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Bob Harrison Support for Education and Technology / ContextLearning Learners Harnessing Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Bob Harrison Support for Education and Technology / ContextLearning Learners Harnessing Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bob Harrison Support for Education and Technology / ContextLearning Learners Harnessing Technology

2 Context

3 Context – Educational change and ICT Educational change and ICT: an exploration of Priorities 2 and 3 of the DfES e-strategy in schools and colleges The current landscape and implementation issues Peter Twining, Roger Broadie, Deirdre Cook, Karen Ford, David Morris, Alison Twiner and Jean Underwood

4 Complexity and human factors The reviews focus was on the technological solutions in the schools and FE sectors in relation to Priorities 2 and 3. However, it quickly became clear that the complexity of the changes that were needed in order to implement the relevant ICT functionalities effectively were such that respondents prime concerns were with the change-management issues associated with implementation. Almost invariably these implementation issues related to human factors. Context – Educational change and ICT

5 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools The impact of ICT in schools - a landscape review Professor Rae Condie and Bob Munro with Liz Seagraves and Summer Kenesson Quality in Education Centre, University of Strathclyde

6 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools Development of ICT in Schools The development of ICT in schools is progressing unevenly across and within schools and technologies. Some seem to be content with achieving the governments targets in terms of numbers of computers and connectivity, while others are being highly innovative, attempting to capitalise on the benefits that ICT has been shown to bring. As schools grow in e-confidence, ICT becomes embedded in the everyday practices of the school, drawing on a range of technologies to support learning, teaching and attainment.

7 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools Development of ICT in Schools The literature is very positive about some aspects of ICT use, rarely negative, but mainly incomplete or inconsistent. Further studies, particularly with a longitudinal element, should shed light on the processes that schools go through in becoming e-confident and e-capable, the impact on relationships within the school, between home and school and across networks, and on pedagogical practice. Using ICT effectively in schools is about more than changing resources; it is about changing practices and culture.

8 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 It may have been subtitled Pathways to Personalisation, but the central thrust of the keynotes and seminar programme of the Education 08 conference at Westminster, London, was the Building Schools for the Future programme and educational transformation. Tim Byles, chief executive of Partnerships for Schools, gave the 400-plus audience an update on the BSF programme and suggested that the pipeline is now stuffed with projects which that should give rise to more than 200 new schools opening every year by the end of the decade. The reason for the delay in the BSF programme was perfectly illustrated by Karl Limbert, BSF project manager for Kent County Council. Kent has the largest BSF programme in the country which Karl Limbert illustrated with a psychedelic chart of mind-boggling complexity, with timelines, partnerships, contracts and disruption over a 20-year timescale. He added another challenge by asking delegates what was actually meant by educational transformation? What is being transformed…and from what to what? he asked.

9 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont Kent had had to go back to the future, Tim Byles explained, and he suggested that a 20th century school was a product of the assumptions of the time and was characterised by: The teacher as an artisan Pupils as a subject Relationships that are controlling and unemotional Pedagogy of the didactic Curriculum of one size fits all School as a production line School as a large, homogenous organisation

10 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont Influenced by the thinking of Stanford Universitys Linda Darling- Hammond, Charles Leadbeater, and Professors Stephen Heppell, David Hargreaves and Tim Brighouse, the Kent BSF vision was now predicated upon: Relationships as key Organisations that are data rich and emotionally intelligent Pedagogy that is is constructivist Curriculum that is deep and wide Time as non-linear Micro-design as vital School is a fragmented organisation School only one venue for learning among many.

11 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project The ICT Test Bed Project was set up by the Department for Education and Skills to explore how ICT can be used to support the Government's wider agenda for education reform.

12 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project ICT Test Bed work focused on using ICT to: Raise standards and performance, especially in the areas of school and college improvement, student attainment and raising the quality of teaching and learning Enable more effective leadership and management in schools and colleges Help teachers to concentrate their time on their core task of teaching Enable more effective collaboration between schools and with their local colleges Improve the links between schools, homes and the community

13 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project The independent evaluation was managed by Becta's Evidence and Evaluation Directorate. It was overseen by a Project Board Sub- Group, chaired by Prof Angela McFarlane (University of Bristol). The evaluation team from Manchester Metropolitan and Nottingham Trent Universities assessed the effectiveness of the project in relation to five key themes. The evaluation comprises a range of methodologies, including a survey, maturity model, action research, qualitative investigation and benchmarking performance data. The project undertook work on ICT implementation in three ICT Test Bed areas of social disadvantage. Two of these were within inner cities and one was in a rural area. The 28 ICT Test Bed Schools and departments in three colleges had access to high levels of ICT hardware and appropriate software, as well as support to make the most effective use of this investment.

14 Context 2020 Vision Report of the Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group

15 Context - Drivers of change The pace of technological change will continue to increase exponentially. Increases in bandwidth will lead to a rise in internet-based services, particularly access to video and television. Costs associated with hardware, software and data storage will decrease further. This is likely to result in near-universal access to personal, multi-functional devices, smarter software integrated with global standards and increasing amounts of information being available to search on line (with faster search engines). Using ICT will be natural for most pupils and for an increasing majority of teachers.

16 Context - Technology Influences what, why and how

17 Learning Theories of learning and teaching How do they relate to educational technologies?

18 What it takes to learn John Dewey Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky Jerome Bruner Paulo Freire Gordon Pask Terry Winograd Seymour Papert Lauren Resnick John Seely Brown Ference Marton Roger Säljö John Biggs Jean Lave Inquiry-based education Constructivism Mediated learning Discovery learning Learning as problematization Learning as conversation Problem-based learning Reflective practice Meta-cognition Experiential learning Learner-oriented approach Social constructivism Situated learning share a common conception of the learning process 1890. 1940. 1960. 1980. 2000. There is a common thread in our understanding of learning - the learner is an active agent in the learning process

19 19 What it takes to learn does not change Inquiry-based learning Constructivism Mediated learning Discovery learning Learning as conversation Problem-based learning Reflective practice Meta-cognition Experiential learning Learner-oriented approach Social constructivism Situated learning Books, Blackboards, Slides Broadcasts, Overhead projectors Tape-slides Interactive whiteboards, Powerpoint Web-pages, Podcasts Modelling tools Simulations Chat-rooms Online conferences Multiplayer games Wikis Blogs Learning through attention

20 20 Give pedagogy back to the teachers. Embrace technology as part of the solution. Begin with ambition and use technology to achieve it. To summarise…

21 Learning 1908 1958 2008

22 Learning 1908 1958 2008

23 Why have schools changed so little over the past 100 years? Learning

24 The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining … Learning

25 The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining … National curriculum Standards League tables Research Assessmen t Exercise QCA TDA LSC HEFCE LEAs SATs

26 … but doesn t connect with the rest of learning Learning

27 Diagram with permission from The Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) Center Learning

28 Sarah has twenty-one candies She gets thirty more John has thirty four candies. Who has more? Childrens approximate arithmetic (Gilmore et al., Nature, 2007) 5-6 year old children 73% gave correct answers But these approximate arithmetic skills are not developed at school

29 Learning Rich learning outside the classroom

30 The 3Cs of effective lifelong learning Construction relating experience to knowledge, creating new ideas Conversation with teachers, with learners, with ourselves, and with the world Control actively pursuing knowledge

31 Construction


33 Conversation


35 Control



38 How do we connect… Learning

39 Learning in the classroom… Learning

40 … and learning at home? Learning

41 How do we connect… Learning

42 learning about the world … Learning

43 … and learning in the world? Learning

44 Podcasts Teaching on mobile phones Home access to the school intranet Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via email or SMS which can then be auto- responded to with feedback Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via email or SMS which can then be auto- responded to with feedback Extend the classroom into everyday learning?

45 Podcasts Teaching on mobile phones Home access to the school intranet Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via email or SMS which can then be auto- responded to with feedback Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via email or SMS which can then be auto- responded to with feedback Extend the classroom into everyday learning? At school, you do all this boring stuff, really basic stuff, PowerPoint and spreadsheets and things. It only gets interesting and exciting when you come home and really use your computer. You're free, you're in control, it's your own world. (Guardian, May, 2007)

46 What do these all have common?

47 Answer: They have all been banned in classrooms

48 10 to 1 ratio Learning

49 3 to 1 ratio Learning

50 1 to 1 ratio

51 Moblogging Online research Group media creation Collaborative online writing Serious gaming Conversational language learning Mobile social networking Group learning Peer teaching Personalised learning

52 In class I have to power down (Guardian, May, 2007)

53 Personal technologies Cyber-bullying Classroom texting Exam cheating Game playing Disruptive mobile learning Loss of teacher control Powerful Connects home and school Ownership

54 Challenges for schools and educational suppliers RM Asus MiniBook computer from £169 Eduinnova conversational classroom learning (Steljes) Eduinnova conversational classroom learning (Steljes) Connect learning inside and outside the classroom Manage children bringing their own powerful personal technologies into school Enable effective 1 to 1 learning in the classroom Support learning through construction, conversation and control

55 Learning Learning Futures: Next Practice in Learning and Teaching Paul Hamlyn Foundation

56 Learning – The Issues Teaching and learning strategies and student voice Innovations seeking permission Creativity and accountability Separate worlds of learning Pedagogy and language

57 Learning

58 Learners

59 Learners of the future

60 Learners Their Space: Digital Beginnings Hannah Green Celia Hannon

61 headline messages: young people New technologies have been normalised, this generation has a different relationship to information Two bands of young people operating at different level; Everyday Communicators and Digital Pioneers Everyday digital practices promote important skills from collaboration, creativity, communication to technical confidence Knowledge is transferred horizontally and the formal system is not keeping pace

62 headline messages: parents Only 50% of parents chose lessons as the most important way their child learns. 2/3 of parents think their child is building their general knowledge through their use of technology. Fathers more positive - 47% of men believe their child was developing their creativity when using technology compared to 40% of women. 47% thought children should have space within the education system to showcase creative digital work.

63 Countering some important myths… Moral Panic Versus Digital Faith

64 Myths and misconceptions Moral panic –The internet is too dangerous for young people –Junk culture is poisoning young peoples lives –Young people are apathetic –No learning happens, they are a waste of time –The internet makes you cheat –A generation of passive consumers

65 Digital faith –Revolutionary power of new technologies –Were all digital natives now –All gaming is good Myths and misconceptions

66 Its the knowledge economy, stupid In 2020 our biggest exports will be health, education and the creative industries. In the global age we cannot afford to waste the talent of one single individual. Gordon Brown 2006

67 Digital pioneers Set of characteristics that are common to the experiences of many young people and their out of school learning: Self-motivation 1.Ownership 2.Purposeful creativity 3.Peer to peer learning

68 Learners JISC In Their Own Words Exploring the learners perspective on e-learning

69 What the learners say… Wikis are good sources of information and I can transfer information onto my PDA to review at a later date. Virtually all my work is done using a computer and the internet. However, I will still get books out of libraries, but will make notes on a word processor. I dont know what I would do if I couldnt email people. I use it much more than actually talking on the phone. Instant messaging has become THE primary form of communication for many students, so why not encourage lecturers to communicate to students in a distributed fashion? I had to leave early last week because my child minder was off … so I went onto the message board and asked for information about what Id missed.


71 What do learners and parents at some of the better performing schools feel… Learners

72 The pace of technological change MORI Technology Tracker April 1998 – December 2006Base: circa 4,000 interviews per month

73 A new world? Children lead in internet access The UK Children Go Online study found that 75% of 9-19 year olds have accessed the internet from home – including 70% of 9-11 year olds According to Ofcom, more than 70% of 16-24 year old internet users use social networking websites (compared to 41% of all UK users) 37% of 18-24 year old internet users have contributed to a blog or website message board (compared to 14% of all UK users) 34% of 9-19 year old weekly internet users have set up their own website 19% of 18-24 year old internet users have their own weblog or webpage

74 Although networks are still in their infancy, experts think they're already creating new forms of social behaviour that blur the distinctions between online and real-world interactions Jessi Hempel, Business Week As for political engagement, 54% of 12-19 year old weekly internet users have sought out sites concerned with political or civic issues A new world?

75 1.The ubiquity of IT

76 Common classroom activities 52% 29% 25% 22% 17% 16% 10% 9% 8% 7% 4% 3% Copy from the board or a book Listen to a teacher talking for a long time Have a class discussion Take notes while my teacher talks Work in small groups to solve a problem Have a drink of water when I need it Work on a computer Listen to background music Have some activities that allow me to move around Create pictures or maps to help me remember Have a change of activity to help focus Q Which three of the following do you do most often in class? Spend time thinking quietly on my own Talk about my work with a teacher Learn things that relate to the real world Teach my classmates about something Base: All pupils (2,417)Source: Ipsos MORI Have people from outside to help me learn Learn outside in my schools grounds 33%

77 Most preferred ways to learn 55% 39% 35% 31% 21% 19% 16% 14% 12% 9% 8% 5% 6% 3% 1% In groups By doing practical things With friends By using computers Alone From friends With your parents By practising By copying By thinking for yourself Other From others In which three of the following ways do you prefer to learn? From teachers By seeing things done In silence At a museum or library Base:All pupils (2,417)Source: Ipsos MORI

78 Power and control... The clue lies in the most popular sites in the UK 1. 2. Yahoo! 3. MSN 4. Ebay UK 5. 6. BBC newsline ticker 7. Myspace 8. YouTube 9. Windows Live ( 10. WikiPedia And globally? Yahoo! – half of users go straight to e-mail 1.MSN 2.Google 3.YouTube 4.MySpace 5.Windows Live (Chinese search engine) (googles Brazilian social network) (Chinese site) 9.WikiPedia Where have all the content generators and controllers gone?

79 Watch the top five Yahoo MSN Google YouTube MySpace

80 Watch the Top Five The lesson is compelling: put simple, intuitive technology in the hands of users and they will create content and share it. The fastest-growing parts of the internet all involve direct human interaction Eric Schmidt, CEO Google

81 Putting the user at the centre... YouTube MySpace

82 In the real world... Hi, Im James. I create tags for gamers and have won international competitions for my designs 16 year old boy, London I use Skype to keep in touch with people Ive met through gaming

83 I count people in America, Norway and India among my best friends Ive never met them and they dont know my real name – but I feel I know them better than many people I see every day In the real world... 16 year old boy, London

84 2. How are people using I.T.?

85 Learners There are also more practical advantages that can help learners of all ages Supporting new styles of learning and help learners and teachers stay in touch Which is increasingly important to learners/those returning to education


87 3. Linking teachers and learners - A huge class and age divide….

88 Internet access is plateauing – who is left behind? Source: Ipsos MORI Social Issues Omnibus Base: c. 10,000 GB adults 15+, Oct-Dec 2006 (compared to c. 12,000 GB adults 15+, Jan-Mar 2005) % with internet access at home or at work, 4th quarter 2006 %All 15-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465+ All62 +2 74 +1 72 +1 78 +4 72 +2 59 +5 24 +1 AB 79 +1 89 -4 88 -4 93 +3 91 +4 80 +2 42 +0 C1 73 +3 85 +1 86 +2 81 +3 70 +9 27 +1 C2 58 +3 74 +4 65 +2 74 +5 67 +5 44 +2 18 +2 DE 37 +1 55 -1 45 +4 52 +7 38 +8 29 +1 8 +1

89 What is your most favourite thing to use ICT for?

90 Learners Pow! Wham! The Power of Children, Digital Media & Our Nations Future Three Challenges for the Coming Decade Rima Shore, Ph.D. April 2008 Executive Summary

91 Learners – Pow! Wham! The Power of Children Three interrelated challenges emerged from this inquiry. All of them must be addressed if our nation is to realize the full potential of digital learning. Build a coherent R&D effort Rethink literacy and learning for the digital age –Use digital tools effectively and safely. –Think critically. –Understand complex systems. –Know about other countries and cultures. –Participate in collaborative learning communities. –Invent, create, and design alone and with others. –Find wholeness in a remix world. Advance digital equity, reaching all children with todays most powerful learning tools

92 Learners Young Minds, Fast Times: The Twenty-First- Century Digital Learner How tech-obsessed iKids would improve our schools. Marc Prensky

93 Learners More than half of all secondary school students are excited about using mobile devices to help them learn; only 15 percent of school leaders support this idea. Source: Project Tomorrow. Credit: David Julian

94 Learners – Marc Prensky "The disconnect between what students want and what they're receiving is significant," said Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow, which tracks youth culture. "Student frustration is rising. I've heard some teachers claim that this is nothing new. Kids have always been bored in school. But I think now it's different. Some of the boredom, of course, comes from the contrast with the more engaging learning opportunities kids have outside of school. Others blame it on today's "continuous partial attention" (CPA), a term coined by Linda Stone, who researches trends and their consumer implications. Stone describes CPA as the need "to be a live node on the network," continually text messaging, checking the cell phone, and jumping on email.

95 Learners – Marc Prensky cont "It is an always-on, anywhere, anytime, anyplace behavior that involves an artificial sense of constant crisis," she writes. "We pay continuous partial attention in an effort not to miss anything. CPA differs from multitasking, which is motivated by a desire to be more efficient and typically involves tasks that demand little cognitive processing. We file and copy while we're talking on the phone and checking email, for instance.

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