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CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring 1. CIS 191 - Lesson 12 ps command 2.

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Presentation on theme: "CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring 1. CIS 191 - Lesson 12 ps command 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring 1

2 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 ps command 2

3 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information InformationDescription PIDProcess Identification Number, a unique number identifying the process PPIDParent PID, the PID of the parent process (like … in the file hierarchy) UIDThe user running the process TTYThe terminal that the process's stdin and stdout are connected to SThe status of the process: S=Sleeping, R=Running, T=Stopped, Z=Zombie PRIProcess priority SZProcess size CMDThe name of the process (the command being run) CThe CPU utilization of the process WCHANWaiting channel (name of kernel function in which the process is sleeping) FFlags (1=forked but didn't exit, 4=used superuser privileges) TIMECumulative CPU time NINice value Just a few of types of information kept on a process. Use man ps to see a lot more. 3

4 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information Show just my processes Show all processes with a tty 4

5 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information -a show processes with a terminal x option shows full commands being run and states (most are asleep). I'm using two Putty sessions, in one session I have the man page open for ps, the other I'm issuing ps commands 5

6 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information Use the u option to look at processes owned by a specific user 6

7 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information Use the u option to look at processes owned by a specific user 7

8 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information Use –l for additional options 8

9 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information 9

10 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information root 372 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [ata/1] root 373 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [ata_aux] root 377 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_0] root 378 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_1] root 379 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:01:25 [kjournald] root 412 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [kauditd] root 446 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd -d root 869 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:01 [kedac] root 1420 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [kmpathd/0] root 1421 11 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 [kmpathd/1] root 2082 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:05 /usr/sbin/restorecond root 2098 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:11 auditd root 2100 2098 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:05 /sbin/audispd root 2120 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:23 syslogd -m 0 root 2123 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 klogd -x root 2160 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:20 mcstransd rpc 2183 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 portmap root 2201 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:01:18 /usr/bin/python -E /usr/sbin/setroub rpcuser 2227 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 rpc.statd root 2275 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 rpc.idmapd root 2345 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-bridge -d /var/run/vm root 2364 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-natd -d /var/run/vmne dbus 2383 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:15 dbus-daemon --system root 2434 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:51 pcscd root 2472 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/hidd --server root 2493 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:02 automount 10

11 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information root 2534 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00./hpiod root 2539 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 python./hpssd.py root 2556 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 cupsd root 2575 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:11 /usr/sbin/sshd root 2600 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:01 sendmail: accepting connections smmsp 2609 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 sendmail: Queue runner@01:00:00 for root 2626 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 crond xfs 2662 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 xfs -droppriv -daemon root 2693 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/atd root 2710 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 rhnsd --interval 240 root 2743 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:01:33 /usr/bin/python -tt /usr/sbin/yum-up root 2745 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/libexec/gam_server root 2749 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-netifup -d /var/run/v root 2758 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-netifup -d /var/run/v root 2768 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-netifup -d /var/run/v root 2827 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-dhcpd -cf /etc/vmware root 2858 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-dhcpd -cf /etc/vmware root 2859 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/vmnet-dhcpd -cf /etc/vmware 68 2875 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:01 hald root 2876 2875 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 hald-runner 68 2883 2876 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-acpi: listening on acpid 68 2886 2876 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-keyboard: listening on /d 68 2890 2876 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-keyboard: listening on /d root 2898 2876 0 Sep10 ? 00:02:46 hald-addon-storage: polling /dev/hda root 2944 1 0 Sep10 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/smartd -q never root 2949 1 0 Sep10 tty2 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty tty2 11

12 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Process Information root 2950 1 0 Sep10 tty3 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty tty3 root 5365 2575 0 08:19 ? 00:00:00 sshd: rsimms [priv] rsimms 5368 5365 0 08:19 ? 00:00:00 sshd: rsimms@pts/0 rsimms 5369 5368 0 08:19 pts/0 00:00:00 -bash root 5969 2575 0 10:14 ? 00:00:00 sshd: valdemar [priv] valdemar 5971 5969 0 10:14 ? 00:00:00 sshd: valdemar@pts/5 valdemar 5972 5971 0 10:14 pts/5 00:00:00 -bash rsimms 6173 5369 0 10:36 pts/0 00:00:00 man ps rsimms 6176 6173 0 10:36 pts/0 00:00:00 sh -c (cd /usr/share/man && (echo ". rsimms 6177 6176 0 10:36 pts/0 00:00:00 sh -c (cd /usr/share/man && (echo ". rsimms 6182 6177 0 10:36 pts/0 00:00:00 /usr/bin/less -is root 6200 2575 0 10:37 ? 00:00:00 sshd: rsimms [priv] rsimms 6203 6200 0 10:37 ? 00:00:00 sshd: rsimms@pts/6 rsimms 6204 6203 0 10:37 pts/6 00:00:00 -bash root 6408 2575 0 11:07 ? 00:00:00 sshd: dymesdia [priv] dymesdia 6418 6408 0 11:08 ? 00:00:00 sshd: dymesdia@pts/1 dymesdia 6419 6418 0 11:08 pts/1 00:00:00 -bash rsimms 6524 6204 0 11:15 pts/6 00:00:00 ps -ef lyonsrob 12891 1 0 Oct01 ? 00:00:00 SCREEN lyonsrob 12892 12891 0 Oct01 pts/3 00:00:00 /bin/bash root 29218 1 0 Oct15 tty1 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty tty1 [rsimms@opus ~]$ 12

13 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Signals

14 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Signals are asynchronous messages sent to processes They can result in one of three courses of action: 1.be ignored, 2.default action (die) 3.execute some predefined function. Signals are sent: Using the kill command: $ kill -# PID Where # is the signal number and PID is the process id. if no number is specified, SIGTERM is sent. Using special keystrokes limited to just a few signals Use kill –l to see all signals Signals

15 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 /home/cis90/roddyduk $ kill -l 1) SIGHUP 2) SIGINT 3) SIGQUIT 4) SIGILL 5) SIGTRAP 6) SIGABRT 7) SIGBUS 8) SIGFPE 9) SIGKILL 10) SIGUSR1 11) SIGSEGV 12) SIGUSR2 13) SIGPIPE 14) SIGALRM 15) SIGTERM 16) SIGSTKFLT 17) SIGCHLD 18) SIGCONT 19) SIGSTOP 20) SIGTSTP 21) SIGTTIN 22) SIGTTOU 23) SIGURG 24) SIGXCPU 25) SIGXFSZ 26) SIGVTALRM 27) SIGPROF 28) SIGWINCH 29) SIGIO 30) SIGPWR 31) SIGSYS 34) SIGRTMIN 35) SIGRTMIN+1 36) SIGRTMIN+2 37) SIGRTMIN+3 38) SIGRTMIN+4 39) SIGRTMIN+5 40) SIGRTMIN+6 41) SIGRTMIN+7 42) SIGRTMIN+8 43) SIGRTMIN+9 44) SIGRTMIN+10 45) SIGRTMIN+11 46) SIGRTMIN+12 47) SIGRTMIN+13 48) SIGRTMIN+14 49) SIGRTMIN+15 50) SIGRTMAX-14 51) SIGRTMAX-13 52) SIGRTMAX-12 53) SIGRTMAX-11 54) SIGRTMAX-10 55) SIGRTMAX-9 56) SIGRTMAX-8 57) SIGRTMAX-7 58) SIGRTMAX-6 59) SIGRTMAX-5 60) SIGRTMAX-4 61) SIGRTMAX-3 62) SIGRTMAX-2 63) SIGRTMAX-1 64) SIGRTMAX /home/cis90/roddyduk $ Signals Use kill –l to see all of them

16 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Signals Special keystrokes /home/cis90/roddyduk $ stty -a speed 38400 baud; rows 26; columns 78; line = 0; intr = ^C; quit = ^\; erase = ^?; kill = ^U; eof = ^D; eol = ; eol2 = ; swtch = ; start = ^Q; stop = ^S; susp = ^F; rprnt = ^R; werase = ^W; lnext = ^V; flush = ^O; min = 1; time = 0; [rsimms@opus ~]$ stty -a speed 38400 baud; rows 39; columns 84; line = 0; intr = ^C; quit = ^\; erase = ^?; kill = ^U; eof = ^D; eol = ; eol2 = ; swtch = ; start = ^Q; stop = ^S; susp = ^Z; rprnt = ^R; werase = ^W; lnext = ^V; flush = ^O; min = 1; time = 0; use stty –a to see special keystrokes

17 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring uptime Uptime shows how long the system has been running 17

18 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Use top to find CPU hogs and memory leaks 18

19 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Use top to find CPU hogs and memory leaks 19 for the past 1, 5 and 15 minutes PR = priority NI = nice values VIRT=Virtual memory used RES=Physical memory used SHR=Shared memory used

20 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Use top to find CPU hogs and memory leaks 20 for the past 1, 5 and 15 minutes PR = priority NI = nice values VIRT=Virtual memory used RES=Physical memory used SHR=Shared memory used

21 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Running Jim's cpu.sh script (uses binary calculator) 21 binary calculator

22 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Running Jim's disk.sh script (lots of find commands) 22

23 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring top Running Jim's sleep script 23

24 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring vmstat Procs r: The number of processes waiting for run time. b: The number of processes in uninterruptible sleep. Memory swpd: the amount of virtual memory used. free: the amount of idle memory. buff: the amount of memory used as buffers. cache: the amount of memory used as cache. inact: the amount of inactive memory. (-a option) active: the amount of active memory. (-a option) Swap si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (/s). so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (/s). IO bi: Blocks received from a block device (blocks/s). bo: Blocks sent to a block device (blocks/s). System in: The number of interrupts per second, including the clock. cs: The number of context switches per second. CPU These are percentages of total CPU time. us: Time spent running non-kernel code. (user time, including nice time) sy: Time spent running kernel code. (system time) id: Time spent idle. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, this includes IO-wait time. wa: Time spent waiting for IO. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, included in idle. st: Time stolen from a virtual machine. Prior to Linux 2.6.11, unknown. 24

25 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 scheduling 25

26 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring Scheduling Jobs at cron anacron 26

27 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 at 27

28 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 at command So that the multiprocessing CPU on a UNIX system does not get overloaded, some processes need to be run during low peak hours such as early in the morning or later in the day. The at command is for this purpose. The at command reads its stdin for a list of commands to run, and begins running them at the time of day specified as the first argument: $ at 10:30pm < batch_file $ at 11:59pm at> cat files.out bigshell > lab08 at> cp lab08 /home/rsimms/cis90/$LOGNAME at> Ctrl-D $ Note: the Ctrl-d must be entered as the first character on the last line. Use the at command to schedule a command or script to run in the future 28

29 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Load Balancing Several ways to specify a future time to run This job makes a backup of myscript and sends an email when finished Use the atq command to show queued jobs 29

30 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Load Balancing The atrm command is used to remove jobs from the queue The jobs command lists processes running or suspended in the background. The atq command lists jobs queued to run in the futures that were scheduled by at command 30

31 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 cron 31

32 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring Scheduling Batch (cron) Jobs cron - Scheduling Program that executes tasks at a given time crontab - a program that submits tasks to the cron daemon crontab filename - registers your cron file crontab -l - displays your current cron file crontab -r - removes your current cron file crontab -u user - sets a cron job for another user Crontab service can be denied or allowed on a per/user basis crond cron daemon examines crontab files and at command files. 32

33 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 cron crond's parent is init crond daemon lives in /usr/sbin service command can be used to stop and start (Red Hat family) checkcfg command can be used to configure startup by run level 33

34 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring Scheduling Batch (cron) Jobs Two cron options: "System" cron jobs Uses /etc/crontab (has additional user field) No need to edit cron files just drop new jobs in: /etc/cron.daily/ /etc/cron.weekly/ /etc/cron.monthly/ Fortified with anacron "User" cron jobs Uses cron files kept in /var/spool/cron Use crontab commands to create, view, and remove cron files One cron file per user (multiple entries for multiple jobs) 34

35 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System cron jobs [root@benji ~]# ls /etc/cron* /etc/cron.deny /etc/crontab /etc/cron.d: sa-update /etc/cron.daily: 0anacron cups makewhatis.cron prelink tmpwatch 0logwatch logrotate mlocate.cron rpm /etc/cron.hourly: /etc/cron.monthly: 0anacron /etc/cron.weekly: 0anacron makewhatis.cron [root@benji ~]# [root@benji ~]# cat /etc/crontab SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.monthly [root@benji ~]# Note: 0anacron is the first job to run in each cron directory. anacron complements cron by handling jobs that were scheduled to run when the system was down. spam assassin cron file Has additional user field 35

36 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Create a cron job with the crontab –e command which uses vi Creating user cron jobs Option 1 36

37 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Create a cron job with vi then register it Creating user cron jobs Option 2 37

38 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 30 08 1 3,6,9,12 * /root/bin/script1 Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job At 8:30 AM, on the first day of every quarter User cron jobs Note: No user field like in /etc/crontab FieldValue Range Min00-60 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition 38

39 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 30 10 * * 6 /root/bin/script1 At 10:30 AM every Saturday User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 39

40 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 30 10 * * 1-5 /root/bin/script1 At 10:30 AM week days Monday through Friday User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 40

41 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 0,10,20,30,40,50 * 5 5 * /root/bin/script1 script1 runs every 10 minutes on May 5th User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 41

42 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 */5 * * * * /root/bin/script1 script1 runs every 5 minutes User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 42

43 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 */10 * * * * /root/bin/script1 script1 runs every 10 minutes User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 43

44 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 30 07 1 4 * /root/bin/script1 31,32,33 07 1 4 * /root/bin/script2 On April 1 st, script1 is run at 7:30AM followed by script2 running at 7:31AM, 7:32AM and 7:33AM User cron jobs FieldValue Range Min00-59 Hr00-23 Day01-31 Month01-12 Weekday0-6 (0=Sunday) Time value optionDescription nSingle time event n,m,oMultiple time events n-mRange of time events */nRepetition Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 44

45 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 10 0 * * * /root/bin/script >> /root/script.log 2>&1 00 18 */2 * * /root/bin/script >> /root/script.log 2>&1 0 8 * * 1-5 /root/bin/script >> /root/script.log 2>&1 0 12 4 7 * /root/bin/script >> /root/script.log 2>&1 Everyday at 10 minutes past midnight Every other day at 6:00 PM Weekdays at 8:00 AM Noon on the 4 th of July User cron jobs Min Hr Day Month Weekday Job 45

46 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 */2 * * * * echo `date` "To file" >> /root/crontest */2 * * * * echo `date` "To email" stdout and stderr get emailed if not redirected User cron jobs Where does job output go ????????????? 46

47 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 [root@benji ~]# ls -l /var/spool/cron total 2 -rw------- 1 root root 127 Nov 29 08:29 root [root@benji ~]# cat /var/spool/cron/root * * * * * echo "Every minute: " `date` >> /root/crontest-1 */2 * * * * echo "Every 2 minutes: " `date` >> /root/crontest-2 [root@benji ~]# [root@benji ~]# crontab -l * * * * * echo "Every minute: " `date` >> /root/crontest-1 */2 * * * * echo "Every 2 minutes: " `date` >> /root/crontest-2 [root@benji ~]# crontab –l lists the user's cron jobs User cron jobs are stored in /var/spool/cron/ by user name User cron jobs 47

48 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 crontab –r will delete a user' s cron configuration file User cron jobs 48

49 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Linux lets anyone run cron jobs. You can use /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny to manage as necessary. Add users, one per line. If there is a conflict, the most restrictive will apply User cron jobs 49

50 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Create a cron file as root to perform a backup of the /home file system. Do a full level 0 backup, followed by 3 level 1 backups, followed by 3 level 2 backups. Backup example [root@benji ~]# mkdir -p /backup/level0 /backup/level1 /backup/level2 [root@benji ~]# vi cron [root@benji ~]# cat cron 30 7 * * * /sbin/dump 0uf /backup/level0/backup-L0-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home 31-33 7 * * * /sbin/dump 1uf /backup/level1/backup-L1-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home 34-36 7 * * * /sbin/dump 2uf /backup/level2/backup-L2-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home [root@benji ~]# crontab cron [root@benji ~]# crontab -l 30 7 * * * /sbin/dump 0uf /backup/level0/backup-L0-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home 31-33 7 * * * /sbin/dump 1uf /backup/level1/backup-L1-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home 34-36 7 * * * /sbin/dump 2uf /backup/level2/backup-L2-`date +\%Y-\%d-\%m`.dmp /home [root@benji ~]# Note, for demonstration purposes we are doing the backups every minute rather than everyday. escapes needed User cron jobs 50

51 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Backup example continued [root@benji ~]# mail Mail version 8.1 6/6/93. Type ? for help. "/var/spool/mail/root": 7 messages 7 new >N 1 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:30 41/1749 "Cron /sbin/dump 0uf /backu" N 2 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:31 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 1uf /backu" N 3 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:32 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 1uf /backu" N 4 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:33 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 1uf /backu" N 5 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:34 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 2uf /backu" N 6 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:35 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 2uf /backu" N 7 root@benji.localdoma Mon Dec 1 07:36 42/1807 "Cron /sbin/dump 2uf /backu" & Backups results are emailed User cron jobs 51

52 & 1 Message 1: From root@benji.localdomain Mon Dec 1 07:30:02 2008 Date: Mon, 1 Dec 2008 07:30:02 -0800 From: root@benji.localdomain (Cron Daemon) To: root@benji.localdomain Subject: Cron /sbin/dump 0uf /backup/level0/backup-L0-`date +%Y-%d-%m`.dmp /home Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Auto-Submitted: auto-generated X-Cron-Env: DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Mon Dec 1 07:30:01 2008 DUMP: Dumping /dev/sda7 (/home) to /backup/level0/backup-L0-2008-01-12.dmp DUMP: Label: /home DUMP: Writing 10 Kilobyte records DUMP: mapping (Pass I) [regular files] DUMP: mapping (Pass II) [directories] DUMP: estimated 90 blocks. DUMP: Volume 1 started with block 1 at: Mon Dec 1 07:30:02 2008 DUMP: dumping (Pass III) [directories] DUMP: dumping (Pass IV) [regular files] DUMP: Closing /backup/level0/backup-L0-2008-01-12.dmp DUMP: Volume 1 completed at: Mon Dec 1 07:30:02 2008 DUMP: Volume 1 150 blocks (0.15MB) DUMP: 150 blocks (0.15MB) on 1 volume(s) DUMP: finished in less than a second DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Mon Dec 1 07:30:01 2008 DUMP: Date this dump completed: Mon Dec 1 07:30:02 2008 DUMP: Average transfer rate: 0 kB/s DUMP: DUMP IS DONE & CIS 191 - Lesson 12 This is an email of the level 0 backup Backup example continued 52

53 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 Note: After the backup jobs have been run, the dump files appear in the appropriate directories The last dumps for each level recorded here User cron jobs Backup example continued 53

54 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 date command BTW, Here is how you set the system date and time 54

55 CIS 191 - Lesson 12 System Monitoring Process Management ps Provides snapshot of all system processes uptime Can be used as indication of systematic degredation top Interaction version of ps with additional summary info vmstat Provides snapshot of overall memory 55


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