21. Plants make _________ & _________ for animals (and other organisms). 2. Plants convert the sun’s light energy into __________ (type of energy).3. Carbon dioxide is made of what 2 elements?4. What does the word “photosynthesis” mean?
35. ________ is the green chemical found in leaves that traps light for photosynthesis 6. EXPLAIN one way plants have to disperse seeds.7. EXPLAIN one adaptation desert plants have for living in this environment.8. What biological process puts some of the carbon dioxide necessary for photosynthesis into the atmosphere?
49. In addition to carbon dioxide, what other 2 things are needed for plants to do photosynthesis? 10. Explain one SPECIFIC medicinal use of plants.
8Anabolic vs catabolic reactions Catabolic processesbreak down moleculerelease energyAnabolic processesconstruct moleculesrequire input of energyIs photosynthesis catabolic or anabolic? What about respiration?
9Leaves CO2 enters and O2 exits through stomata water travels through veinsLeaves contain the most chloroplastsConcentrated in the mesophyll
10Chloroplasts – where PS takes place Thylakoids are suspended in the stroma of the chloroplast
11Chlorophyll – plant pigment Absorbs lightChlorophyll a is the most importantAlso have accessory pigmentsPigments are bundled in photosystems in the thylakoid membrane
12Photosynthesis Two sets of reactions: Light reactions: Light dependent reactionsCalvin cycle: Light independent reactionsThe light reactions make the materials needed for the light independent reactions!
14Light energy chemical energy A molecule of water is split, releasing an electronElectron is passed to chlorophyll a in photosystem IILight energy “excites” the electron
15Light energy chemical energy PS II passes its electron to the electron transport chain
16Light reactions Energy from the chain is used to make ATP Electron is passed to photosystem I
17Light reactions Photosystem I re-excites electron Electron bonds to a NADP+ creating a NADPHATP and NADPH are used to power the Calvin cycle
18The _____________ reactions occur in the ______________ membrane The _____________ reactions occur in the ______________ membrane. It begins with splitting a _____________ molecule to release an electron. The electron is grabbed by a ______________ in photosystem _______. The electron is excited by the energy from ____________. The electron is passed to an _________ _________ chain, where its energy is used to make _________. The electron is grabbed by a pigment in photosystem _________ where it is ___________ again by light. A molecule of _________ picks up the excited electron becoming _________. The two high energy molecules, __________ & ___________, leave the thylakoid membrane to go to the next step, the _______________ _______________.
19Light dependent reactions Take place in the thylakoid membraneThe photosystems absorb light energy; electrons will travel from:Photosystem IIElectron transport chainPhotosystem I
21The Calvin Cycle Takes in 3 molecules of carbon dioxide Where does CO2 comes from?The energy in ATP and electrons in NADPH turns the 3CO2 into a G3P molecule2 G3P = 1 glucose!
22Calvin Cycle Start with 3 RuBPs, 5 carbon sugar 3 CO2 are added to RuBP, forming 3 unstable 6 carbon molecules3 molecules split into 6 PGAsATP and NADPH (from light rxns) add energy and electrons to convert 6 PGAs into 6 G3Ps (direct product of photosynthesis)ADP and NADP+ return to the thylakoid membrane
23Calvin Cycle 1 G3P drops out of the cycle will be used to make glucose, cellulose, etc.ATP is used to rearrange the remaining carbon atoms into 3 RuBPs, and it starts again!