Presentation on theme: "RES-1 ASM Eastern VA, 2005-04-21 Aluminum Alloys for Industrial Applications - Focus on Ground Transportation Materials Selection for Applications Seminar."— Presentation transcript:
RES-1 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum Alloys for Industrial Applications - Focus on Ground Transportation Materials Selection for Applications Seminar Eastern Virginia ASM 2005 April 21 R. E. Sanders, Jr. Alcoa Technical Center Alcoa Center, PA 15069
RES-2 ASM Eastern VA, Outline Current aluminum applications – Automotive – Trucks, trailers, and tankers The case for aluminum – Payload and economics – Maintenance and appearance – Longer life – Safety and highway damage Materials development
RES-3 ASM Eastern VA, United States and Canada 10,536 M tonnes (23.6 billion lbs) Building & Construction 14.8% Exports 10.1% Other 8.5% Electrical 6.4% Consumer Durables 6.8% Containers & Packaging 21.3% Transportation 32.2% Ingot 33.4% Extrusion & Tube 16.5% Other 5.2% Sheet, Plate & Foil 44.8% Aluminum Shipments by Major Market (2002 A. A. Statistical Review) Major MarketProduct Form
RES-4 ASM Eastern VA, –Usage of Aluminum in North American Ground Transportation Total: 2,950 M tonnes (6.6 billion lbs) Trailers & Semis 492* Trucks & Buses 767* Passenger Cars 5,348* *values x 1 million pounds
RES-5 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum Alloys Wrought alloys – semi-fabricated – Available as sheet, plate, extrusions, forgings – 8 major alloy systems: >400 alloys Cast alloys – net shape – 6 major alloy systems: >70 major alloys How do you pick the alloy and product form?
RES-6 ASM Eastern VA, The Alloy Selection Puzzle Properties and performance vary with product application Strength may be a large or small piece of the puzzle Optimizing one aspect of performance may cost us in another area.
RES-7 ASM Eastern VA, About 95% of the Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications Today Have Been Developed by Alcoa A /600 A380 A318
RES-8 ASM Eastern VA, xxx Alloy Aerospace Applications Alloy 2519 Armor Plate Space Shuttle Fuel Tanks Alloy 2219, Alloy 2195 Alloys 2x24 Sheet Aircraft From ATC Slide Library Fuselage Under Construction -- alloy 2024
RES-10 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum vs. Steel in Automobiles – Steel was used in Europe and USA for outside of vehicles before 1903 – Complex body frames in early 1900s – Al castings – All-Steel car body invented and patented in 1912 (Edward G. Budd) – Aluminum preferred for auto body panels before 1920 (i.e., ductility) – First large sheet metal presses (stamping) gave steel edge after 1920 – Renewed interest in Aluminum in 1970s following energy crisis and CAFÉ legislation – Current steel usage in autos still > 50% of vehicle weight – Aluminum usage is currently 130 kg per vehicle
RES-11 ASM Eastern VA, Cast Aluminum Bodies Alcoa Builds Aluminum Auto Bodies for the Ford Model T in New Kensington, PA.
RES-12 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum in Trucking Applications By 1930s aluminum was recognized as key weight saving material for trucks – Delivery vehicles – Dump trucks – Tankers 2000 extra liters per load 1800 extra kg. per load
RES-13 ASM Eastern VA, Al Body Delivery Truck – circa 1936 Weight savings vs. steel – 500 kg 25 extra cases of drink per load; payback in 140 trips
RES-14 ASM Eastern VA, Automotive Applications Wheels Closure Panels Transmission Brackets Wiring Harness Heat Exchanger Components/ Radiators Suspension Components Drive Shaft Yokes Bumper Beams Knuckles and Control Arms Airbag Canisters Fasteners, Stamping Assemblies Engine Components Steering Yokes Brake Pistons/ Calipers Electronic Components Body-in-white Structure Step Plates Inner Door Panels Cross members Water Pump Housings Windshield Surrounds Full Frames Examples of Aluminum Utility & Flexibility
RES-15 ASM Eastern VA, Product Selection Aluminum sheet – Forming critical parts – Flat surfaces – Design for dent resistance and stiffness Extrusions – Longitudinal stiffeners – Energy Absorption – Ease of assembly Castings – Part simplicity, low cost Forgings – High performance finished parts, e.g., wheels
RES-16 ASM Eastern VA, xxx Alloy Auto Sheet Applications Nissan Altima Ford Ranger Chrysler LHS 2002 Harley-Davidson
RES-17 ASM Eastern VA, Al space frames use extrusions as energy absorbing structure Audi A8 Ferrari Modena
RES-18 ASM Eastern VA, Alloy 6061 Forged Wheels Heavy Duty Truck Wheels Motorcycle Wheels Crane Wheels Automotive\SUV\Light Truck
RES-19 ASM Eastern VA, Roof sheet Side sheet Extrusions for skeleton, side posts Floor, scuff plate, tread plate Wheels Huckfasteners North American Commercial Vehicles The Utility Logo is a Registered Trademark of Utility Trailer Manufacturing Co. Cab doors Fuel tanks Body trim Frame rails Cross members Cab structure Huck Chassis fasteners Wiring harness Wheels Huck Cab fasteners Peterbilt is a Registered Trademark Bumper
RES-20 ASM Eastern VA, Advantages of Aluminum Light weighting saves kg per trailer vs steel – Increased payload (payback is very short) ( next slide ) – Marginal fuel savings (493 liters/160,000 km) – Better braking and improved safety (lower center of gravity) – Less damage to roads from overloaded trucks – Longer tire life for dump trailers: $400/year for 8-tire trailer Lower corrosion-related maintenance costs – No need to paint flat beds or dump trucks Cost to re-paint steel vehicles every five years: $600 – No rust when sheet is sheared or scratched – Better appearance over time, easy to clean Premium attractive appearance – Bright trim, bumpers, fuel tanks, tread plate Non-sparking
RES-21 ASM Eastern VA, Economics Payload-limited tractor trailers can increase productivity by increasing payload – The tare weight of heavy vehicles is limited to 36,363 kg (80,000 lbs) in US Consider: – Incremental cost of Aluminum vs steel (~$3000) – Increased payload revenue results in payback in 0.5 to 2.0 years depending upon mileage
RES-22 ASM Eastern VA, Highway Safety and Road Damage China – Many truck accidents caused by overloading 119 deaths in Beijing alone, caused by overloaded trucks in Overloading causes failure of safety critical components: Tires; brakes; wheels; axles Such failures are usually catastrophic. Rmb 4 billion in Hebei province was spent in 2001 alone for road damage repairs. Lightweighting with Al can reduce tenden cy to overload, improving safety and highway life.
RES-23 ASM Eastern VA, Road Damage from Overloaded Trucks
RES-24 ASM Eastern VA, Material Selection for Truck Parts UseAlloyKey Attributes Chassis, Trailer Frames 6061-T6 extrusionStrength, fatigue* Side Sheets3004, 5052-H291Painted, durability Roof3003-H1xWide width Fuel Tanks5052-OImpact resistance* Compressed Air5083, 5754, 5154Impact resistance* Wheels6061-T6 Fatigue, surface, wear Cab Sheets6022, 6111-T4, 5182-OFormability Bumpers6061, 5xxxSurface, strength TrimVarious 3xxx, 5xxxGood surface * After welding
RES-25 ASM Eastern VA, Dry Van Wall Product Attributes Alloy 3004 or 5052-H291 Side Sheets – Hard temper for high strength and dent resistance – Painted surface for corrosion durability – Economical to produce – Available in wide range of colors, surfaces, and finishes Alloy 6061-T6 Extrusions – Moderate strength, good fatigue – Shapes facilitate truck frame manufacture and assembly – Economical to produce Alloy 6061 or 5xxx for Bumpers – High strength for dent resistance – Bright, durable finish after polishing Alloy 3003-H1x Sheet for Roofs – Moderate strength, Wide width to eliminate seams
RES-26 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum Tanker Trucks
RES-27 ASM Eastern VA, Aluminum in Tanker trucks Aluminum tankers used to haul petrol for US armed forces in World War II Alcoa marketed aluminum tanker trucks for commercial use starting in late 1940s Alloy 5454 introduced in early 1950s to insure good corrosion performance in tanker applications Aluminum tankers currently carry oil, petrol (gasoline), chemicals, cement, and other dense materials Currently alloy 5083 (Europe) and 5454 (USA) are most commonly used alloys Non-sparking nature of aluminum improves safety in crash situation
RES-28 ASM Eastern VA, Economics: Aluminum Tankers Practically all aluminum tanker trucks are limited by total weight (not by volume) Lightweighting with Aluminum can haul more volume at same weight – or – haul equal volume at lower weight - typically 10% higher payload for same or less operating cost vs steel design Value of Aluminum is in reduced number of loads to haul same amount of cargo
RES-29 ASM Eastern VA, Alloy Selection for Tankers Alloy 5454 (2.7 Mg, 0.6 Mn) – H321 temper – Good combination of strength and formability – Excellent corrosion resistance, even after elevated temperature exposure – Good weldability – Good fatigue resistance after welding Available as Bulk Transport Sheet (BTS) in various finishes – Mill finish – Consistent uniform surface finish – Specular – Engineered bright finish – Al Bright – ultimate in brightness and image clarity Alloys 5083 and 5182 – standard alloys used in Europe
RES-30 ASM Eastern VA, Future Directions Improved alloys for automotive applications – Better formability for sheet – Castings which do not require heat treatment (lower cost) – Extrusions for energy absorption Couple alloy, process development and design
RES-31 ASM Eastern VA, Filiform Corrosion (3 weeks Exposure to Dry Bottom MASTMAASIS per ASTM G85)
RES-32 ASM Eastern VA, Summary and Conclusions Economics drives aluminum usage – More payload: Lightweighting with Al pays for itself quickly in weight-limited applications – Reduced maintenance costs due to corrosion Additional benefits: attractive appearance, safety, reduced damage to highways and infrastructure Proper selection of Al alloys enables maximum benefits to be realized – High strength where needed – High formability (sheet) – High fatigue performance (forgings) – Parts simplification (extrusions and castings) Development of new materials is proceeding in combination with design technology
RES-33 ASM Eastern VA, Acknowledgements Alcoa Technical Center – Shawn Murtha – Ron McClure – Andy Trageser – Greg Bartley – Jotpreet Chahal Alcoa Asia-Pacific – Michael Swain – Anil Govada