3 Primer - recent version history PRIMER 9.3 RC1 Spring 2007Solid element spotwelds and connectionsMechanisms (e.g. seats)Dummy positioningMore…PRIMER 9.3 RC2 Autumn 2007Compatible with LS971 manual*PARAMETERIncremental improvementsPRIMER 9.3 RC2+ January 2008RC2 + Minor bugfixesPRIMER 9.3 final release October 2008
4 About this presentation This presentation is intended for existing users who are already familiar with the previous release, PRIMER 9.3 RC2+. Descriptions of the features that were introduced in versions 9.3 RC1 and 9.3 RC2 are available in separate presentations, downloadable from our website.PRIMER 9.3 RC1:PRIMER 9.3 RC2/RC2+:Miscellaneous enhancementsCopy/translateCut section displayInclude file control from Edit panelsOverspill from text boxesINCLUDE file version controlCheck for discontinuous rigid bodiesNew options in WriteOtherSolid element spotweldingBoltsMechanisms and seat positioningDummy positioningSeat foam compressionInstrument Panel Impacter positioningAutomatic assembly enhancementsLS971 Keywords*PARAMETERModel Merge improvementsCustomisable definition of error/warningSpotwelding & connections improvementsMechanisms improvementsSeat belt re-fitSeat foam compression improvementsBackground image & alignment of model to imageNew image types, watermarkImprovements to numbering ranges by INCLUDE fileMiscellaneous enhancements
7 Error log for Model Read PRIMER now creates a log when reading a keyword file. Check the text here; if errors or warnings are present, view the log file.
8 New options during Model Write Ztf file passes extra information to Oasys D3PLOT, e.g. Part NamesPreferences are now available to set the default for these optionsOption to replace Parameter references with the parameter valuesEach model now remembers its own output filename. The default filename is the same as the input filename (red colour warns that the original file will be overwritten).
9 View keyword filename in Model List Toggle between Title and Keyword filename*TITLEKeyword file rootname
10 New columns have been added to Part Table: Number of elements – helps to find empty parts*PART_CONTACT dataIs part referenced by *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES?Restraint conditions on *MAT_RIGIDDoes part have *PART_INERTIA or *PART_CONTACT?
11 Part TableThe current column settings may now be saved to the user preference file. The same columns will then appear in the table next time PRIMER is run.
12 Part TableParts from the table may be identified visually using the new drop-down menu option ONLY:The table data (all columns, not only the visible columns) can now be written to csv file via a batch command (PART_INFO command)
13 Xrefs – Unblank by category The cross-reference viewer can now unblank (or display only) all the entities of a given type that are referenced.For example, to display all the parts referenced by a selected material:
14 Mouse scroll wheelWhen the cursor is in the graphics window, the mouse scroll wheel zooms in/out, centred about the cursor position.The + and – shortcut keys now also centre the zooming action on the cursor position.When the cursor is in a menu with a vertical scrollbar, the mouse scroll wheel moves the scroll bar.cursor
15 Viewing Airbag Shell Reference Geometry Airbags may be defined with “Shell Reference Geometry” (an alternative shell element topology). This is used to allow the material in the reference condition to be oriented such that each fabric “panel” has its warp and weft directions aligned consistently. The definition of orthotropic properties, and the directions in which those properties apply, is easier.The shell reference geometry may now be viewed.
16 Viewing Foam Reference Geometry Foam reference geometry may now be viewed
17 Graphics for short beams PRIMER normally draws beams as a line. However, if a beam appears very short (as a fraction of the screen width), a line might be difficult to see, so PRIMER replaces the line with a blob.This is useful for isolated beams (such as beams used to represent spotwelds) but can look strange when applied to beams that are part of a larger structure.PRIMER now offers different settings for spotweld beams versus “normal” beams.Very short beams drawn as blobsPrevious versions of PRIMERPRIMER 9.3
18 Remove – entities blocked from removal Before removing entities, PRIMER checks whether they are referenced by other remaining entities – if so, they should be blocked (not removed), otherwise the model will not run.When this occurs, PRIMER now allows the blocked entities to be traced. Usually, the reason for blocking becomes clear from the “used by…” text, or from the X-Refs.Part is used in a mechanism assembly and in Constrained definitions
19 New drawing style for Contacts When contacts are switched on in the Entity menu, they are now drawn stippled (semi-transparent appearance). This is faster to draw than the previous hatched line style.
20 New drawing style for Contacts A quick way to view all the contacts in a model is to switch on Contacts in the Part Tree (under “Type”), set the Part Tree Action to “Only”, and click on each contact in turn (or use the up/down arrows)
21 Lumped mass totalQuick way to sum the mass of selected *ELEMENT_MASS elementsNote – only the lumped mass elements are included in the total given.
22 Include file removal options New options to remove dependent entities in other Include files, or restrict removal only to contents of this Include fileIf PRIMER can remove all the contents of an Include file, a new option then offers to delete the Include file itself or leave it empty
23 Database/Template assembly – assisted update After this sequence…Build model from databaseModify contents of an Include fileWrite the modified Include file… PRIMER now assists the user to update the database entry for that Include filePRIMER offers the database entry for that Include file. The user can now select the new Include file.Orange colour indicates that the Include filename is different from the filename in the database
25 Both the NASTRAN input and output translators now support: NASTRAN SupportNew optimized input translator for NASTRAN. Reads decks in a single pass, hence potentially faster.Both the NASTRAN input and output translators now support:Both SMALL and WIDE format cards.INCLUDE files.
27 Multiple impact casesPrevious versions of PRIMER could set up multiple impact cases using data from a csv file. The file contains impact point coordinates and other data needed for building the models, e.g. depenetration method.A menu is now available for creating/editing the data interactively and building the models.
28 Multiple impact cases Create/Edit target points Read/save csv file Build modelsMain model and impactor model. PRIMER will combine these using *INCLUDE_TRANSFORM.Select type of build – IHI (FMVSS201), Pedestrian head impact, and General types are availableImpactor model orientation data will be used to define the impact point, line of flight and local XZ for depenetration.Create a model inside PRIMER that includes Model and Impactor (so that orientation nodes etc may be picked)Contact depenetration method (permissible motion of impactor during depenetration).Special options for IHI case – automatic setting of vertical angle using chin contactOutput filename and root directory – each model will be written to a separate subdirectoryPost-processing (REPORTER) templates may be specified, if the LS-DYNA runs will be submitted using the Oasys Shell.Create/Edit target points
29 Multiple impact cases Before build operation Sketched target points Target point dataAfter build operation, showing 6 models (each model contains one impacter)
31 INCLUDE file numbering Tabular menu to set label ranges and renumber the contents of INCLUDE files.Can be accessed from the Model tab and from the Include Tree
32 INCLUDE file numbering Renumber any entities whose labels are outside the specified ranges.Make the “general” ranges the same as the “Node/Element” rangesChange the order of Include files in this menuLabel ranges can be specified using the text boxes, or auto-generated (“auto” means “use label range of existing entities”).Range overlaps with another Include fileEntities not in specified range
33 Include file numbering PRIMER allows each Include file to have two numbering ranges: one for nodes, elements, node sets and Nodal Rigid Bodies; and another range for all other entity types (e.g. Parts). It is permitted for the two ranges to be the same.PRIMER will store the numbering ranges with each Include file when the files are written out. The ranges will still be available the next time the model is read into PRIMER.Model Check will detect entities outside the numbering ranges and offer an Autofix.If an Include file contains some entities inside the label range and some entities outside the range, only those outside the range will be renumbered. If the range is too small to contain all the entities, numbering will continue at Model Highest + 1 for that entity type.
34 INCLUDE file numbering PRIMER can provide a summary or a detailed list of entities that are outside the specified rangeInformation is available to identify overlapping ranges
36 COAT improvementsMenu that can be used to coat entities with shells or segmentsCan be accessed from the Tools menuWhen creating a segment set, the segments may be created using the Coat menu
37 COAT improvementsChoice of coating external (topologically external), exposed (visible if all but the selected elements are blanked), or visible (visible in current view) faces. This is not used for the “Shell” option or for the “Coat Face” mode.Entity selection menu used to select parts or elements that need to be coated. Element selection might have to be accompanied by node selection for the “Coat Face” option.What should be coated? Parts? Elements? Specific Faces of elements that satisfy a break angle criterion?All faces on selected element and on adjacent elements that are within the break angle range are coated. Only used along with “Propagate” mode for “Coat Face” option.Should selection be propagated for “Coat Face” option?
38 COAT improvements Topologically external faces Faces that would be visible if all but the selected elements are blanked
39 COAT improvementsIf selected solid has one external face, that face is automatically used as the seed faceSeed faceSeed nodesIf selected solid has multiple external faces, users are prompted to select a pair of nodes that will help PRIMER identify a unique seed faceSeed face
41 New data components: Contouring Mass Scale → Percentage Added Mass by Parts.Mass Scale → Actual Added Mass by Parts.Material Properties → Young’s Modulus.
42 ContouringDiscrete values: if less than 14 data values are to be contoured, each data value is now given its own “discrete” contour level.
43 Contouring‘Discrete’ contouring of a narrow range of values can be used to find entities having specific data values.
44 ContouringInitial translational and rotational velocities are now contoured separately.‘Discrete’ contour levels are now applied to velocity plots also.
45 ContouringInitial plastic strains in shell elements (from *INITIAL_STRESS_SHELL) are now contoured at a specified integration point, not Top/Middle/Bottom surface as in the previous release. This allows for the situation where data is defined at more than three integration points. Note that the *INITIAL data may contain a different number of IP’s from the *SECTION card – LS-DYNA allows this and will interpolate.
47 FMH – Alternative “positional” node In previous versions of PRIMER, only the standard reference point on the headform could be automatically positioned against the target. Vertical angle rotation would occur only about the standard reference point.An alternative “Positional Node” on the headform may now be picked for these purposes.131 - Pick new Positional Node2 – “Zero” the node onto the target3 – Drag or type the vertical angle244 – Eliminate penetrations by “auto-position”
48 FMH – Auto Vertical Angle A new tool is available to set the vertical angle by rolling the chin into contact with the trim, then backing off by a given angle.Start by placing the impact point of the headform against the target, and setting the vertical angle as it would be in physical test at the start of the rolling process.Enter the “Auto vertical tool”.Select (or create) a set of shell elements that define the chin
49 FMH – Auto Vertical Angle Roll without slidingMaintain contact at target point
50 FMH improvements - contact selection/modification The contact between the FMH and the vehicle trim can now be modified through the FMH main panel.Contact selection
51 FMH improvements – model build from CSV file PRIMER is able to build multiple FMH models from a CSV file containing target positions and initial angles. In 9.3, the option to use the “Auto Vertical Tool” has been added.To activate this ability in the CSV model build, two more fields have been added to the loadcase line:Note for the auto case, the “vertical angle” is now the maximum vertical angle allowed during the positioning process.The chin shell set and the depenetration method are defined in the csv file:$ tag to activate auto-vertical angle positioning $ chin shell set name/id, dof <x, xz or xyz> Vertical, 5000, XZ
53 Setting preferences for error checking Preferences saved from the Preferences Editor (e.g. for user-defined error checks) may now be used for Model Check during the same Primer session.In the Check menu, use the button “Refresh Preferences” to re-read the preferences file.Save new preferences to User and/or System preference fileOptional: Re-read and apply preferences from User and/or System preference file
54 Setting preferences for error checking It may be desired to run PRIMER’s model check using different “custom” sets of checking options. This can now be done by saving preferences to a “custom” preference file, then reading that file either on start-up or during a PRIMER session.“Custom” preference files may be read on command line start-up or in batch mode using a command fileSave new preferences to “custom” preference fileOptional: Read and apply preferences from a “custom” preference file(path)/primer93.exe model.key –pref=oa_pref_file –d=batch -exit
55 Check Options MenuThe Check Options menu has been subdivided into smaller sub-menus – select category from the drop-down menu
56 Finding Empty PartsMethod 1 - New option when Filtering Parts in the Object menu – Filter by Not Referenced…Parts with no references from any element (empty parts)
57 Method 2 – use new column Numel in Part Table. Sort by Numel. Finding empty partsMethod 2 – use new column Numel in Part Table. Sort by Numel.Parts with no elements
58 Method 3 - New warning in Model Check – Empty Parts Finding empty partsMethod 3 - New warning in Model Check – Empty PartsNote: users sometimes create rigid parts without elements but with *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES and/or *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES. These will not be treated as empty parts – no warning given.This check is ON by default but may be turned off using a preference
59 Keyword editor from Model Check New option from right-click on error type – PRIMER shows all the offending entities in the Keyword Editor
61 Version 9.3RC2 and earlier Keyword editor In previous versions of PRIMER, each _OPTION was displayed separately in the keyword editor. In this example, the model contains*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE_SET*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID_IDThe data for the four types could be found by pressing the type buttonsVersion 9.3RC2 and earlierOnly *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE is displayed
62 Version 9.3 Keyword editor The keyword editor now displays all the _OPTIONs are displayed together.The _OPTIONs are shown in a column “Suffices”.Version 9.3*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE_SET*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID_ID
63 Keyword editorBy default, all lines of data are displayed that are needed for any of the _OPTIONs present in the model.Some of the entities have _ID, therefore the line containing ID, TITLE is displayed. Where an entity does not have _ID, that line is greyed out.
64 Keyword editorEach line of data may be blanked. In this example, the first and third lines have been blanked.
65 Line 1 Line 2 Keyword editor Where the LS-DYNA data has multiple lines, “Single-row layout” displays the data on a single line.Line 1Line 2
66 Keyword editorIt is still possible to display only those entities having certain _OPTIONs, using the “Filter by” buttons:“A” means automatically filter to include all _OPTIONs present in the modelHide/show entities with these OPTIONs
67 Keyword editorThe data may be sorted by clicking on the header of any column.
68 The same change may be made to multiple entities: Keyword editorThe same change may be made to multiple entities:Click on first entity (must click in first column, not on the data itself)Shift-click on last entityChange the data onceThe same data is changed for all selected entities.ClickShift-Click
69 Keyword editorThe _OPTIONs may also be changed. For example, to add _ID to several *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION cards:Select the entities in the keyword editorClick in the “Suffices” columnChange the OPTIONs (e.g. click on ID)Many similar user-requested capabilities can now be achieved using this method, e.g:Change many *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION into *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION_IDChange many *ELEMENT_SHELL_THICKNESS into *ELEMENT_SHELLNote that this action may also be achieved using Keyword=>Element=>Shell=>_option
70 Keyword editorMultiple entities may also be selected using the object menus, or by screen-picking. Note that to screen-pick an entity, e.g *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION, the *BOUNDARY entities must be visible in the graphics. It is not sufficient to pick the node referenced by the *BOUNDARY card.Cancel previous selectionSelect from object menu or screen-pick
71 Keyword editorIt is now possible for the keyword editor to display only the selected entities (or to hide the selected entities)Display only selected entities
72 Keyword editorFurther options are available from right-click on entity (in left column) – Sketch, Blank, Delete, etc
73 Keyword editorA column for Include File (to which the entity belongs) is displayed.By clicking on this, an option to move the data to a different Include file is offered.Move to different Include file
74 Then add the rest of the data, and press Create Keyword editorTo create new data, first click to select the _OPTIONs on the green Create line:Then add the rest of the data, and press CreateClick here to dismiss the sub-menu
75 Keyword editorSome entity types allow creation of multiple entities in a single operation, by picking multiple nodes (or elements, parts, etc as appropriate). Apart from the different nodes (or elements or parts), the other data must be the same.For example, to create a *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE on each of several nodes, first select the _OPTIONs and enter all the data except the node ID:
76 Keyword editorFrom the drop-down menu under NID, click on MULTIPLEThe object menu will appear. Screen-pick or select nodes from the list. When you press Apply, a *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION will be created for every node selected.
78 *INCLUDE_TRANSFORM in Mechanisms *DEFINE_TRANSFORMATION data used for *INCLUDE_TRANSFORM will now be modified automatically when a mechanism is positioned.PRIMER will do this if all the nodes affected by the *DEFINE_TRANSFORMATION are governed by the same assembly of the mechanism.Example:Side airbag is defined in the XY plane, so that fold patterns etc may be modified easily.*INCLUDE_TRANSFORM is used to place the airbag in the seat.When the seat is positioned, extra transformations are added to *DEFINE_TRANSFORM, so that the airbag moves with the correct part of the seat. If the airbag keyword file is then written out, the node coordinates will be unchanged (e.g. still in the XY plane).If the model is repeatedly positioned, written out, read back into PRIMER, positioned… the number of transformations in the *DEFINE_TRANSFORMATION card will increase.
79 Other improvements to Mechanisms Stop-angles can be input for hinge jointsThe initial angle may be input (a reference angle corresponding to the initial configuration of the mechanism)For stop-angles and sliding limits, it is now permitted for both limits to be positive, or both negative, provided that an initial value is provided that is within the range of the limits. For example:+ve limit = 28 degrees-ve limit = 5 degreesInitial angle = 23 degrees
80 Other improvements to Mechanisms Two mechanisms, or a dummy and a mechanism, may be linked via the “Child” capability of PRIMER’s Mechanisms.In previous versions, only translational degrees of freedom could be linked. Now, the rotational degrees of freedom may also be linked:“Fully locked” = rigid connection“All rot” = coupled rotations
81 Dummy Angles File (DAF) The Dummy Angles File has been extended so that it always moves the dummy into the same position, including H-point location and overall rotation, irrespective of the initial position and previous history of the model.The file may now also include comments.Example.dafExample.daf
83 A new connection type has been added to PRIMER 9.3 – adhesives. Adhesive connectionsA new connection type has been added to PRIMER 9.3 – adhesives.In PRIMER the user can now create/modify/delete etc. mesh-independent solid adhesive runs.Functionality includes:Manually create an adhesive run by defining a line on panels.Automatically create adhesive runs between selected panels.Modify the adhesive through the connections table.Read in and write out adhesive connection data in the PRIMER XML connection file format.Fully incorporated into PRIMER’s connection functionality (delete, list, find connected etc.).Automatic creation of tied contact for adhesive runs to attach the mesh independent solids to panels.
84 Adhesive connections - Creation Adhesives can be created through the Tools=>Connections->Create panel.When selecting the panel parts, we advise to select only the parts required for a single bond line. After creating the bond line, press “select shells” again, and select the parts for the next bond line. This practice is different from spotwelding, when the user may select all parts in the body structure.2. Select panel parts.1. Select Adhesive option3. Select or create a part for the adhesive solid elements
85 Adhesive connections – input data Set this input data before creating the adhesive
86 Adhesive connections – Creation – Manual With “adhesive line” selected, click on the panels to create each point in the path. PRIMER will sketch the points and the line.
87 Adhesive connections – Creation – Manual Click on the “sketch adhesive” button to preview the adhesive elements before creating them. The input data (e.g. break angle, element size, etc) can be modified, the Sketch again.
88 Adhesive connections – Creation – Manual “Apply” will create the solid elements and create the connection entity. The connection entity is drawn as two blobs connected by a path line. The colouring of this entity is dependent on connection status and follows the same scheme as spotwelds.
89 Adhesive connections – Creation – Automatic “Auto adhesive” allows the user to create adhesive runs automatically between selected panels. The method works in a similar way to the automatic spotwelding feature, following the free edges of the panels.Glue edge distance
90 Adhesive connections – Creation – Automatic Master Part (or Part Set): (Optional, but strongly recommended) - only free edges on the master part(s) are used to construct adhesive paths.Without a master part selected, PRIMER will attempt to create adhesive from all free edges on all parts selected for connection. This can lead to overlapping solid elements and/or “broken” paths:XNo master partRed part = master
91 Adhesive connections – Creation – Automatic After setting the desired parameters, the “sketch adhesive” button can be used to preview the adhesive that PRIMER will create. The user can now change any of the inputs and re-sketch the adhesive until the desired result is achieved.In this example, there are large gaps between the red and blue panels that prevent adhesive element creation near the path points marked
92 Adhesive connections – Creation – Automatic Clicking “Apply” will now create the adhesive. Note that “modify existing path” can be used to modify any runs created (explained on the next few slides).
93 Adhesive connections – Modification The path of an existing adhesive run can be modified by clicking on the “Modify existing path” button in the create panel. The path can also be modified in the same way through the connections table (see later slides).The coordinates of the path points are displayed.
94 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:The example here shows a typical adhesive run. Clicking “Sketch” in the modify path panel will sketch the path points with numbers next to the points corresponding to the numbers shown on the panel. Note, you can return to the original path data by clicking on “Reset” (must be done before clicking on “Apply”).
95 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:By clicking the red “X” button next to any of the points, that point will be removed. Clicking “Apply” will remake the adhesive run without that point. The image here shows the 3rd point removed. Similarly a point can be added by clicking on the green “+” button next to any of the points. This will create a new point after the point you clicked on. You can then select the position of the point by either typing in the coordinates or by clicking on “Pick” next to the new point, and then choosing a point on the mesh.
96 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:You can modify an existing point either typing in the coordinates or by clicking on the “Pick” button next to the point, and then choosing a point on the mesh.
97 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:You can set any of the path points to the new start or end points by using the appropriate “Start” or “End” buttons next to the path point in the panel.
98 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:You can split the adhesive path by clicking on the “Split” button on the adhesive path panel, and then clicking on a node on the adhesive run. PRIMER will split the path at this point with the gap specified in the adhesive path panel. Note that this operation cannot be undone. After the split, the path information retained on the path panel is for the first of the two resulting adhesive runs.
99 Adhesive connections – Modification Modify path example:You can split the adhesive path by clicking on the “Split” button on the adhesive path panel, and then clicking on a node on the adhesive run. PRIMER will split the path at this point with the gap specified in the adhesive path panel. Note that this operation cannot be undone. After the split, the path information retained on the path panel is for the first of the two resulting adhesive runs.
100 Adhesive connections – Modification Adhesive can be modified through the connections table.Adhesive specific values (such as adhesive width) can be modified by selecting to view the columns through the “View…” button.The “Modify path” panel described on the previous slides can be accessed through the connection table by right clicking on the “Adhe. Path” column entry, and choosing “Edit”.
101 Adhesive connections – Writing Adhesive connection data can be written to a PRIMER XML file in the same way as other connection types.For adhesives, adhesive width, number of elements across the width and element length are stored in the XML file. Also for adhesive, the part ID of the solids in the connection are stored, along with additional information for the path of the adhesive.
103 Adhesive connections – Reading Adhesive data contained within a PRIMER XML connections file can also be read into PRIMER through the standard connections read panel.Prior to read, PRIMER will scan the file to check if any required information is missing (e.g. part ID or width of adhesive), and you will be able to supply this to the edit panel. Such information will only be used for connections which have parameters missing in the xml data.
105 Bolt connections – Include file options PRIMER’s “rigid merge”-type bolt connections consist of rigid patches overlaid on existing deformable elements, connected by *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES.There is a new option for controlling the Include file location of these entities, illustrated on the next slide.Can be set as a preference, or during bolt creationExisting bolts can be modified using Connections Table.Modifying existing bolts to use the new optionSetting the option when creating new bolts
106 Bolt connections – Include file options Include file 1 – e.g bodyInclude file 2 – e.g doorExisting deformable elements“Current Layer” Include file*C_R_BPRIMER’s overlaid rigid elements plus *C_R_BDefaultInclude file 1 – e.g body“Current Layer” Include fileInclude file 2 – e.g doorNew option*C_R_BExisting deformable elements plus PRIMER’s overlaid rigid elementsPRIMER’s *C_R_BExisting deformable elements plus PRIMER’s overlaid rigid elements
108 Spotwelding – speed-up compared to 9.3 RC2+ Some spotwelding operations were unnecessarily slow in PRIMER 9.3 RC2+, due to checking that spotwelds were correctly tied by the tied contact.In this release, the checking process is much faster, especially for operations on small numbers of welds.
109 Spotwelding to the same Part Clinch joints or some types of folded parts involve spotwelding two layers of the same Part ID.Previous versions of PRIMER have not allowed this.A new option may be set to allow this. A preference is available to turn on this option by default.
110 Finding 3-layer spotwelds When selecting connections (e.g. for the Connections Table), the Connections object menu now allows filtering by number of layers
111 Fixing spotwelds that are too near each other Delete one of each conflicting pair, without user interaction (this option was available in previous versions of PRIMER)Send conflicting welds to the Table for interactive fixing (new option)
112 Fixing spotwelds that are too near each other Only the conflicting welds are displayed in the table.Method 1 – Delete one spotweld from each pair.Change the Action to “Delete Connection”; Select one spotweld from each pair by clicking on the screen or in the table. Apply to Selected welds.
113 Fixing spotwelds that are too close to each other Method 2 - New option “Merge Spotwelds”Change Action to “Merge Spotwelds”. Select one pair of conflicting welds. Apply to Selected welds.This method can fix 3-layer welds that have been wrongly defined as two 2-layer welds.
114 Connections/spotwelds improvements “Show connx and panels” now automatically shows any Nodal Rigid Bodies or rigid parts causing the spotweld not to stick to the panel
116 Alignment of Hexa spotwelds When PRIMER creates Hexa element spotwelds, these are now aligned with a free edge if possible.
118 “MIG Weld”Continuous welds (e.g. MIG) on the edge of a panel may now be represented using spotweld beams.Each spotweld beam connects a node on the free edge of one panel to the projected point on the surface of the other panel.In this release of PRIMER, each connected node is treated as a separate spotweld-like connection. The connections can be made by selecting nodes or a node set on the free edge.When creating these welds, we advise to turn off the weld proximity check.
120 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive Spotweld and adhesive elements are fixed to the panels using tied contact.PRIMER’s special error checks for spotweld connectivity now use the same parameters as LS-DYNA to check whether nodes will tie (e.g. user-specified contact thickness, etc)PRIMER’s “connection contact” capabilities can now work with multiple tied contact definitions.Different tied contact types may be used:Constrained types (e.g. *CONTACT_SPOTWELD, *CONTACT_TIED_NODES_TO_SURFACE) offer a rigid connection but are incompatible with rigid parts or Nodal Rigid BodiesPenalty-method types (e.g. *CONTACT_TIED_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_OFFSET) are compatible with rigid parts and Nodal Rigid Bodies but add compliance into the connection.It is desirable to use constraint-type tied contacts wherever possible; however, when a panel (shell) node is attached to a rigid part or a Nodal Rigid Body, the constraint-type contacts will not work. Spotweld or adhesive nodes connecting to such a shell element require special treatment. Two methods have been proposed:(a) – Add the spotweld nodes into the rigid body, e.g. using *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES.(b) – Use a penalty-method tied contact only for spotwelds tying to shells with rigid nodes; use a separate constraint-type contact for all other spotwelds.
121 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive White spotweld nodes added to rigid bodyRigid part (grey)Method (a) – add the spotweld nodes into the rigid body. We do not recommend this, because the behaviour of the resulting connection can be unrealistic:
122 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive Rigid part (grey)Method (b) – use penalty-method tied contact for any spotweld where needed for compatibility with rigid bodies. This is the method now used by PRIMER.
123 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive The Tools=>Connections=>Contact menu now offers many new capabilities.Nodes may fail to tie for these reasons:“Not Connected” – node(s) or part(s) have been omitted from the tied contact“Not sticking” – incompatibility with rigid body“Not tied” – too far from panel surfaceA summary of these problems is available in hover-text from the grey bar
124 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive Sketch the problem spotweld nodes
125 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive Fix the tied contact-related problems:(a) Fix “Not Connected” problems by adding nodes/parts to the slave and/or master side of the contact as required.(b) Fix “Not Sticking” incompatibility problem by creating a separate penalty-method contact, and putting the nodes for each spotweld into either the constrained-type contact or the penalty-method contact as required.Simple method – deletes existing tied contacts used for spotwelds/adhesive, creates one constrained-type and one penalty-method contact. Fixes (a) and (b).Detailed method – when the user wishes to preserve existing tied contact definitions, e.g. if special input parameters are used or if several tied contacts are used for different areas of the model. These buttons offer a choice of which spotweld/adhesive parts to consider, and which (if any) existing tied contact definitions should be used.
126 Tied contacts for spotwelds and adhesive After fixing the other contact problems, there may still be “not tied” errors (spotweld nodes too far from panel). These can be fixed by sending the offending spotwelds to the Connections Table, select them all, and Update & Remake.
128 Contact penetration check – part pairs The contact penetration menu now offers a list of pairs of interacting parts. “Interacting” includes both crossed edges and penetrations.
129 Contact penetration check – part pairs Click on a pair of parts to see the interactions for that pair.Shift-click and CTRL-click have special meanings here – see the “help” textReset to default (show all parts)Find all parts with crossed edgesThis also has the effect of setting the blanking to show only these parts.Penetration fixing will be applied only to these parts.
130 Finding contacting elements Options to find contacting elements or parts at a selected node (available in previous versions of PRIMER) are now offered only when the Element Detail button is pressed.For crossed edges writes a *SET_SEGMENT containing the element faces with contact interactions. For penetrating case – a *SET_SEGMENT and *SET_NODE. The sets are written to an Include file warnings.k
131 Finding contacting elements An alternative method of finding contacting elements is now availableFor example, to find which elements are contacting Part 1001:Set the blanking to display only Part 1001On the Contact Pen Check menu, press “Unblank”Any elements with nodes that penetrate the currently visible elements will be unblanked.this method will also find elements with crossed edges
132 Contact penetration options The minimum penetration to be plotted may now be set here – in this example, 0.2mm. This facility was previously available only from the Settings sub-menu.List of part pairs automatically reduces to show only those pairs with penetrations greater than 0.2mm.This data includes only penetrations above 0.2mm“Fix” will now move only those nodes with penetration greater than 0.2mm; it will stop moving the nodes when the penetration has been reduced to 0.2mm.
133 Contact penetration options Different ways of measuring the penetration are availablexT=(t1+t2)/2PRShell element mid-planet2t1P =R =R/T =
134 Contact penetration options Display any interactions in which the remaining depth R is less than 0.5mm
135 Contact penetration options Display any interactions where the remaining depth ratio R/T is less than 0.9 (i.e. the penetration is > 0.1 times the contact thickness)
136 Plotting Contact GapPRIMER can also display gap size, for nodes/elements that are not initially in contact.“Move” function is available to close the gaps, as for Tied Contact checkingxT=(t1+t2)/2Gt2t1
137 Penetration check from Part menu PRIMER can now check for penetrations and crossed edges in selected parts, without the need for a *CONTACT to be defined. A new button “Pen check” is available from Keyword=>PartPRIMER creates a temporary single-surface contact, which is deleted automatically after the contact penetration menu is dismissed.Select parts, then “Apply”
139 Tied contact checkThe “Pen Check” for tied contacts has also been improved
140 PRIMER can display the elements connected to tied, or untied, nodes. Tied contact checkPRIMER can display the elements connected to tied, or untied, nodes.In this example, we find the elements connected to untied slave nodes1. Choose to display tied or untied elements2. Choose to display slave and/or master side of contact3. Draw the result
141 PRIMER can fix type (a) by moving the untied slave nodes. Tied contact fixingSlave nodes might be “untied” because (a) they are too far from the master elements, or (b) because they are affected by a constraint or rigid part.PRIMER can fix type (a) by moving the untied slave nodes.Draw the vectors by which the nodes will be movedInput the maximum gap to be consideredSelect all untied nodes that have gaps within the stated range
142 Tied contact fixingClose the gap allowing for shell thickness (for OFFSET_BEAM and OFFSET_CONSTRAINT types)Move nodes to the shell mid-plane (recommended for most tied contact types)Before fix – arrows show proposed movement of nodesBefore fix – arrows show proposed movement of nodesAfter fixAfter fix
146 Adding your scripts as buttons in the Script menu To make a script available more easily, copy it into the directory $OASYS\primer_library\scripts. For each script in this directory, a button appears in the script menu. Pressing the button runs the script.By default, the script file name appears on the button
147 Adding your scripts as buttons in the Script menu To change the name of the button (and optionally to add hover text for the button) add a special comment at the top of the file containing text: name:<name for button> description:<hover text to display> e.g./* name:Find moved* description:Find moved nodes between models 1 and 2** This script compares Model 1 and Model 2; it blanks both models,* then unblanks any elements whose nodes have moved */Message("Checking differences in coordinates");
149 Example application: Finding moved parts Available as a button in the Scripts menu, “find moved”This script compares two similar models, and unblanks only those elements whose nodes have different coordinates between the two models.?Run ScriptOnly moved parts are displayedModel 1Model 2
150 Example application: Multiple seat position This script seat_position.js is available in the examples directory $OASYS/primer_library/examplesCreate multiple seat models with the H-point in different positions. The script makes a menu so the user can type in data to make a rectangular grid of H-point positions.Run Script, type data into menu
152 Example application: Interfacing with other programs This script asks the user to select parts, runs an external program (HYCRASH from JRI Solutions) to perform 1-step metalforming analysis, and imports the resulting thickness, stress and strain data into the model.Run ScriptScript runs HYCRASHSelect parts in crash modelCrash modelCrash model now has forming data
156 Contact InformationFor more information please contact the following:UK:ArupThe Arup CampusBlythe Valley ParkSolihull, West MidlandsB90 8AEUKT +44 (0)F +44 (0)China:Arup39/F-41/F Huai Hai PlazaHuai Hai Road (M)ShanghaiChinaTFIndia:nHance Engineering Solutions Pvt. Ltd (Arup)Plot No. 39, Ananth Info ParkOpposite Oracle CampusHiTec City-Phase IIMadhapurHyderabadIndiaT +91 (0) / 8or contact your local Oasys distributor