Presentation on theme: "James P. Masey UAS Business Development Director – MEA AAI Corporation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Identifying and Implementing an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operational Requirement James P. MaseyUAS Business Development Director – MEAAAI CorporationCell:Border Control 2011, 8-9 March, Gallagher Estate, Midrand
2 Contents UAS Categories Notional Platform Comparison ______________________________________________________________________________UAS as a part of the Overall Situational Awareness Network UAS Categories Notional Platform Comparison Example of a UAS Configuration The “One System” Approach to UAS – GCS and RVT Aspects of UAS Missions and OperationsTactical Operational Lessons LearntFixed-wing vs. VTOL Business Models and Indicative CostingsCost Implications Summary: Primary Points for Consideration
3 UAS: Part of the Overall Situational Awareness Network ______________________________________________________________________________As part of an overall Situational Awareness (SA) network, the benefits of an integrated Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) programme – military, civil and commercial, demonstrate their value and versatility in the persistent and constant monitoring of land and marine environments, primarily, and the activities therein.UAS are just one part of a complex blending of manned and unmanned aerial systems across Services and across Nations.This concept of employment will focus on several scenarios where UAS can reduce risk, increase confidence and enable mission success. The growing number of UAS potential mission sets and scenarios demand their comprehensive integration into present and future combined and joint operations.It is essential to seamlessly integrate UAS with manned operations in a joint environment.-- Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC):“Strategic Concept of Employment for UAS in NATO”Three fundamental aspects to providing ‘Situational Awareness’:Gathering and making sense of data / information.Sorting and displaying the information in a way that is readily understandable and relevant to the needs of the decision making entity(ies) .Timely disseminating of the information to the field operatives.
5 Example of a Tiered approach to persistent Situational Awareness Tier 4: SpaceTier 3:StrategicTier 2:TacticalExample of a Tiered approach to persistent Situational AwarenessTier 1:Urban / Short range
6 Notional Platform Comparison ______________________________________________________________________________PlatformRange/ TimeOperating AltitudeData LinkPayloadInfrastructureRaven10 km1.5 hr100 m AGLLocal radio2 kg; single cameraMan-carried & launched2-man teamAerosonde Mk4.780 – 2000 km10 – 20 hr300 – 700 m AGLLOS DL or Sat-phone relay5 kg; single payload + comms relayAuto launch / recovery on rough field; 8 man team for 24/7Shadow 200120+ km6+ hr2000 – 3000 m AGLLOS DL25 kg; single payload + comms relayAuto launch / recovery on smooth field; 27 man team for 24/7Falco140 km10+ hrs5000m70 kg; single payload + comms relayRunway / fixed or deployable shelters; 30 – 60 man teamPredator7500 km30+ hrs5000 – 7000 m AGLSatellite or LOS DL250 kg; multi-payloadRunway / fixed or deployable shelters; 120 man teamGlobalHawk22,000 km36 hrs>18,000 mSatellite1300 kg; multi-payloadRunway / fixed shelters; 120+ man team
7 Example of a UAS Configuration _______________________________________________________________________________Air Vehicle and Maintenance TransportRemote Video TerminalsUnmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and 2x payloads( EO/IR)Personnel and Equipment TransportEquipment Trailer(s)Expeditionary Ground Control Station and Data TerminalTrailer or car-top mounted Launch and Recovery System (options)INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORTGround Support Equipment (1 Set)Training (8-12 Weeks) – 1 LotOperator and Maintenance Manuals (10 sets – English)On-Site Support (1 man / 3 months) – 1 LotAcceptance TestingSpares (300 flight hours - 1 Year)Warranty (1 Year)15 Yrs. Guaranteed SupportUse or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
8 Mini Launcher and recovery net The One UAS Approach______________________________________________________________________________AirVehiclesLauncherGround Data TerminalOne System GCSsoftware serves as thebasis for othercontrol stationsTALSPayloadsPersonnelNote: Aerosonde System in red outlineEGCS & Data TerminalMini Launcher and recovery netContact TeamsOSRVT
9 Remote Video Terminal (RVT) The One System RVT (OSRVT TM) is a modular video and data system that enables war-fighters to remotely downlink live surveillance images and critical geo-spatial data directly from joint operations tactical UAS and from manned platforms.10.4 inch Touch Screen DisplayVideo AntennaVideo AntennaStare Point & FootprintGPS AntennaYour LocationAircraft LocationMDIB (RF Equipment)Range – 10-90KM (modular)Weight – 15 lbsModular, Mobile, Miniature, Multiband and MANPACKRuggedized Brick Computer
10 OSRVT Screen Display________________________________________________________________________________Intuitive presentation for best grasp of SA – both a map and videoIcons on the map for Geospatial AwarenessReal time video with parametersStare Point & FootprintAircraft Location and ParametersAircraft Heading and FOV AnglesTarget Coordinates and ParametersYour LocationAircraft Location
11 Target Information Displayed More on Display_______________________________________________________________________Mark Target Function places Target or Friendly Icons on the MapJPEG Image with Embedded Metadata Stores Target Information for UseAbility to Refer Back to Individual Targets for InformationTarget Information DisplayedTarget Offset Utility
13 Defining Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) _____________________________________________________________What UAS is selected may dictate actual method of use.The planned method of use may dictate which UAS is selected.Three notional requirements:Long and / or short range surveillanceInternational air space / waters or covert surveillance inside another’s air space?Range of data links / availability of space based relay.Sensitivity to an international incident in case of:- Loss of UAV and subsequent recovery / exploitation by third party- Collision / near-miss with third party airborne equipmentContinuous border surveillanceHow long is the border?How far away is adequate infrastructure for launch, recovery, and control station.What other sensors are in inventory?- Where? What are their strengths & weaknesses?- Is surveillance control heavily centralized or are decisions made at a local unit level?Tactical support of troopsIs this a high priority mission?Where is the theatre with respect to current force deployments?How will UAS enter a theatre of operations?How will information get to the troops in contact? What will be shared?Use or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
14 Long Range, No Satellite (Manned/Unmanned Teaming) CONOP options:Long Range, No Satellite (Manned/Unmanned Teaming)BordeofIntsCommand CenterLimit of Launch Station DatalinkRemote Launch Site200 km
15 CONOP options: Long Range, No Satellite (Deployable) ofIntsCommand CenterRemote Launch Site
16 Dynamic Range Extension ____________________________________________________________________LOS Data LinkLOS Data LinkEGCSSPOIDoes not require SATCOM bandwidth($)Provides BLOS Full Motion VideoAvailable Comms Relay Payload can Provide Beyond Line-of-Sight (BLOS) CapabilityUse or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
17 * Maintenance Support Team for Sustained Operations Multi-Unit/Site OPS Engagement______________________________________________________________________________TOCGCSManned PlatformX50 KmsIIGCSRVTRVTIIXRVTRVTIILaunch & Recovery AreaPGCSCGSX.X1st C-130System Deployment2nd C-130* Maintenance Support Team for Sustained Operations3rd C-130*Launch & Recovery AreaPGCSOPTEMPOCrew Size and # of Air Vehicles to meet OTEMPO requirements:12 hours of operations in a 24 hour periodSurge to 18 hours in 24 hour day for a period of three days.L/R from unprepared surface,soccer field sized area
18 Potential Challenges to Civil & Commercial CONOPS _______________________________________________________________________________Integration into Civil Airspace One, if not the biggest, challenge facing civil and commercial use of UAS is the integration of this technology type into non-segregated airspace.StandardsAirworthiness normsCertification normsATM regulationsUrban and/or Industrial Areas Consideration must be given to the implications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) being flown over populated areas (e.g. political and social).Liability If a UAV does experience a catastrophic (non-recoverable) system failure and crashes, what are the ramifications of being held liable? Who is ultimately responsible?Insurance The UAS industry forms a small, but ever increasing part, of the overall global aviation industry, and it is therefore still at the starting point regarding gaining straightforward access to the necessary insurance requirements which the remainder of the aviation industry already has.Critical Issues:Sense and AvoidSpectrum and Bandwidth
19 CONOPS: Always More to Discuss… _____________________________________________________________Prioritization of missions is essentialRemembering the cautionary maxim that “we are always preparing to re-fight the last war”Integration with the greater C4ISR network is expectedWhat standards / open architectures are in place and which ones are needed?What missions did we miss?Maritime from shore or ship?Highly urban surveillanceNon-military uses (environmental monitoring, fires / floods?)
20 Tactical Operational Lessons Learnt ____________________________________________________________________A typical tactical mission is between 4-5 hours duration – a timeframe seldom exceeded.Occasionally require 24 hour surveillance over a target, even less frequently hours is neededGround troops primarily require a laser-pointer and secondarily a laser designator to accomplish missions.Payloads in order of tactical operational utility are:EO/IRLaser-pointerLaser designatorSynthetic Aperture RadarThe OS Remote Video Terminal is the most requested element of the Shadow 200 UAS.As of January 11, >3000 OSRVTs units in Iraq/Afghanistan theatreEstimated that >5000 units are required to fulfil future tactical missionsCurrently developing a modular antennae (vehicle mounted) with a 90km range
21 Fixed-Wing vs. VTOL Operational Comparisons Fixed-Wing (Aerosonde Mk 4.7)VTOL (S-100)AdvantagesEntire SUAS cost = <$5M approx, with 4x a/c per system etc.Compact Launch and Recovery Equipment Required (Land-based and Shipboard)Lower acquisition and operating costs –long term, and more UA per UASLower maintenance hoursSafety: small shielded propellerHigher reliabilityLower risk through greater operational experienceSTANAG 4586 compliantA/c / payload recoverable in case of [catastrophic] system failureExisting connectivity / interoperability with allied and coalition forces.Small operational footprintLonger endurance and extendable operational rangeDisadvantagesNo final emergency aid (i.e. parachute) for last opportunity recovery in or catastrophic] system failure. BUT can glide.AdvantagesLimited Launch and Recovery Equipment RequiredPossibility of more capable payload (increased cost)Disadvantages30% larger radar cross sectionLimited ‘stealth’ capability – audible and visualHigher maintenance hours required (increased cost)Higher skilled / trained technicians required (increased cost)Limited in-field maintenance / repair possible due to a/c complexity, leading to withdrawal of a/c from operations, which affects mission continuity.Larger operational footprintSafety: exposed tail / main rotor bladesLower reliability (increased cost)Longer training program requiring a certified pilot / operator (increased cost)Environment: additional filtration device required is sandy conditions (increased cost)Unlikely to recover a/c/ payload after [catastrophic] system failureGreater possibility and increased number of deaths, and infrastructure damage on ground due to emergency landing or [catastrophic] system failure over urban area – S-100: MTOW 440lbs.No final emergency aid (i.e. parachute) for last opportunity recovery in or catastrophic] system failureUse or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
22 Variety of Business Models ____________________________________________________________________Fee for Service (FfS)OEM provides equipment, people, operations, supportMonthly “lease” payment- Provides Flexibility to Begin Operations ImmediatelyPriced by negotiated customer flight hour requirements- Total “Turnkey” operation – Pricing includes:OEM provided system hardwareOEM provided sparesOEM trained operators/maintainersEnd-user data ownershipEnd-user provided services (housing, transportation,fuel, etc) to be negotiatedTry Before BuyStart as FfSTransition via in-the-field training to client operation / ownershipPurchase / Service OperationClient procures system; AAI operates / maintains system[Government Owned Company Operated (GOCO)]Purchase [Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) or Foreign Military Sale (FMS )]Full training, incl. on-site maintenance if desiredOEM provides depot supportField Service Representative (FSR) option available & recommended at least for first yearUse or disclosure of data contained throughout is not permitted without written permission from James P. Masey
23 UAS: Indicative Costing / ROM ______________________________________________________________________________In order for an OEM to consider initiating an indicative UAS Costing / Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) discussion the following fundamental questions should be answered:- Will this be an Foreign Military Sale (FMS) or Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) contract?- Which UAS is to be purchased? - What are the numbers of flight hours per year? - What is the hardware configuration (number of AVs, GCS, RVT, etc)? - What is the transportation required (HMMWVs, trucks, ship on)? - What type(s) of payload(s) are required, and in what quantity(ies)? - What type of on-site support required (number of people/number of months)? - What type warranty is required? - Will the technical manuals need translating? - What special training requirements will be needed (e.g. where is the training to be conducted, etc.)?- Is an offset going to be needed? If so, what is its value?- What is the time-line for the procurement programme (i.e. negotiations, delivery dates, initial operating capability dates, etc.)?- At what stage is the procurement process currently [i.e. has a Request for Information (RFI) and/or Request for Proposal (RFP) been released]? - What funds/budgets have been allocated to this TUAV procurement programme?
24 Cost Implications______________________________________________________________________________Cost vs Coverage is a function of requirements for range, continuity, and associated infrastructure requirementsFor example: Budget = $$$$, Requirement = 24 Hour SurveillancePlatformCostNumber of Systems / AV24 Hr kmNotesRaven$ for system w/ 4 air vehicles400 systems1600 AVNot applicable (can do day or night, but 1.5 hr endurance …)(Not intended for 24 hr continuous ISR – provided for comparison)Aerosonde Mk4.7$$ for system w/ 4 air vehicles20 systems80 AVkm or serial route surveillanceLarge number of AVs provides significant tactical flexibility; operating team cost 1XShadow 200$$$ for system w/ 4 air vehicles5 systems20 AV5 120 km95% reliability & decreasing mishap rates = high probability of continuous surveillance; operating team cost of 3XFalco$$$$ for 4 air vehicles1 system5 – 6 AV2 140 kmAssumes remaining funds buy additional AV; ITAR free; operating team cost of 4X – 6XPredator$$$$ for 2 air vehicles2 – 3 AVEither 1 significant range or kmMust have high reliability; no room for mishaps; export issues; operating team cost >10XGlobal Hawk$$$$$ for single air vehicle1 AVNo; ‘every other day 24 hrs’(Provided for comparison – unlikely to be exportable)
25 Summary: Primary Points for Consideration Define Concept of Operations (CONOPS) – operational requirement(s) / flight profiles.Have an approximation of the average monthly / annual flight hours – training and operational.Have a realistic budget – UAS are not as inexpensive as you might think.Issuing of an RFI or RFP is fundamental in order to complete Firm Fixed Price to purchase.Ensure that the final price given has no hidden increments over time (e.g. Maintenance,support, spare-parts, training, manuals etc).All prices will increase with delay in signing a contract.In parallel with CONOPS be certain to establish the criteria needed to fly in non-segregated / manned airspace – communicate with your National Civil Aviation Authority.All material used in this presentation, the views expressed, comments and suggestions made, cannotbe attributed to Textron Inc.or any of its subsidiaries,most notably AAI Corporation.