3 Context – Educational change and ICT Educational change and ICT: an exploration of Priorities 2 and 3 of the DfES e-strategy in schools and collegesThe current landscape and implementation issuesPeter Twining, Roger Broadie, Deirdre Cook, Karen Ford, David Morris, Alison Twiner and Jean Underwood
4 Context – Educational change and ICT Complexity and human factorsThe review’s focus was on the ‘technological solutions’ in the schools and FE sectors in relation to Priorities 2 and 3.However, it quickly became clear that the complexity of the changes that were needed in order to implement the relevant ICT functionalities effectively were such that respondents’ prime concerns were with the change-management issues associated with implementation. Almost invariably these implementation issues related to ‘human factors’.
5 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools The impact of ICT in schools - a landscape reviewProfessor Rae Condie and Bob Munro with Liz Seagraves and Summer KenessonQuality in Education Centre, University of Strathclyde
6 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools Development of ICT in SchoolsThe development of ICT in schools is progressing unevenly across and within schools and technologies. Some seem to be content with achieving the government’s targets in terms of numbers of computers and connectivity, while others are being highly innovative, attempting to capitalise on the benefits that ICT has been shown to bring.As schools grow in e-confidence, ICT becomes embedded in the everyday practices of the school, drawing on a range of technologies to support learning, teaching and attainment.
7 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools Development of ICT in SchoolsThe literature is very positive about some aspects of ICT use, rarely negative, but mainly incomplete or inconsistent. Further studies, particularly with a longitudinal element, should shed light on the processes that schools go through in becoming e-confident and e-capable, the impact on relationships within the school, between home and school and across networks, and on pedagogical practice.Using ICT effectively in schools is about more than changing resources; it is about changing practices and culture.
8 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 It may have been subtitled Pathways to Personalisation, but the central thrust of the keynotes and seminar programme of the Education ’08 conference at Westminster, London, was the Building Schools for the Future programme and educational transformation.Tim Byles, chief executive of Partnerships for Schools, gave the 400-plus audience an update on the BSF programme and suggested that the pipeline is now stuffed with projects which that should give rise to more than 200 new schools opening every year by the end of the decade.The reason for the delay in the BSF programme was perfectly illustrated by Karl Limbert, BSF project manager for Kent County Council. Kent has the largest BSF programme in the country which Karl Limbert illustrated with a psychedelic chart of mind-boggling complexity, with timelines, partnerships, contracts and disruption over a 20-year timescale.He added another challenge by asking delegates what was actually meant by educational transformation? “What is being transformed…and from what to what?” he asked.
9 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont Kent had had to go “back to the future”, Tim Byles explained, and he suggested that a 20th century school was a product of the assumptions of the time and was characterised by:The teacher as an artisanPupils as a subjectRelationships that are controlling and unemotionalPedagogy of the didacticCurriculum of one size fits allSchool as a production lineSchool as a large, homogenous organisation
10 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont Influenced by the thinking of Stanford University’s Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Leadbeater, and Professors Stephen Heppell, David Hargreaves and Tim Brighouse, the Kent BSF vision was now predicated upon:Relationships as keyOrganisations that are data rich and emotionally intelligentPedagogy that is is constructivistCurriculum that is deep and wideTime as non-linearMicro-design as vitalSchool is a fragmented organisationSchool only one venue for learning among many.
11 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project The ICT Test Bed Project was set up by the Department for Education and Skills to explore how ICT can be used to support the Government's wider agenda for education reform.
12 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project ICT Test Bed work focused on using ICT to:Raise standards and performance, especially in the areas of school and college improvement, student attainment and raising the quality of teaching and learningEnable more effective leadership and management in schools and collegesHelp teachers to concentrate their time on their core task of teachingEnable more effective collaboration between schools and with their local collegesImprove the links between schools, homes and the community
13 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project The independent evaluation was managed by Becta's Evidence and Evaluation Directorate. It was overseen by a Project Board Sub-Group, chaired by Prof Angela McFarlane (University of Bristol). The evaluation team from Manchester Metropolitan and Nottingham Trent Universities assessed the effectiveness of the project in relation to five key themes. The evaluation comprises a range of methodologies, including a survey, maturity model, action research, qualitative investigation and benchmarking performance data.The project undertook work on ICT implementation in three ICT Test Bed areas of social disadvantage. Two of these were within inner cities and one was in a rural area. The 28 ICT Test Bed Schools and departments in three colleges had access to high levels of ICT hardware and appropriate software, as well as support to make the most effective use of this investment.
14 Context2020 VisionReport of the Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group
15 Context - Drivers of change The pace of technological change will continue to increase exponentially.Increases in ‘bandwidth’ will lead to a rise in internet-based services, particularly access to video and television.Costs associated with hardware, software and data storage will decrease further. This is likely to result in near-universal access to personal, multi-functional devices, smarter software integrated with global standards and increasing amounts of information being available to search on line (with faster search engines).Using ICT will be natural for most pupils and for an increasing majority of teachers.
16 Context - Technology Influences what, why and how
17 LearningTheories of learning and teaching How do they relate to educational technologies?
18 What it takes to learn- the learner is an active agent in the learning processThere is a common thread in our understanding of learningJohn DeweyJean PiagetLev VygotskyJerome BrunerPaulo FreireGordon PaskTerry WinogradSeymour PapertLauren ResnickJohn Seely BrownFerence MartonRoger SäljöJohn BiggsJean Lave1890.1940196019802000Inquiry-based educationConstructivismMediated learningDiscovery learningLearning as problematizationLearning as conversationProblem-based learningReflective practiceMeta-cognitionExperiential learningLearner-oriented approachSocial constructivismSituated learningshare a commonconceptionof the learningprocessAnd my contention is, that despite the radical changes in technology, what it takes to learn, essentially, is fundamentally unchanging. From cave walls to interactive whiteboards the idea was essentially that teaching is telling.- A radical shift in thinking began with Dewey at the end of the nineteenth century, and it continued through the whole of the twentieth century. Instead of the focus on teaching, as ‘the transmission of a common culture’, as the Robbins Report described it, educational theorists began to develop a careful analysis of what it takes to learn. And to replace that clearly inadequate transmission model of teaching, theorists developed a variety of descriptors:- inquiry-based education, constructivism, discovery, conversation theory, social learning, problem-based learning, reflection, social constructivism, meta-cognition, awareness, situated learning, collaborative learning – but all of them shared the common conception of learning as an essentially active process: learning as a ‘doing’ word. What it takes to learn, we know now, is more than just being told.18
19 What it takes to learn does not change Books, Blackboards, SlidesBroadcasts, Overhead projectorsTape-slidesInteractive whiteboards, PowerpointWeb-pages, PodcastsLearning through attentionInquiry-based learningConstructivismMediated learningDiscovery learningLearning as conversationProblem-based learningReflective practiceMeta-cognitionExperiential learningLearner-oriented approachSocial constructivismSituated learningModelling toolsSimulationsChat-roomsOnline conferencesMultiplayer gamesWikisBlogsInterestingly, the radical shift in thinking about learning wasn’t matched by a shift in the technologies of education. For mainstream teaching they were the same at the end of the century as they were at the beginning:- one-to-many physical gatherings with mainly presentational technologies (books, blackboards, slides, etc),- with the focus on learning through attention. Then about half-way through the century we acquired the new technology of the computer. It spawned an immense variety of digital technologies, and yet those we’ve embraced most enthusiastically have been the presentational technologies– and notice how they do their best to emulate the old technologies, even in the words used to describe them – whiteboards, webpages, podcasts. But the only form of learning they relate to is still ‘attention’.- what about all the others we want to support?- paradoxically, the technologies we’ve not properly adopted in education are precisely those which can offer the active forms of learning the theorists have been telling us are so important – inquiry, construction, discovery, conversation, problem-solving, collaboration!Well I tried to make the link between learning theory and technologies in my book ‘Rethinking University Teaching’. The idea there was to begin from these descriptions of ‘what it takes to learn’, and use them to test the extent to which technologies help.1919
20 To summarise… Give pedagogy back to the teachers. Embrace technology as part of the solution.Begin with ambition and use technology to achieve it.Concluding points: Getting from here to a desirable thereThe time-honoured structure for a professorial lecture is to analyse the problem and then come up with a solution in the form of a set of proposals for what we should do now – at least three or four, usually rather general, and always ambitious. Of course I will succumb to temptation and do the same. But I have already accepted that our educational policy aims are nothing if not ambitious. And, following Professor Coffield, I do not want to press for yet more initiatives. I would rather accept that we already have the policy ambitions and principles of reform we need, but should use them more selectively – and that government should not attempt to micro-manage every last minute of what happens in a classroom or lecture theatre.A more important principle of reform would be to trust teachers and lecturers, and give them the time and the tools to be learning professionals. I have argued that the tools they need are the digital design environments that are capable of turning them into innovative, collaborative, reflective learners.And we need to see this as a long-term process, not a short-term initiative. We have only really had ten years to deal with a great many new technologies – digital versions of all the educational technologies developed over the centuries.We must resist those who point to the commercial world as evidence of rapid adaptation. Robert Solow, Nobel Prizewinner for Economics, reflecting on three decades of computers in industry, said ‘you can see the computer age everywhere except in the productivity statistics’. It was an insightful observation. But the vast investment in change that’s been typical of most companies hasn’t been matched in education, even though the UK has a reputation for leading the way in technology enhanced learning. We have better figures than most countries for technological infrastructure in education.And note that education hasn’t had the spectacular and costly IT failures of the other big public sector departments, largely because it’s been funded through our unique central agencies, JISC and Becta, devolving to local management, and developing cautiously.So we are in good shape, relatively speaking. We have the technology. We have the research. We have the ambition. We have the world-class agencies such as JISC and Becta, and institutions such as the Institute and the Open University.Now we need to give teachers the time, the tools, and the trust to develop their use of digital technologies according to the needs of their learners, within the framework of our highly ambitious education policy aims.In summary:• Give pedagogy back to the teachers.• Embrace technology as part of the solution.• Begin with the ambition and use the technology to achieve it.And our part in the London Knowledge Lab is to collaborate with the researchers and teaching professionals here in the Institute, and build the tools and resources that enable teachers to be the creative, adaptive, learning professionals we all want to be.2020
22 1908Learning19582008Why is education so resistant to change? Over the next decade will it undergo as radical a transformation as the music industry? If so, it will have to face some of the same issues, such as preserving copyright and maintaining quality, and also some unique ones such as assessing learning in the field and bridging the gap between formal and non-formal education. We urgently need to address these issues if learning is to meet the challenges and opportunities of the mobile age.
23 Why have schools changed so little over the past 100 years? LearningWhy have schools changed so little over the past 100 years?
24 The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining… LearningThe education system is internally consistent and self sustaining…
25 Research Assessment Exercise LearningSATsTDANational curriculumStandardsThe education system is internally consistent and self sustaining…LEAsQCALSCResearch Assessment ExerciseHEFCELeague tables
27 LearningDiagram with permission from “The Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) Center”
28 Children’s approximate arithmetic (Gilmore et al., Nature, 2007) 5-6 year old children“Sarah has twenty-one candies”“She gets thirty more”“John has thirty four candies. Who has more?”73% gave correct answersBut these approximate arithmetic skills are not developed at school
30 The 3C’s of effective lifelong learning Constructionrelating experience to knowledge, creating new ideasConversationwith teachers, with learners, with ourselves, and with the worldControlactively pursuing knowledge
44 Teaching on mobile phones Extend the classroom into everyday learning?PodcastsTeaching on mobile phonesHome access to the school intranetSend assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via or SMS which can then be auto-responded to with feedback”
45 Teaching on mobile phones Extend the classroom into everyday learning?Podcasts“At school, you do all this boring stuff, really basic stuff, PowerPoint and spreadsheets and things. It only gets interesting and exciting when you come home and really use your computer. You're free, you're in control, it's your own world.” (Guardian, May, 2007)Teaching on mobile phonesHome access to the school intranetSend assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via or SMS which can then be auto-responded to with feedback”
51 Mobile social networking 1 to 1 ratioCollaborative online writingConversational language learningSerious gamingOnline researchPersonalised learningMobloggingGroup learningGroup media creationPeer teaching
52 “In class I have to power down” (Guardian, May, 2007)
53 Disruptive mobile learning Personal technologiesPowerfulClassroom textingOwnershipCyber-bullyingDisruptive mobile learningGame playingConnects home and schoolExam cheatingLoss of teacher control
54 Challenges for schools and educational suppliers RM Asus MiniBook computer from £169Challenges for schools and educational suppliersConnect learning inside and outside the classroomManage children bringing their own powerful personal technologies into schoolEnable effective 1 to 1 learning in the classroomSupport learning through construction, conversation and controlEduinnova conversational classroom learning(Steljes)
55 LearningLearning Futures:Next Practice in Learningand TeachingPaul Hamlyn Foundation
56 Learning – The IssuesTeaching and learning strategies and student voiceInnovations seeking permissionCreativity and accountabilitySeparate worlds of learningPedagogy and language
61 headline messages: young people New technologies have been normalised, this generation has a different relationship to informationTwo bands of young people operating at different level; Everyday Communicators and Digital PioneersEveryday digital practices promote important skills from collaboration, creativity, communication to technical confidenceKnowledge is transferred horizontally and the formal system is not keeping paceThe most striking thing from all of the conversations was that there was real confusion about why we were asking questions? just so ingrained and normalised. Information: on demand, less about authoritative sources, less need to memorise things.Technology is a tool, all about how the user relates to it. Children in two very different groups, limited movement between the two: ED and DPs.Everyday communicators - MSN, keeping in touch with friends and relatives abroad, or googling homework. Strengthening existing networks.So, most young people either used technology to make communication and finding information easier. Some more sophisticated use of digital tools from ‘Digital pioneers’: Those who build websites, blog play international games etc do so frequently – those who don’t rarely stray into this world – called them digital pioneersMajority of the young people we spoke to created content in some way – from uploading and editing photos to building and maintaining websitesMost content creation skills are developed in order to share and exchange content with friends – there is little understanding that by posting things up on the net they are being shared with a public audience – one of the questions that arose from this was of the need to understand LT impact of activities in an age where employers are increasingly using the web to search potential new employersOnly ever mentioned IT lessons if prompted, and almost always negatively. While IT lessons can fulfil an important role in redressing the digital divide they are rarely creative and often underestimate the abilities of students.
62 headline messages: parents Only 50% of parents chose lessons as the most important way their child learns.2/3 of parents think their child is ‘building their general knowledge’ through their use of technology.Fathers more positive - 47% of men believe their child was developing their creativity when using technology compared to 40% of women.47% thought children should have space within the education system to showcase creative digital work.We know that informal learning is often organised around the home so we were interested in the views of parents. We polled 600 parents of children aged from 4 – 16 from different social, ethnic and regional backgrounds. The results demonstrate that parents are witnessing first hand the cultural shift we identify in this report. Yet parents are not always in touch with this shift – 16% of parents admitted to ‘never’ or ‘only occasionally’ knowing what their child was doing with phones, on the web or when playing computer games.Perhaps surprisingly 4% chose computer games and surfing the internet as the first or second most important way their child learns. 20% chose social activities - sharing a meal or playing with friends as their first choiceYounger parents tended to identify the emergence of less formal skills such as ‘collaboration’ while older parents were more inclined to pinpoint traditional competencies such as ‘general computer skills’. Broadly speaking parents from social classes AB and C1 tended to believe that their child was deriving greater benefits from digital technologies than parents in the C2 and DE brackets.What makes these results meaningful for the schools? We asked parents whether or not schools should respond. Just under half of parents agreed that schools should be ‘showcasing creative work produced outside of school,’ while another 47% thought they should offer ‘project based homework presented through any media’. 45% thought more focus on working with others is necessary. Nevertheless, they were not keen on informal learning being completely subsumed into the formal system, with only 19% approving of a ‘GCSE in computer games’I’ve rattled through our headline findings from the research and am going to move onto to share some of our analysis. However, at the end of the session I’d be really happy to come back to any of this and talk about it in more detail, and hear whether it resonates with your experience.
63 Countering some important myths… Moral PanicVersusDigital FaithAnd this blindspot is not helped by the media narratives around new technologiesOpen a Bristish newspaper on almost any day of the week and you will find a story about children and the internet. These stories undoubtedly leave parents and teachers feeling concerned – perhaps think twice about leaving a teenager alone with an internet connection!But these media narratives obscure anything of value in children’s digital cultureResponses to this are either: moral panic - a reactionary fear of youth culture: it’s all terrible. And digital faith.hailing all new technology as positive and transformative: anything goes and it’s all of value.Through our research we wanted to explode some of these myths and start to develop a clearer understanding of how young people are using technologies, and what, if anything they are learning from those informal interactions
64 Myths and misconceptions Moral panicThe internet is too dangerous for young peopleJunk culture is poisoning young peoples’ livesYoung people are apatheticNo learning happens, they are a waste of timeThe internet makes you cheatA generation of passive consumersOf course some young people do have these experiences, and safety is a key concern,1. But, given the right tools children are adept at self regulating.2. Children seek a selection – quotes about just not doing it all the time, parents having responsibility3. Caricatured as the ‘yeah but no but’ generation. Actually finding new ways of expressing themselves – Raza. Communities of interest and replacing neighbourhood friendships, pledge bank is replacing Scouts and Guides, text campaigns are more powerful than local elections and young people who have previously been failed by the education system are motivated by their passion for digital technologies.4. “some violent and repetitive games really are only good for ‘mashing up your brain’. But it is rare that we investigate other activities to see the learning underneath. Whether this is picking up html code while updating your Myspace page or thinking strategically when playing sims.Parents are also seeing the benefits: our polling shows that 47% of parents think that digital technologies enable the children to learn to communicate in new ways, 43% thought they were developing creativity and 18% thought they were learning to collaborate with others. Only 3% thought they learnt nothing.5. The public debate re-ignited with the banning of Maths coursework. Two things. Teachers knew. Most kids knew that teachers could tell. Second thing. While it is certainly true that the practice is widespread we found that children are conceiving of the practice of ‘cutting and pasting’ very differently. They felt strongly that as long as they comprehended it, or re-phrased it then it was not plagiarism. After all, where else should they go to find the answer?As a result of this cultural shift rather than legislating we need to push children to think more critically about sources and evaluate for themselves. We need to reframe our questions to reflect how information is accessed by this generation.6. All, content creation even if this only meant photo editing, this is supported by a recent Guardian ICM poll which shows that a third of young people online have launched their own blog or personal website.The rip / mix / burn culture has fostered a culture of active participation where children of a young age are using digital tools to share content and reflect critically on each other’s work.
65 Myths and misconceptions Digital faithRevolutionary power of new technologiesWe’re all digital natives nowAll gaming is goodThis set of positive myths is something that we’ve seen in a variety of contexts – at the same time as commentators were heralding the decline of in depth analysis and thinking with the advent of TV, others were paving the way for teaching robots.Staunch defenders of web 2.0 say this generation of young people will be unrecognisable from the last in the same way that robots were herladed in the past as potentially transforming the classroom.Problem for two reasons: 1. they’re not all the same. 2. technologies just make life easiernot all kids are equally confident: digital pioneers, content creators, instant communicators and information gathers. Although we now have unprecedented access to hardware, but not all children have access to the knowledge networks and types of supportwhich promote creative activities.Technology itself isn’t powerful or revolutionary, it’s the people using it who really make change happen – and that’s what our research goes onto talk about
66 It’s the knowledge economy, stupid So we can see from our findings that there’s no question that there is unprecedented use of technology by this generation.Their use of technology from the unremarkable to the unrecognisable has far reaching implications for schools, universities and the workplace.But it is still true that decision makers – from parents and teachers to politicians remain suspicious of new technologies and limit their use and role.So there is a disconnect between the people making the decisions and those experiencing the results. This is not just a problem because we risk alienating a generation of young people.It is also a problem because we’re failing to prepare a generation of young people for employment within the knowledge economy which will explicitly value the skills that they are developing around collaboration, networking and creativity.‘In 2020 our biggest exports will be health, education and the creative industries. In the global age we cannot afford to waste the talent of one single individual.’Gordon Brown 2006
67 Digital pioneersSet of characteristics that are common to the experiences of many young people and their out of school learning:Self-motivationOwnershipPurposeful creativityPeer to peer learningLearners of the future shouldn’t be an imposed set of categories, we should build on the way kids are currently learning.We’ve already mentioned that group of young people we called ‘Digital Pioneers’ who are exploiting technology’s full potential and developing a whole raft of skills in a way their peers are not.Self-motivationRaza who blogs regularly, builds websites and expresses himself politically online – impressing his school or his parents did not figure in his objectives – it is more about gaining the respect of his online community, satisfying his own high standards and expressing himself politically. Self- determination marks this activity out from behaviour at school, family duties or part-time work.Ownership – group in Peckham who make films – they talk about ideas, write treatments and scripts then act, film and edit. They are just about to launch their own channel on You tube. They are proud of their outputs and all share a sense of joint ownsership which distinguishes this from their school workPurposeful creativity seemed to be a really important component. All the people we spoke to had end goals in mind even if these weren’t recognised by the formal education system. Group in Chelsea had mastered complex software in order to record and edit a film of their friends dancing for a festival . When we asked them what got them down to a hot boring room in august they said: “It’s more fun when you’ve got something ot show for it, isn’t it”Peer-to-peer learning was also a common message – when asked where they got their knowledge from children referred to friends or siblings.But the education system is having a great deal of difficulty adapting because the way we organise our teaching and learning it has not changed in decades….
68 Exploring the learner’s perspective on e-learning JISCIn Their Own WordsExploring the learner’s perspective on e-learning
69 What the learners say…“ Wikis are good sources of information and I can transfer information onto my PDA to review at a later date.”“Virtually all my work is done using a computer and the internet. However, I will still get books out of libraries, but will make notes on a word processor.”“I don’t know what I would do if I couldn’t people. I use it much more than actually talking on the phone.”“Instant messaging has become THE primary form of communication for many students, so why not encourage lecturers to communicate to students in a distributed fashion?”“I had to leave early last week because my child minder was off … so I went onto the message board and asked for information about what I’d missed.”
71 LearnersWhat do learners and parents at some of the better performing schools feel…
72 The pace of technological change MORI Technology Tracker April 1998 – December Base: circa 4,000 interviews per month
73 A new world? Children lead in internet access The UK Children Go Online study found that 75% of 9-19 year olds have accessed the internet from home – including 70% of 9-11 year oldsAccording to Ofcom, more than 70% of year old internet users use social networking websites (compared to 41% of all UK users)37% of year old internet users have contributed to a blog or website message board (compared to 14% of all UK users)34% of 9-19 year old weekly internet users have set up their own website19% of year old internet users have their own weblog or webpage73
74 A new world?Although networks are still in their infancy, experts think they're already creating new forms of social behaviour that blur the distinctions between online and real-world interactionsJessi Hempel, Business Week“”As for political engagement, 54% of year old weekly internet users have sought out sites concerned with political or civic issues
76 Common classroom activities QWhich three of the following do you do most often in class?Copy from the board or a book52%Listen to a teacher talking for a long time33%Have a class discussion29%Take notes while my teacher talks25%Work in small groups to solve a problem22%Spend time thinking quietly on my own22%Have a drink of water when I need it17%Talk about my work with a teacher16%Work on a computer16%Listen to background music10%Learn things that relate to the real world10%Have some activities that allow me to move around9%Teach my classmates about something8%Create pictures or maps to help me remember7%Have a change of activity to help focus7%Have people from outside to help me learn4%Learn outside in my school’s grounds3%Base:All pupils (2,417)Source: Ipsos MORI
77 Most preferred ways to learn In which three of the following ways do you prefer to learn?In groups55%By doing practical things39%With friends35%By using computers31%Alone21%From teachers19%From friends16%By seeing things done14%With your parents12%By practising9%In silence9%By copying8%At a museum or library5%By thinking for yourself6%From others3%Other1%Base:All pupils (2,417)Source: Ipsos MORI
78 Where have all the content generators and controllers gone? Power and control . . .Where have all the content generators and controllers gone?The clue lies in the most popular sites in the UK1. Google.co.uk2. Yahoo!3. MSN4. Ebay UK5. Google.com6. BBC newsline ticker7. Myspace8. YouTube9. Windows Live (live.com)10. WikiPediaAnd globally?Yahoo! – half of users go straight toMSNGoogleYouTubeMySpaceWindows LiveBaidu.com (Chinese search engine)Orkut.com (google’s Brazilian social network)(Chinese site)WikiPedia78
79 Watch the top fiveMSNYahooGoogleYouTubeMySpace79
80 Watch the Top Five“The lesson is compelling: put simple, intuitive technology in the hands of users and they will create content and share it. The fastest-growing parts of the internet all involve direct human interactionEric Schmidt, CEO Google”80
81 Putting the user at the centre . . . YouTubeMySpace81
82 In the real world . . . 16 year old boy, London Hi, I’m James. I create tags for gamers and have won international competitions for my designsI use Skype to keep in touch with people I’ve met through gaming
83 In the real world . . . 16 year old boy, London I’ve never met them and they don’t know my real name – but I feel I know them better than many people I see every dayI count people in America, Norway and India among my best friends
85 LearnersThere are also more practical advantages that can help learners of all agesSupporting new styles of learning and help learners and teachers stay in touchWhich is increasingly important to learners/those returning to education
87 3. Linking teachers and learners - A huge class and age divide….
88 Internet access is plateauing – who is left behind? %All15-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465+62+274+172+178+472+259+524+1AB79+189-488-493+391+480+242+0C173+385+186+281+370+927+1C258+374+465+274+567+544+218+2DE37+155-145+452+738+829+18+1% with internet access at home or at work, 4th quarter 2006Source: Ipsos MORI Social Issues Omnibus Base: c. 10,000 GB adults 15+, Oct-Dec 2006 (compared to c. 12,000 GB adults 15+, Jan-Mar 2005)88
89 What is your most favourite thing to use ICT for?
90 Three Challenges for the Coming Decade LearnersPow! Wham!The Power of Children, Digital Media & Our Nation’s FutureThree Challenges for the Coming DecadeRima Shore, Ph.D.April 2008Executive Summary
91 Learners – Pow! Wham! The Power of Children Three interrelated challenges emerged from this inquiry. All of them must be addressed if our nation is to realize the full potential of digital learning.Build a coherent R&D effortRethink literacy and learning for the digital ageUse digital tools effectively and safely.Think critically.Understand complex systems.Know about other countries and cultures.Participate in collaborative learning communities.Invent, create, and design — alone and with others.Find wholeness in a “remix” world.Advance digital equity, reaching all children with today’s most powerful learning tools
92 LearnersYoung Minds, Fast Times: The Twenty-First-Century Digital LearnerHow tech-obsessed iKids would improve our schools.Marc Prensky
93 Learners“More than half of all secondary school students are excited about using mobile devices to help them learn; only 15 percent of school leaders support this idea.”Source: Project Tomorrow. Credit: David Julian
94 Learners – Marc Prensky "The disconnect between what students want and what they're receiving is significant," said Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow, which tracks youth culture. "Student frustration is rising.“I've heard some teachers claim that this is nothing new. Kids have always been bored in school. But I think now it's different. Some of the boredom, of course, comes from the contrast with the more engaging learning opportunities kids have outside of school. Others blame it on today's "continuous partial attention" (CPA), a term coined by Linda Stone, who researches trends and their consumer implications. Stone describes CPA as the need "to be a live node on the network," continually text messaging, checking the cell phone, and jumping on .
95 Learners – Marc Prensky cont "It is an always-on, anywhere, anytime, anyplace behavior that involves an artificial sense of constant crisis," she writes. "We pay continuous partial attention in an effort not to miss anything.“CPA differs from multitasking, which is motivated by a desire to be more efficient and typically involves tasks that demand little cognitive processing. We file and copy while we're talking on the phone and checking , for instance.