Presentation on theme: "Identifying and Implementing an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operational Requirement Border Control 2011, 8-9 March, Gallagher Estate, Midrand James."— Presentation transcript:
Identifying and Implementing an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operational Requirement Border Control 2011, 8-9 March, Gallagher Estate, Midrand James P. Masey UAS Business Development Director – MEA AAI Corporation Cell:
UAS as a part of the Overall Situational Awareness Network UAS Categories Notional Platform Comparison Example of a UAS Configuration The One System Approach to UAS – GCS and RVT Aspects of UAS Missions and Operations Tactical Operational Lessons Learnt Fixed-wing vs. VTOL Business Models and Indicative Costings Cost Implications Summary: Primary Points for Consideration ______________________________________________________________________________Contents
As part of an overall Situational Awareness (SA) network, the benefits of an integrated Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) programme – military, civil and commercial, demonstrate their value and versatility in the persistent and constant monitoring of land and marine environments, primarily, and the activities therein. UAS: Part of the Overall Situational Awareness Network ______________________________________________________________________________ UAS are just one part of a complex blending of manned and unmanned aerial systems across Services and across Nations. This concept of employment will focus on several scenarios where UAS can reduce risk, increase confidence and enable mission success. The growing number of UAS potential mission sets and scenarios demand their comprehensive integration into present and future combined and joint operations. It is essential to seamlessly integrate UAS with manned operations in a joint environment. -- Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC): Strategic Concept of Employment for UAS in NATO Three fundamental aspects to providing Situational Awareness: Gathering and making sense of data / information. Sorting and displaying the information in a way that is readily understandable and relevant to the needs of the decision making entity(ies). Timely disseminating of the information to the field operatives.
Example of a Tiered approach to persistent Situational Awareness Tier 4: Space Tier 3: Strategic Tier 2: Tactical Tier 1: Urban / Short range
Notional Platform Comparison PlatformRange/ Time Operating Altitude Data LinkPayloadInfrastructure Raven 10 km 1.5 hr 100 m AGLLocal radio2 kg; single cameraMan-carried & launched 2-man team Aerosonde Mk – 2000 km 10 – 20 hr 300 – 700 m AGLLOS DL or Sat-phone relay 5 kg; single payload + comms relay Auto launch / recovery on rough field; 8 man team for 24/7 Shadow km 6+ hr 2000 – 3000 m AGLLOS DL25 kg; single payload + comms relay Auto launch / recovery on smooth field; 27 man team for 24/7 Falco 140 km 10+ hrs 5000mLOS DL70 kg; single payload + comms relay Runway / fixed or deployable shelters; 30 – 60 man team Predator 7500 km 30+ hrs 5000 – 7000 m AGLSatellite or LOS DL250 kg; multi-payloadRunway / fixed or deployable shelters; 120 man team Global Hawk 22,000 km 36 hrs >18,000 mSatellite1300 kg; multi- payload Runway / fixed shelters; 120+ man team ______________________________________________________________________________
Example of a UAS Configuration Remote Video Terminals Trailer or car-top mounted Launch and Recovery System (options) Expeditionary Ground Control Station and Data Terminal Air Vehicle and Maintenance Transport Personnel and Equipment Transport Equipment Trailer(s) Ground Support Equipment (1 Set) Training (8-12 Weeks) – 1 Lot Operator and Maintenance Manuals (10 sets – English) On-Site Support (1 man / 3 months) – 1 Lot Acceptance Testing Spares (300 flight hours - 1 Year) Warranty (1 Year) 15 Yrs. Guaranteed Support INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORT Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and 2x payloads( EO/IR) _______________________________________________________________________________ Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
The One UAS Approach EGCS & Data Terminal Contact Teams Ground Data Terminal TALS Air Vehicles Launcher Payloads One System GCS software serves as the basis for other control stations Personnel Note: Aerosonde System in red outline OSRVT ______________________________________________________________________________ Mini Launcher and recovery net
Remote Video Terminal (RVT) Remote Video Terminal (RVT) Stare Point & Footprint Your Location Aircraft Location 10.4 inch Touch Screen Display Video Antenna GPS Antenna MDIB (RF Equipment ) Ruggedized Brick Computer Range – 10-90KM (modular) Weight – 15 lbs Modular, Mobile, Miniature, Multiband and MANPACK The One System RVT (OSRVT TM ) is a modular video and data system that enables war-fighters to remotely downlink live surveillance images and critical geo-spatial data directly from joint operations tactical UAS and from manned platforms.
OSRVT Screen Display Aircraft Location Intuitive presentation for best grasp of SA – both a map and video Icons on the map for Geospatial Awareness Real time video with parameters Your Location Stare Point & Footprint Aircraft Location and Parameters Aircraft Heading and FOV Angles Target Coordinates and Parameters ________________________________________________________________________________
More on Display Mark Target Function places Target or Friendly Icons on the Map JPEG Image with Embedded Metadata Stores Target Information for Use Ability to Refer Back to Individual Targets for Information Target Offset Utility Target Information Displayed _______________________________________________________________________
Defining Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) Defining Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) _____________________________________________________________ Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey What UAS is selected may dictate actual method of use. The planned method of use may dictate which UAS is selected. Three notional requirements: Long and / or short range surveillance o International air space / waters or covert surveillance inside anothers air space? o Range of data links / availability of space based relay. o Sensitivity to an international incident in case of: - Loss of UAV and subsequent recovery / exploitation by third party - Collision / near-miss with third party airborne equipment Continuous border surveillance o How long is the border? o How far away is adequate infrastructure for launch, recovery, and control station. o What other sensors are in inventory? - Where? What are their strengths & weaknesses? - Is surveillance control heavily centralized or are decisions made at a local unit level? Tactical support of troops o Is this a high priority mission? o Where is the theatre with respect to current force deployments? o How will UAS enter a theatre of operations? o How will information get to the troops in contact? What will be shared?
CONOP options: Long Range, No Satellite (Manned/Unmanned Teaming) 200 km Limit of Launch Station Datalink Remote Launch Site Command Center B o r d e r of I n t e r e s t
CONOP options: Long Range, No Satellite (Deployable) Command Center Remote Launch Site B o r d e r of I n t e r e s t
Dynamic Range Extension Dynamic Range Extension Available Comms Relay Payload can Provide Beyond Line-of-Sight (BLOS) Capability SPOI Does not require SATCOM bandwidth($) Provides BLOS Full Motion Video LOS Data Link ____________________________________________________________________ Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey EGCS
X X CGS RVT II RVT II X Manned Platform 50 Kms II RVT. Launch & Recovery Area PGCS Multi-Unit/Site OPS Engagement Multi-Unit/Site OPS Engagement Launch & Recovery Area PGCS GCS RVT TOC GCS ______________________________________________________________________________. X 1 st C-130 System Deployment 2 nd C-130 * Maintenance Support Team for Sustained Operations 3 rd C-130* L/R from unprepared surface, soccer field sized area OPTEMPO Crew Size and # of Air Vehicles to meet OTEMPO requirements: 12 hours of operations in a 24 hour period Surge to 18 hours in 24 hour day for a period of three days OPTEMPO Crew Size and # of Air Vehicles to meet OTEMPO requirements: 12 hours of operations in a 24 hour period Surge to 18 hours in 24 hour day for a period of three days
Potential Challenges to Civil & Commercial CONOPS _______________________________________________________________________________ Integration into Civil AirspaceOne, if not the biggest, challenge facing civil and commercial use of UAS is the integration of this technology type into non-segregated airspace. Standards Airworthiness norms Certification norms ATM regulations Urban and/or Industrial Areas Consideration must be given to the implications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) being flown over populated areas (e.g. political and social). Liability If a UAV does experience a catastrophic (non-recoverable) system failure and crashes, what are the ramifications of being held liable? Who is ultimately responsible? Insurance The UAS industry forms a small, but ever increasing part, of the overall global aviation industry, and it is therefore still at the starting point regarding gaining straightforward access to the necessary insurance requirements which the remainder of the aviation industry already has. Critical Issues: Sense and Avoid Spectrum and Bandwidth
CONOPS: Always More to Discuss… Prioritization of missions is essential Remembering the cautionary maxim that we are always preparing to re-fight the last war Integration with the greater C4ISR network is expected What standards / open architectures are in place and which ones are needed? What missions did we miss? Maritime from shore or ship? Highly urban surveillance Non-military uses (environmental monitoring, fires / floods?) _____________________________________________________________
Tactical Operational Lessons Learnt A typical tactical mission is between 4-5 hours duration – a timeframe seldom exceeded. Occasionally require 24 hour surveillance over a target, even less frequently hours is needed Ground troops primarily require a laser-pointer and secondarily a laser designator to accomplish missions. Payloads in order of tactical operational utility are: EO/IR Laser-pointer Laser designator Synthetic Aperture Radar The OS Remote Video Terminal is the most requested element of the Shadow 200 UAS. As of January 11, >3000 OSRVTs units in Iraq/Afghanistan theatre Estimated that >5000 units are required to fulfil future tactical missions Currently developing a modular antennae (vehicle mounted) with a 90km range ____________________________________________________________________
Fixed-Wing vs. VTOL Operational Comparisons Advantages Entire SUAS cost = <$5M approx, with 4x a/c per system etc. Compact Launch and Recovery Equipment Required (Land-based and Shipboard) Lower acquisition and operating costs –long term, and more UA per UAS Lower maintenance hours Safety: small shielded propeller Higher reliability Lower risk through greater operational experience STANAG 4586 compliant A/c / payload recoverable in case of [catastrophic] system failure Existing connectivity / interoperability with allied and coalition forces. Small operational footprint Longer endurance and extendable operational range Disadvantages No final emergency aid (i.e. parachute) for last opportunity recovery in or catastrophic] system failure. BUT can glide. Advantages Limited Launch and Recovery Equipment Required Possibility of more capable payload (increased cost) Disadvantages 30% larger radar cross section Limited stealth capability – audible and visual Higher maintenance hours required (increased cost) Higher skilled / trained technicians required (increased cost) Limited in-field maintenance / repair possible due to a/c complexity, leading to withdrawal of a/c from operations, which affects mission continuity. Larger operational footprint Safety: exposed tail / main rotor blades Lower reliability (increased cost) Longer training program requiring a certified pilot / operator (increased cost) Environment: additional filtration device required is sandy conditions (increased cost) Unlikely to recover a/c/ payload after [catastrophic] system failure Greater possibility and increased number of deaths, and infrastructure damage on ground due to emergency landing or [catastrophic] system failure over urban area – S-100: MTOW 440lbs. No final emergency aid (i.e. parachute) for last opportunity recovery in or catastrophic] system failure Fixed-Wing (Aerosonde Mk 4.7)VTOL (S-100) Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
Variety of Business Models Fee for Service (FfS) OEM provides equipment, people, operations, support Monthly lease payment - Provides Flexibility to Begin Operations Immediately - Priced by negotiated customer flight hour requirements - Total Turnkey operation – Pricing includes: o OEM provided system hardware o OEM provided spares o OEM trained operators/maintainers o End-user data ownership o End-user provided services (housing, transportation, fuel, etc) to be negotiated Try Before Buy Start as FfS Transition via in-the-field training to client operation / ownership Purchase / Service Operation Client procures system; AAI operates / maintains system [Government Owned Company Operated (GOCO)] Purchase [Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) or Foreign Military Sale (FMS )] Full training, incl. on-site maintenance if desired OEM provides depot support Field Service Representative (FSR) option available & recommended at least for first year ____________________________________________________________________ Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
In order for an OEM to consider initiating an indicative UAS Costing / Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) discussion the following fundamental questions should be answered: - Will this be an Foreign Military Sale (FMS) or Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) contract? - Which UAS is to be purchased? - What are the numbers of flight hours per year? - What is the hardware configuration (number of AVs, GCS, RVT, etc)? - What is the transportation required (HMMWVs, trucks, ship on)? - What type(s) of payload(s) are required, and in what quantity(ies)? - What type of on-site support required (number of people/number of months)? - What type warranty is required? - Will the technical manuals need translating? - What special training requirements will be needed (e.g. where is the training to be conducted, etc.)? - Is an offset going to be needed? If so, what is its value? - What is the time-line for the procurement programme (i.e. negotiations, delivery dates, initial operating capability dates, etc.)? - At what stage is the procurement process currently [i.e. has a Request for Information (RFI) and/or Request for Proposal (RFP) been released]? - What funds/budgets have been allocated to this TUAV procurement programme? ______________________________________________________________________________ UAS: Indicative Costing / ROM
Cost Implications Cost vs Coverage is a function of requirements for range, continuity, and associated infrastructure requirements For example: Budget = $$$$, Requirement = 24 Hour Surveillance Platform Cost Number of Systems / AV 24 Hr kmNotes Raven $ for system w/ 4 air vehicles 400 systems 1600 AV Not applicable (can do day or night, but 1.5 hr endurance …) (Not intended for 24 hr continuous ISR – provided for comparison) Aerosonde Mk4.7 $$ for system w/ 4 air vehicles 20 systems 80 AV km or serial route surveillance Large number of AVs provides significant tactical flexibility; operating team cost 1X Shadow 200 $$$ for system w/ 4 air vehicles 5 systems 20 AV km95% reliability & decreasing mishap rates = high probability of continuous surveillance; operating team cost of 3X Falco $$$$ for 4 air vehicles 1 system 5 – 6 AV kmAssumes remaining funds buy additional AV; ITAR free; operating team cost of 4X – 6X Predator $$$$ for 2 air vehicles 1 system 2 – 3 AV Either 1 significant range or km Must have high reliability; no room for mishaps; export issues; operating team cost >10X Global Hawk $$$$$ for single air vehicle 1 system 1 AV No; every other day 24 hrs(Provided for comparison – unlikely to be exportable) ______________________________________________________________________________
All material used in this presentation, the views expressed, comments and suggestions made, cannot be attributed to Textron Inc. or any of its subsidiaries, most notably AAI Corporation Summary: Primary Points for Consideration Define Concept of Operations (CONOPS) – operational requirement(s) / flight profiles. Have an approximation of the average monthly / annual flight hours – training and operational. Have a realistic budget – UAS are not as inexpensive as you might think. Issuing of an RFI or RFP is fundamental in order to complete Firm Fixed Price to purchase. Ensure that the final price given has no hidden increments over time (e.g. Maintenance, support, spare-parts, training, manuals etc). All prices will increase with delay in signing a contract. In parallel with CONOPS be certain to establish the criteria needed to fly in non-segregated / manned airspace – communicate with your National Civil Aviation Authority..