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Harnessing Technology

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1 Harnessing Technology
Context Learning Harnessing Technology Bob Harrison Support for Education and Technology / Learners

2 Context

3 Context – Educational change and ICT
Educational change and ICT: an exploration of Priorities 2 and 3 of the DfES e-strategy in schools and colleges The current landscape and implementation issues Peter Twining, Roger Broadie, Deirdre Cook, Karen Ford, David Morris, Alison Twiner and Jean Underwood

4 Context – Educational change and ICT
Complexity and human factors The review’s focus was on the ‘technological solutions’ in the schools and FE sectors in relation to Priorities 2 and 3. However, it quickly became clear that the complexity of the changes that were needed in order to implement the relevant ICT functionalities effectively were such that respondents’ prime concerns were with the change-management issues associated with implementation. Almost invariably these implementation issues related to ‘human factors’.

5 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools
The impact of ICT in schools - a landscape review Professor Rae Condie and Bob Munro with Liz Seagraves and Summer Kenesson Quality in Education Centre, University of Strathclyde

6 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools
Development of ICT in Schools The development of ICT in schools is progressing unevenly across and within schools and technologies. Some seem to be content with achieving the government’s targets in terms of numbers of computers and connectivity, while others are being highly innovative, attempting to capitalise on the benefits that ICT has been shown to bring. As schools grow in e-confidence, ICT becomes embedded in the everyday practices of the school, drawing on a range of technologies to support learning, teaching and attainment.

7 Context – The Impact of ICT in Schools
Development of ICT in Schools The literature is very positive about some aspects of ICT use, rarely negative, but mainly incomplete or inconsistent. Further studies, particularly with a longitudinal element, should shed light on the processes that schools go through in becoming e-confident and e-capable, the impact on relationships within the school, between home and school and across networks, and on pedagogical practice. Using ICT effectively in schools is about more than changing resources; it is about changing practices and culture.

8 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08
It may have been subtitled Pathways to Personalisation, but the central thrust of the keynotes and seminar programme of the Education ’08 conference at Westminster, London, was the Building Schools for the Future programme and educational transformation. Tim Byles, chief executive of Partnerships for Schools, gave the 400-plus audience an update on the BSF programme and suggested that the pipeline is now stuffed with projects which that should give rise to more than 200 new schools opening every year by the end of the decade. The reason for the delay in the BSF programme was perfectly illustrated by Karl Limbert, BSF project manager for Kent County Council. Kent has the largest BSF programme in the country which Karl Limbert illustrated with a psychedelic chart of mind-boggling complexity, with timelines, partnerships, contracts and disruption over a 20-year timescale. He added another challenge by asking delegates what was actually meant by educational transformation? “What is being transformed…and from what to what?” he asked.

9 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont
Kent had had to go “back to the future”, Tim Byles explained, and he suggested that a 20th century school was a product of the assumptions of the time and was characterised by: The teacher as an artisan Pupils as a subject Relationships that are controlling and unemotional Pedagogy of the didactic Curriculum of one size fits all School as a production line School as a large, homogenous organisation

10 Context - Kent puts 'transformation' challenge to Education 08 cont
Influenced by the thinking of Stanford University’s Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Leadbeater, and Professors Stephen Heppell, David Hargreaves and Tim Brighouse, the Kent BSF vision was now predicated upon: Relationships as key Organisations that are data rich and emotionally intelligent Pedagogy that is is constructivist Curriculum that is deep and wide Time as non-linear Micro-design as vital School is a fragmented organisation School only one venue for learning among many.

11 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project
The ICT Test Bed Project was set up by the Department for Education and Skills to explore how ICT can be used to support the Government's wider agenda for education reform.

12 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project
ICT Test Bed work focused on using ICT to: Raise standards and performance, especially in the areas of school and college improvement, student attainment and raising the quality of teaching and learning Enable more effective leadership and management in schools and colleges Help teachers to concentrate their time on their core task of teaching Enable more effective collaboration between schools and with their local colleges Improve the links between schools, homes and the community

13 Context – DFES ICT Test Bed Project
The independent evaluation was managed by Becta's Evidence and Evaluation Directorate. It was overseen by a Project Board Sub-Group, chaired by Prof Angela McFarlane (University of Bristol). The evaluation team from Manchester Metropolitan and Nottingham Trent Universities assessed the effectiveness of the project in relation to five key themes. The evaluation comprises a range of methodologies, including a survey, maturity model, action research, qualitative investigation and benchmarking performance data. The project undertook work on ICT implementation in three ICT Test Bed areas of social disadvantage. Two of these were within inner cities and one was in a rural area. The 28 ICT Test Bed Schools and departments in three colleges had access to high levels of ICT hardware and appropriate software, as well as support to make the most effective use of this investment.

14 Context 2020 Vision Report of the Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group

15 Context - Drivers of change
The pace of technological change will continue to increase exponentially. Increases in ‘bandwidth’ will lead to a rise in internet-based services, particularly access to video and television. Costs associated with hardware, software and data storage will decrease further. This is likely to result in near-universal access to personal, multi-functional devices, smarter software integrated with global standards and increasing amounts of information being available to search on line (with faster search engines). Using ICT will be natural for most pupils and for an increasing majority of teachers.

16 Context - Technology Influences what, why and how

17 Learning Theories of learning and teaching How do they relate to educational technologies?

18 What it takes to learn - the learner is an active agent in the learning process There is a common thread in our understanding of learning John Dewey Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky Jerome Bruner Paulo Freire Gordon Pask Terry Winograd Seymour Papert Lauren Resnick John Seely Brown Ference Marton Roger Säljö John Biggs Jean Lave 1890 . 1940 1960 1980 2000 Inquiry-based education Constructivism Mediated learning Discovery learning Learning as problematization Learning as conversation Problem-based learning Reflective practice Meta-cognition Experiential learning Learner-oriented approach Social constructivism Situated learning share a common conception of the learning process And my contention is, that despite the radical changes in technology, what it takes to learn, essentially, is fundamentally unchanging. From cave walls to interactive whiteboards the idea was essentially that teaching is telling. - A radical shift in thinking began with Dewey at the end of the nineteenth century, and it continued through the whole of the twentieth century. Instead of the focus on teaching, as ‘the transmission of a common culture’, as the Robbins Report described it, educational theorists began to develop a careful analysis of what it takes to learn. And to replace that clearly inadequate transmission model of teaching, theorists developed a variety of descriptors: - inquiry-based education, constructivism, discovery, conversation theory, social learning, problem-based learning, reflection, social constructivism, meta-cognition, awareness, situated learning, collaborative learning – but all of them shared the common conception of learning as an essentially active process: learning as a ‘doing’ word. What it takes to learn, we know now, is more than just being told. 18

19 What it takes to learn does not change
Books, Blackboards, Slides Broadcasts, Overhead projectors Tape-slides Interactive whiteboards, Powerpoint Web-pages, Podcasts Learning through attention Inquiry-based learning Constructivism Mediated learning Discovery learning Learning as conversation Problem-based learning Reflective practice Meta-cognition Experiential learning Learner-oriented approach Social constructivism Situated learning Modelling tools Simulations Chat-rooms Online conferences Multiplayer games Wikis Blogs Interestingly, the radical shift in thinking about learning wasn’t matched by a shift in the technologies of education. For mainstream teaching they were the same at the end of the century as they were at the beginning: - one-to-many physical gatherings with mainly presentational technologies (books, blackboards, slides, etc), - with the focus on learning through attention. Then about half-way through the century we acquired the new technology of the computer. It spawned an immense variety of digital technologies, and yet those we’ve embraced most enthusiastically have been the presentational technologies – and notice how they do their best to emulate the old technologies, even in the words used to describe them – whiteboards, webpages, podcasts. But the only form of learning they relate to is still ‘attention’. - what about all the others we want to support? - paradoxically, the technologies we’ve not properly adopted in education are precisely those which can offer the active forms of learning the theorists have been telling us are so important – inquiry, construction, discovery, conversation, problem-solving, collaboration! Well I tried to make the link between learning theory and technologies in my book ‘Rethinking University Teaching’. The idea there was to begin from these descriptions of ‘what it takes to learn’, and use them to test the extent to which technologies help. 19 19

20 To summarise… Give pedagogy back to the teachers.
Embrace technology as part of the solution. Begin with ambition and use technology to achieve it. Concluding points: Getting from here to a desirable there The time-honoured structure for a professorial lecture is to analyse the problem and then come up with a solution in the form of a set of proposals for what we should do now – at least three or four, usually rather general, and always ambitious. Of course I will succumb to temptation and do the same. But I have already accepted that our educational policy aims are nothing if not ambitious. And, following Professor Coffield, I do not want to press for yet more initiatives. I would rather accept that we already have the policy ambitions and principles of reform we need, but should use them more selectively – and that government should not attempt to micro-manage every last minute of what happens in a classroom or lecture theatre. A more important principle of reform would be to trust teachers and lecturers, and give them the time and the tools to be learning professionals. I have argued that the tools they need are the digital design environments that are capable of turning them into innovative, collaborative, reflective learners. And we need to see this as a long-term process, not a short-term initiative. We have only really had ten years to deal with a great many new technologies – digital versions of all the educational technologies developed over the centuries. We must resist those who point to the commercial world as evidence of rapid adaptation. Robert Solow, Nobel Prizewinner for Economics, reflecting on three decades of computers in industry, said ‘you can see the computer age everywhere except in the productivity statistics’. It was an insightful observation. But the vast investment in change that’s been typical of most companies hasn’t been matched in education, even though the UK has a reputation for leading the way in technology enhanced learning. We have better figures than most countries for technological infrastructure in education. And note that education hasn’t had the spectacular and costly IT failures of the other big public sector departments, largely because it’s been funded through our unique central agencies, JISC and Becta, devolving to local management, and developing cautiously. So we are in good shape, relatively speaking. We have the technology. We have the research. We have the ambition. We have the world-class agencies such as JISC and Becta, and institutions such as the Institute and the Open University. Now we need to give teachers the time, the tools, and the trust to develop their use of digital technologies according to the needs of their learners, within the framework of our highly ambitious education policy aims. In summary: • Give pedagogy back to the teachers. • Embrace technology as part of the solution. • Begin with the ambition and use the technology to achieve it. And our part in the London Knowledge Lab is to collaborate with the researchers and teaching professionals here in the Institute, and build the tools and resources that enable teachers to be the creative, adaptive, learning professionals we all want to be. 20 20

21 1908 Learning 1958 2008

22 1908 Learning 1958 2008 Why is education so resistant to change? Over the next decade will it undergo as radical a transformation as the music industry? If so, it will have to face some of the same issues, such as preserving copyright and maintaining quality, and also some unique ones such as assessing learning in the field and bridging the gap between formal and non-formal education. We urgently need to address these issues if learning is to meet the challenges and opportunities of the mobile age.

23 Why have schools changed so little over the past 100 years?
Learning Why have schools changed so little over the past 100 years?

24 The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining…
Learning The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining…

25 Research Assessment Exercise
Learning SATs TDA National curriculum Standards The education system is internally consistent and self sustaining… LEAs QCA LSC Research Assessment Exercise HEFCE League tables

26 …but doesn’t connect with the rest of learning

27 Learning Diagram with permission from “The Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) Center”

28 Children’s approximate arithmetic (Gilmore et al., Nature, 2007)
5-6 year old children “Sarah has twenty-one candies” “She gets thirty more” “John has thirty four candies. Who has more?” 73% gave correct answers But these approximate arithmetic skills are not developed at school

29 Rich learning outside the classroom

30 The 3C’s of effective lifelong learning
Construction relating experience to knowledge, creating new ideas Conversation with teachers, with learners, with ourselves, and with the world Control actively pursuing knowledge

31 Construction

32 Construction

33 Conversation

34 Conversation

35 Control

36 Control

37 Control

38 Learning How do we connect…

39 Learning Learning in the classroom…

40 Learning …and learning at home?

41 Learning How do we connect…

42 learning about the world …

43 … and learning in the world?

44 Teaching on mobile phones
Extend the classroom into everyday learning? Podcasts Teaching on mobile phones Home access to the school intranet Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via or SMS which can then be auto-responded to with feedback”

45 Teaching on mobile phones
Extend the classroom into everyday learning? Podcasts “At school, you do all this boring stuff, really basic stuff, PowerPoint and spreadsheets and things. It only gets interesting and exciting when you come home and really use your computer. You're free, you're in control, it's your own world.” (Guardian, May, 2007) Teaching on mobile phones Home access to the school intranet Send assessment questions and receive multiple choice responses via or SMS which can then be auto-responded to with feedback”

46 What do these all have common?

47 Answer: They have all been banned in classrooms

48 Learning 10 to 1 ratio

49 Learning 3 to 1 ratio

50 1 to 1 ratio

51 Mobile social networking
1 to 1 ratio Collaborative online writing Conversational language learning Serious gaming Online research Personalised learning Moblogging Group learning Group media creation Peer teaching

52 “In class I have to power down” (Guardian, May, 2007)

53 Disruptive mobile learning
Personal technologies Powerful Classroom texting Ownership Cyber-bullying Disruptive mobile learning Game playing Connects home and school Exam cheating Loss of teacher control

54 Challenges for schools and educational suppliers
RM Asus MiniBook computer from £169 Challenges for schools and educational suppliers Connect learning inside and outside the classroom Manage children bringing their own powerful personal technologies into school Enable effective 1 to 1 learning in the classroom Support learning through construction, conversation and control Eduinnova conversational classroom learning (Steljes)

55 Learning Learning Futures: Next Practice in Learning and Teaching Paul Hamlyn Foundation

56 Learning – The Issues Teaching and learning strategies and student voice Innovations seeking permission Creativity and accountability Separate worlds of learning Pedagogy and language

57 Learning

58 Learners

59 Learners of the future

60 Learners Their Space: Digital Beginnings Hannah Green Celia Hannon

61 headline messages: young people
New technologies have been normalised, this generation has a different relationship to information Two bands of young people operating at different level; Everyday Communicators and Digital Pioneers Everyday digital practices promote important skills from collaboration, creativity, communication to technical confidence Knowledge is transferred horizontally and the formal system is not keeping pace The most striking thing from all of the conversations was that there was real confusion about why we were asking questions? just so ingrained and normalised. Information: on demand, less about authoritative sources, less need to memorise things. Technology is a tool, all about how the user relates to it. Children in two very different groups, limited movement between the two: ED and DPs. Everyday communicators - MSN, keeping in touch with friends and relatives abroad, or googling homework. Strengthening existing networks. So, most young people either used technology to make communication and finding information easier. Some more sophisticated use of digital tools from ‘Digital pioneers’: Those who build websites, blog play international games etc do so frequently – those who don’t rarely stray into this world – called them digital pioneers Majority of the young people we spoke to created content in some way – from uploading and editing photos to building and maintaining websites Most content creation skills are developed in order to share and exchange content with friends – there is little understanding that by posting things up on the net they are being shared with a public audience – one of the questions that arose from this was of the need to understand LT impact of activities in an age where employers are increasingly using the web to search potential new employers Only ever mentioned IT lessons if prompted, and almost always negatively. While IT lessons can fulfil an important role in redressing the digital divide they are rarely creative and often underestimate the abilities of students.

62 headline messages: parents
Only 50% of parents chose lessons as the most important way their child learns. 2/3 of parents think their child is ‘building their general knowledge’ through their use of technology. Fathers more positive - 47% of men believe their child was developing their creativity when using technology compared to 40% of women. 47% thought children should have space within the education system to showcase creative digital work. We know that informal learning is often organised around the home so we were interested in the views of parents. We polled 600 parents of children aged from 4 – 16 from different social, ethnic and regional backgrounds. The results demonstrate that parents are witnessing first hand the cultural shift we identify in this report. Yet parents are not always in touch with this shift – 16% of parents admitted to ‘never’ or ‘only occasionally’ knowing what their child was doing with phones, on the web or when playing computer games. Perhaps surprisingly 4% chose computer games and surfing the internet as the first or second most important way their child learns. 20% chose social activities - sharing a meal or playing with friends as their first choice Younger parents tended to identify the emergence of less formal skills such as ‘collaboration’ while older parents were more inclined to pinpoint traditional competencies such as ‘general computer skills’. Broadly speaking parents from social classes AB and C1 tended to believe that their child was deriving greater benefits from digital technologies than parents in the C2 and DE brackets. What makes these results meaningful for the schools? We asked parents whether or not schools should respond. Just under half of parents agreed that schools should be ‘showcasing creative work produced outside of school,’ while another 47% thought they should offer ‘project based homework presented through any media’. 45% thought more focus on working with others is necessary. Nevertheless, they were not keen on informal learning being completely subsumed into the formal system, with only 19% approving of a ‘GCSE in computer games’ I’ve rattled through our headline findings from the research and am going to move onto to share some of our analysis. However, at the end of the session I’d be really happy to come back to any of this and talk about it in more detail, and hear whether it resonates with your experience.

63 Countering some important myths…
Moral Panic Versus Digital Faith And this blindspot is not helped by the media narratives around new technologies Open a Bristish newspaper on almost any day of the week and you will find a story about children and the internet. These stories undoubtedly leave parents and teachers feeling concerned – perhaps think twice about leaving a teenager alone with an internet connection! But these media narratives obscure anything of value in children’s digital culture Responses to this are either: moral panic - a reactionary fear of youth culture: it’s all terrible. And digital faith. hailing all new technology as positive and transformative: anything goes and it’s all of value. Through our research we wanted to explode some of these myths and start to develop a clearer understanding of how young people are using technologies, and what, if anything they are learning from those informal interactions

64 Myths and misconceptions
Moral panic The internet is too dangerous for young people Junk culture is poisoning young peoples’ lives Young people are apathetic No learning happens, they are a waste of time The internet makes you cheat A generation of passive consumers Of course some young people do have these experiences, and safety is a key concern, 1. But, given the right tools children are adept at self regulating. 2. Children seek a selection – quotes about just not doing it all the time, parents having responsibility 3. Caricatured as the ‘yeah but no but’ generation. Actually finding new ways of expressing themselves – Raza. Communities of interest and replacing neighbourhood friendships, pledge bank is replacing Scouts and Guides, text campaigns are more powerful than local elections and young people who have previously been failed by the education system are motivated by their passion for digital technologies. 4. “some violent and repetitive games really are only good for ‘mashing up your brain’. But it is rare that we investigate other activities to see the learning underneath. Whether this is picking up html code while updating your Myspace page or thinking strategically when playing sims. Parents are also seeing the benefits: our polling shows that 47% of parents think that digital technologies enable the children to learn to communicate in new ways, 43% thought they were developing creativity and 18% thought they were learning to collaborate with others. Only 3% thought they learnt nothing. 5. The public debate re-ignited with the banning of Maths coursework. Two things. Teachers knew. Most kids knew that teachers could tell. Second thing. While it is certainly true that the practice is widespread we found that children are conceiving of the practice of ‘cutting and pasting’ very differently. They felt strongly that as long as they comprehended it, or re-phrased it then it was not plagiarism. After all, where else should they go to find the answer? As a result of this cultural shift rather than legislating we need to push children to think more critically about sources and evaluate for themselves. We need to reframe our questions to reflect how information is accessed by this generation. 6. All, content creation even if this only meant photo editing, this is supported by a recent Guardian ICM poll which shows that a third of young people online have launched their own blog or personal website. The rip / mix / burn culture has fostered a culture of active participation where children of a young age are using digital tools to share content and reflect critically on each other’s work.

65 Myths and misconceptions
Digital faith Revolutionary power of new technologies We’re all digital natives now All gaming is good This set of positive myths is something that we’ve seen in a variety of contexts – at the same time as commentators were heralding the decline of in depth analysis and thinking with the advent of TV, others were paving the way for teaching robots. Staunch defenders of web 2.0 say this generation of young people will be unrecognisable from the last in the same way that robots were herladed in the past as potentially transforming the classroom. Problem for two reasons: 1. they’re not all the same. 2. technologies just make life easier not all kids are equally confident: digital pioneers, content creators, instant communicators and information gathers. Although we now have unprecedented access to hardware, but not all children have access to the knowledge networks and types of support which promote creative activities. Technology itself isn’t powerful or revolutionary, it’s the people using it who really make change happen – and that’s what our research goes onto talk about

66 It’s the knowledge economy, stupid
So we can see from our findings that there’s no question that there is unprecedented use of technology by this generation. Their use of technology from the unremarkable to the unrecognisable has far reaching implications for schools, universities and the workplace. But it is still true that decision makers – from parents and teachers to politicians remain suspicious of new technologies and limit their use and role. So there is a disconnect between the people making the decisions and those experiencing the results. This is not just a problem because we risk alienating a generation of young people. It is also a problem because we’re failing to prepare a generation of young people for employment within the knowledge economy which will explicitly value the skills that they are developing around collaboration, networking and creativity. ‘In 2020 our biggest exports will be health, education and the creative industries. In the global age we cannot afford to waste the talent of one single individual.’ Gordon Brown 2006

67 Digital pioneers Set of characteristics that are common to the experiences of many young people and their out of school learning: Self-motivation Ownership Purposeful creativity Peer to peer learning Learners of the future shouldn’t be an imposed set of categories, we should build on the way kids are currently learning. We’ve already mentioned that group of young people we called ‘Digital Pioneers’ who are exploiting technology’s full potential and developing a whole raft of skills in a way their peers are not. Self-motivation Raza who blogs regularly, builds websites and expresses himself politically online – impressing his school or his parents did not figure in his objectives – it is more about gaining the respect of his online community, satisfying his own high standards and expressing himself politically. Self- determination marks this activity out from behaviour at school, family duties or part-time work. Ownership – group in Peckham who make films – they talk about ideas, write treatments and scripts then act, film and edit. They are just about to launch their own channel on You tube. They are proud of their outputs and all share a sense of joint ownsership which distinguishes this from their school work Purposeful creativity seemed to be a really important component. All the people we spoke to had end goals in mind even if these weren’t recognised by the formal education system. Group in Chelsea had mastered complex software in order to record and edit a film of their friends dancing for a festival . When we asked them what got them down to a hot boring room in august they said: “It’s more fun when you’ve got something ot show for it, isn’t it” Peer-to-peer learning was also a common message – when asked where they got their knowledge from children referred to friends or siblings. But the education system is having a great deal of difficulty adapting because the way we organise our teaching and learning it has not changed in decades….

68 Exploring the learner’s perspective on e-learning
JISC In Their Own Words Exploring the learner’s perspective on e-learning

69 What the learners say… “ Wikis are good sources of information and I can transfer information onto my PDA to review at a later date.” “Virtually all my work is done using a computer and the internet. However, I will still get books out of libraries, but will make notes on a word processor.” “I don’t know what I would do if I couldn’t people. I use it much more than actually talking on the phone.” “Instant messaging has become THE primary form of communication for many students, so why not encourage lecturers to communicate to students in a distributed fashion?” “I had to leave early last week because my child minder was off … so I went onto the message board and asked for information about what I’d missed.”


71 Learners What do learners and parents at some of the better performing schools feel…

72 The pace of technological change
MORI Technology Tracker April 1998 – December Base: circa 4,000 interviews per month

73 A new world? Children lead in internet access
The UK Children Go Online study found that 75% of 9-19 year olds have accessed the internet from home – including 70% of 9-11 year olds According to Ofcom, more than 70% of year old internet users use social networking websites (compared to 41% of all UK users) 37% of year old internet users have contributed to a blog or website message board (compared to 14% of all UK users) 34% of 9-19 year old weekly internet users have set up their own website 19% of year old internet users have their own weblog or webpage 73

74 A new world? Although networks are still in their infancy, experts think they're already creating new forms of social behaviour that blur the distinctions between online and real-world interactions Jessi Hempel, Business Week As for political engagement, 54% of year old weekly internet users have sought out sites concerned with political or civic issues

75 1. The ubiquity of IT

76 Common classroom activities
Q Which three of the following do you do most often in class? Copy from the board or a book 52% Listen to a teacher talking for a long time 33% Have a class discussion 29% Take notes while my teacher talks 25% Work in small groups to solve a problem 22% Spend time thinking quietly on my own 22% Have a drink of water when I need it 17% Talk about my work with a teacher 16% Work on a computer 16% Listen to background music 10% Learn things that relate to the real world 10% Have some activities that allow me to move around 9% Teach my classmates about something 8% Create pictures or maps to help me remember 7% Have a change of activity to help focus 7% Have people from outside to help me learn 4% Learn outside in my school’s grounds 3% Base: All pupils (2,417) Source: Ipsos MORI

77 Most preferred ways to learn
In which three of the following ways do you prefer to learn? In groups 55% By doing practical things 39% With friends 35% By using computers 31% Alone 21% From teachers 19% From friends 16% By seeing things done 14% With your parents 12% By practising 9% In silence 9% By copying 8% At a museum or library 5% By thinking for yourself 6% From others 3% Other 1% Base: All pupils (2,417) Source: Ipsos MORI

78 Where have all the content generators and controllers gone?
Power and control . . . Where have all the content generators and controllers gone? The clue lies in the most popular sites in the UK 1. 2. Yahoo! 3. MSN 4. Ebay UK 5. 6. BBC newsline ticker 7. Myspace 8. YouTube 9. Windows Live ( 10. WikiPedia And globally? Yahoo! – half of users go straight to MSN Google YouTube MySpace Windows Live (Chinese search engine) (google’s Brazilian social network) (Chinese site) WikiPedia 78

79 Watch the top five MSN Yahoo Google YouTube MySpace 79

80 Watch the Top Five The lesson is compelling: put simple, intuitive technology in the hands of users and they will create content and share it. The fastest-growing parts of the internet all involve direct human interaction Eric Schmidt, CEO Google 80

81 Putting the user at the centre . . .
YouTube MySpace 81

82 In the real world . . . 16 year old boy, London
Hi, I’m James. I create tags for gamers and have won international competitions for my designs I use Skype to keep in touch with people I’ve met through gaming

83 In the real world . . . 16 year old boy, London
I’ve never met them and they don’t know my real name – but I feel I know them better than many people I see every day I count people in America, Norway and India among my best friends

84 2. How are people using I.T.?

85 Learners There are also more practical advantages that can help learners of all ages Supporting new styles of learning and help learners and teachers stay in touch Which is increasingly important to learners/those returning to education


87 3. Linking teachers and learners - A huge class and age divide….

88 Internet access is plateauing – who is left behind?
% All 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 62+2 74+1 72+1 78+4 72+2 59+5 24+1 AB 79+1 89-4 88-4 93+3 91+4 80+2 42+0 C1 73+3 85+1 86+2 81+3 70+9 27+1 C2 58+3 74+4 65+2 74+5 67+5 44+2 18+2 DE 37+1 55-1 45+4 52+7 38+8 29+1 8+1 % with internet access at home or at work, 4th quarter 2006 Source: Ipsos MORI Social Issues Omnibus Base: c. 10,000 GB adults 15+, Oct-Dec 2006 (compared to c. 12,000 GB adults 15+, Jan-Mar 2005) 88

89 What is your most favourite thing to use ICT for?

90 Three Challenges for the Coming Decade
Learners Pow! Wham! The Power of Children, Digital Media & Our Nation’s Future Three Challenges for the Coming Decade Rima Shore, Ph.D. April 2008 Executive Summary

91 Learners – Pow! Wham! The Power of Children
Three interrelated challenges emerged from this inquiry. All of them must be addressed if our nation is to realize the full potential of digital learning. Build a coherent R&D effort Rethink literacy and learning for the digital age Use digital tools effectively and safely. Think critically. Understand complex systems. Know about other countries and cultures. Participate in collaborative learning communities. Invent, create, and design — alone and with others. Find wholeness in a “remix” world. Advance digital equity, reaching all children with today’s most powerful learning tools

92 Learners Young Minds, Fast Times: The Twenty-First-Century Digital Learner How tech-obsessed iKids would improve our schools. Marc Prensky

93 Learners “More than half of all secondary school students are excited about using mobile devices to help them learn; only 15 percent of school leaders support this idea.” Source: Project Tomorrow. Credit: David Julian

94 Learners – Marc Prensky
"The disconnect between what students want and what they're receiving is significant," said Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow, which tracks youth culture. "Student frustration is rising.“ I've heard some teachers claim that this is nothing new. Kids have always been bored in school. But I think now it's different. Some of the boredom, of course, comes from the contrast with the more engaging learning opportunities kids have outside of school. Others blame it on today's "continuous partial attention" (CPA), a term coined by Linda Stone, who researches trends and their consumer implications. Stone describes CPA as the need "to be a live node on the network," continually text messaging, checking the cell phone, and jumping on .

95 Learners – Marc Prensky cont
"It is an always-on, anywhere, anytime, anyplace behavior that involves an artificial sense of constant crisis," she writes. "We pay continuous partial attention in an effort not to miss anything.“ CPA differs from multitasking, which is motivated by a desire to be more efficient and typically involves tasks that demand little cognitive processing. We file and copy while we're talking on the phone and checking , for instance.

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