. Rome C. Egypt D. Persia E. Babylonia

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Attendance The ancient Greeks did this. What was shown is Priene (Priēnē); (5th Century B.C.), which had all of the streets laid out in an East- West fashion, thus allowing all homes to point South.

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Attendance Only primitives and barbarians lacked knowledge of houses turned to face the winter sun, dwelling beneath the ground like swarming ants in sunless caves. Aeschylus

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Greetings Capt. Kirk

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Attendance Aeschylus pronounced Ess ca less One of the earliest writer of Greek tragedy – before him plays had single actors who could only respond to a chorus (group of people). Aeschylus increase the tragedy to two actors with dialog.

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Big Picture MomentroofExteriorwall Glassconduction Floor Infiltration and Ventilation Ceiling Partition

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Five main types of heat loss 1. Transmission (conduction) 2. Infiltration (convection) 3. Ventilation (convection) 4. Radiation (radiation) 5. Moisture migration roof Exteriorwall Glass conductio n Floor Infiltration and Ventilation Ceiling

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Summary of Heat Losses Wall Roof Floor Windows Doors Infiltration Ventilation Envelope Losses

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What You Need To Know The difference between ventilation and infiltration Calculation methods for both ventilation and infiltration

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What You Need To Be Able To Do Calculate infiltration/ventilation loads Be able to reduce/mitigate infiltration and ventilation loads Employ techniques for increasing ventilation effectiveness

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Terms Infiltration Exfiltration Ventilation Direct Outside Air System (DOAS)

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Infiltration The uncontrolled introduction of outside air into a building.

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Infiltration The uncontrolled introduction of fresh air into a building. 1. Most subjective of all losses 2. Oftentimes the largest of all heat losses. Sometimes comprises up to 30% of the total heating load. 3. Ends up being an educated guess

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Why Is This Important? All buildings leak A tight building will leak.5 AC/H A leaky building can leak 3 AC/H Regardless of climate, air leaking into walls causes problems

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Ventilation The mechanical introduction of outside air (OA) to: Replace Oxygen Dilute contaminants Pressurize the building

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Moisture Load

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Infiltration Calculation Methods Crack method Air Change Method Averaging method (I dont know so Im going to throw a dart method)

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Crack Method Presumes that an accurate estimate can be obtained by estimating the rate of infiltration per foot of crack for doors and windows CFM = Ft. of Crack x Infiltration Rate Q S = 1.1 x CFM x (T 2 – T 1 ) in BTU/HR

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Add Infiltration Through Open Door Determine Door Usage ת = Number of People per Minute Determine CFM per person (D) CFM = ת x D LEED-NC Credit EQ 5 for providing vestibules.

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Infiltration by Crack Method Add CFM from Crack losses to CFM for Open Door losses

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Mitigate These Losses How do you reduce or mitigate these losses? (Review)

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Mitigation Strategies Pressurization Q S = 1.1 x CFM x (T 2 – T 1 ) Vs. Q S = 1.1 x (CFH/ft of crack x ft of crack)/60 x ΔT You own the variables!

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Infiltration Variables Review Wind velocity and direction Stack effects Corner rooms Exhaust fans on or off Pressure zoning Frequency of use Maintenance

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Stack Effect Review

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Air Change Method Often used in residential construction and in large warehouses and similar buildings CFM = A.C.H. x Volume (ft 3 )/60 or CFM = Volume (ft 3 )/Frequency (minutes)

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Air Change Method Uses same formula for sensible Equals one room change Designer will use 0.3 to 2.0 air changes per hour (ACH) Occupancy Climatic condition (i.e. winter vs. summer) Construction (tight or loose) Least accurate of the three methods Q sens = 1.1 x CFM x T

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Table 2-8

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Heat Loss Due to Infiltration Infiltration Btu H = (.018) x (ACH) x V x (T i – T o ) ACH = air exchanges per hour V = volume T i = inside temperature T o = outside temperature

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Heat Loss Due to Infiltration OR

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Heat Loss Due to Infiltration Infiltration Btu H = 1.1 x CFM x (T i – T o ) CFM = (ACH x volume) / 60 min per hour

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Heat Loss Due to Infiltration Infiltration Please Note: For tight construction use 0.5 for ACH. For medium construction use.85 for ACH. For loose construction use 1.3 for ACH. For really bad construction use 2.0 for ACH For the summer months (cooling) use 70% of the winter values.

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Btu Hour Loss due to Infiltration Main Area CFM Ht.W.L.1.10air exch.vol. In cf/ 60 Temp. Ch. 1246.6674.661.100.541,803.63348.367629,123.19 Btu Hour Loss due to Ventilation Main Area Ht.W.L.1.10sf cfm exchangeOccup. Temp. Ch. 1246.6674.661.103,483.640.18034.847666,983.35 RaRp Occup/ 1000 0.18510.00 Infiltration & Ventilation

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Heat Gains Due to Infiltration Latent Load BtuH = 4500 x (air exchanges x (volume) /60) x (W Final – W Initial ) (W Final – W Initial ) = Difference Ratio Pounds of Moisture per dry air

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Heat Loss Due to Ventilation Ventilation Btu H = 1.1 x [(R a x square feet of building ) + (number of people in the building x R p )] x (T i – T o )

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Heat Loss Due to Ventilation

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Ventilation R a = Area Outdoor Air Rate R p = People Outdoor Air Rate Example: Pharmacy R a =.18 R p = 5

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Heat Loss Due to Ventilation Ventilation Btu H = 1.1 x [ (.18 x 3,632) + (30 x 5)] x 76 o = 67,214

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Ventilation and / or Infiltration

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