This is where ammonia gets the extra hydrogen and the positive charge to form ammonium when its dissolved in water. Final Jeopardy What is from water? A small number of water molecules auto-ionize into H + and OH – and the H + joins with the lone pair on nitrogen.
This the area of the periodic table in which elements both a)tend to become anions - and - b)are among the most reactive. $200 What is the area around chlorine?
This the area of the periodic table in which elements both a) tend to become cations - and - b) are among the most reactive. $400 What is the area around sodium and potassium?
$600 What are metals and non-metals? When these kinds of elements bond together in binary compounds, they are almost always ionic.
$800 What are non-metals? When these kinds of elements bond together in binary compounds, they are almost always covalent.
$1000 What are all column IA elements EXCEPT hydrogen? These are the alkali metals.
$200 What is to decrease potential energy or increase stability by filling orbitals? This is the reason why non- metals bond together.
This is how many electrons an orbital needs to be as stable as it can be or to have the lowest amount of potential energy. $400 What is 2?
$600 What is 3? This the maximum number of atoms with which a nitrogen atom can bond covalently.
$800 What is a double bond? This the kind of bonding that occurs when an atom shares 4 electrons with another atom.
$1000 What are sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds? A double bond must have one of each of these.
$200 What an sp 3 hybridization? This is the hydridization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine when they have only single bonds.
$400 What is sp hybridization? This is the hydridization of the carbon in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).
$600 What an sp 2 hybridization? This is the hydridization of the oxygen in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).
$800 What an sp hybridization? This the hydrization on almost any atom which is triple bonded to another atom.
$1000 What is an sp 2 hybridization? This is the hybridization of a boron (B) atom that is bonded to only 3 hydrogen atoms.
$200 What is a tetrahedral? The electron pair shape of phosphorous trichloride.
$400 What is trigonal pyramidal? This is the molecular shape of phosphorous trichloride.
$600 What is sp 3 hybridization? This the hybridization of phosphorous in phosphorous trichloride.
$800 What is trigonal bi-pyramidal? This the molecular shape of phosphorous pentachloride?
This is why nitrogen cannot combine with 5 chlorine atoms while phosphorous, which is in the same family, can. $1000 What is that nitrogen does not have a d-sublevel while phosphorous does?
Orbitals, sublevels, and valence electron levelslike the entire universewill tend to shift toward this kind of stability. $200 What is higher stability?
$400 What is higher stability? This is the kind of stability that orbitals have when they have a pair of electrons.
$600 What is the potential energy is lowered? This is what happens to potential energy when a sublevel is full of electrons.
$800 What is that potential energy is lowered? This is what happens to potential energy when a valence electron energy level is filled with electrons?
This is the term used to describe the number of electrons needed to fill the valence level of most elements. $1000 What is an octet?
$200 What is a neutral charge? This is the kind of overall charge that an ionic compound will have.
$400 What is to reach a state with a full set of electrons in a new valence level? This is the reason why metals tend to loose electrons in ionic bonds.
$600 What is to reach a state with a full set of electrons in a new valence level? This is the reason why non- metals tend to loose electrons in ionic bonds.
$800 What is a 2+ charge? This is the charge that metals obtain when they give away 2 electrons.
$1000 What is a 1+ charge? This is the charge that ALL alkali metals obtain in an ionic bond.
These are the polyatomic ions that a very small number of waters atoms automatically form. $400 What are the hydronium (H 3 O + ) and hydroxide (OH ) ions?
$800 What is a charged particle made up of 2 or more covalently bonded particles? This is the definition of a polyatomic ion.
This is why ammonia forms ammonium in water. $1200 What is that free protons share the lone pair of electrons on the ammonia and covalently bond to the nitrogen creating orbital and charge stability?
This is how polyatomic ions achieve charge stability? $1600 What is to be in a crystal, bond, or solution with oppositely charged ions?
This is the kind of bonding that occurs between the atomic particles inside a polyatomic ion. $2000 What is covalent bonding?
This is the 1 st step that a student scientist should do when attempting to predict the shape of a simple molecule. $400 What is to write the electron dot notation of the atoms and circle the electrons that might pair up (i.e. the sharing arrangement)?
This is what a student scientist should do to predict molecular shapes once the sharing arrangement of electrons is predicted. $800 What is to write a Lewis dot formula (or squeeze the shared electrons between the atoms involved)?
This is the kind of formula a student scientist should use to predict an electron pair shape. $1200 What is the Lewis dot formula?
This is what a student scientist should do to predict the molecular shape of a molecule from the modified electron pair shape. $1600 What is to erase the lone pairs of electrons leaving the shared pair geometry alone?
This is the shape of a molecule which has 6 atoms covalently bonded to a central atom with no lone pairs of electrons. $2000 What is an octahedral?
This is why electrons in an atom only emit specific frequencies of light. $400 What is quantum behavior?
This is the kind of energy that electrons respond to when they are promoted to higher energy states. $800 What is energy with a sympathetic wavelength?
This is the reason we use the Bohr model of the atom to teach the quantum model and spectroscopy even though we know its wrong. $1200 What is that its simple? -or- What is the real model is too complex for high school chemistry?
These photons result from electrons that have the greatest drop in energy within an atoms electron cloud. $1600 What is higher energy photons, shorter wavelength photons, or photons from the ultraviolet end of the spectrum?
$2000 What is infrared light or light wit very long wavelengths? This light, which humans cannot see, results from electrons dropping very short quantum levels.
$400 What are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium? or What are all the elements in column one except hydrogen? Collectively, these elements make up the alkali metals.
Collectively, these elements make up the alkaline-earth metals. $800 What are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium? or What are all the elements in column two?
Collectively, these elements make up the halogens. $1200 What are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine? or What are all the elements in column seven?
$1600 What are oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium? or What are all the elements in column six? Collectively, these elements make up the chalcogens.
Collectively, these elements make up the inner transition metals. $2000 What are the elements with atomic numbers 58 through 71 and 90 through 103? or What are all the elements in bottom two rows of the periodic table?
This the molecular shape of a simple molecule in which there are 2 sigma bonds and 2 lone pairs of electrons on the central atom. $400 What is bent?
$800 What is a wiener or cigar shape? This is the shape of a sigma (σ) bond.
This is the shape of a pi (π) bond. $1200 What is a hot dog bun? or What are 2 weiner shapes on opposite sides of the (sigma) bond?
This is where all covalent bonds are found in relationship to the atoms they are bonding. $1600 What is on OR around the axis between the 2 atoms involved in the covalent bond?
$2000 What is 109.5°? This is the angle between all the bonds in a tetrahedral molecule.
$400 What is Valence-shell Electron-pair Repulsion? This is the full name for the acronym VSEPR.
$800 What is to hybridize? This is what some of the valence level electrons in the s and p sublevels must do for covalent bonding to occur.
$1200 What are lone pairs? Unshared electrons are also called this.
$1600 What is covalent bonding? This is the sharing of electrons.
$2000 What are Lewis structures? or What are Lewis diagrams? Lewis formulas are also known as this.
Daily Double What is the Greek language? The language from which chemists draw letters to name types of bonds.
Daily Double What is a sigma (σ) bond? A covalent bondwhether or not it is a single, double, or triple bondit always has this kind of bond?
This is why lone pairs of electrons are always located on an equatorial position in a trigonal bipyramidal modified electron pair shape. Daily Double What is lone pairs take up more space than shared pairs of electrons?