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Materials Selection for Applications Seminar Alcoa Technical Center

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Presentation on theme: "Materials Selection for Applications Seminar Alcoa Technical Center"— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials Selection for Applications Seminar Alcoa Technical Center
Aluminum Alloys for Industrial Applications - Focus on Ground Transportation Materials Selection for Applications Seminar Eastern Virginia ASM 2005 April 21 R. E. Sanders, Jr. Alcoa Technical Center Alcoa Center, PA ASM Eastern VA,

2 Outline Current aluminum applications The case for aluminum
Automotive Trucks, trailers, and tankers The case for aluminum Payload and economics Maintenance and appearance Longer life Safety and highway damage Materials development ASM Eastern VA,

3 Aluminum Shipments by Major Market (2002 A. A. Statistical Review)
United States and Canada Major Market Product Form Transportation 32.2% Building & Construction 14.8% Ingot 33.4% Extrusion & Tube 16.5% Other 5.2% Sheet, Plate & Foil 44.8% Exports 10.1% Other 8.5% Electrical 6.4% Containers & Packaging 21.3% Consumer Durables 6.8% 10,536 M tonnes (23.6 billion lbs) ASM Eastern VA,

4 2002 –Usage of Aluminum in North American Ground Transportation
Trailers & Semis 492* Trucks & Buses 767* Passenger Cars 5,348* Total: 2,950 M tonnes (6.6 billion lbs) *values x 1 million pounds ASM Eastern VA,

5 Aluminum Alloys Wrought alloys – semi-fabricated
Available as sheet, plate, extrusions, forgings 8 major alloy systems: >400 alloys Cast alloys – net shape 6 major alloy systems: >70 major alloys How do you pick the alloy and product form? ASM Eastern VA,

6 The Alloy Selection “Puzzle”
Properties and performance vary with product application Strength may be a large or small piece of the puzzle Optimizing one aspect of performance may cost us in another area. ASM Eastern VA,

7 About 95% of the Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications Today Have Been Developed by Alcoa
ASM Eastern VA,

8 2xxx Alloy Aerospace Applications
From ATC Slide Library Fuselage Under Construction -- alloy 2024 Alloys 2x24 Sheet Aircraft Space Shuttle Fuel Tanks Alloy 2219, Alloy 2195 Alloy Armor Plate ASM Eastern VA,

9 High-Strength 7xxx Alloys
Alloys 7150, Aircraft (Upper Wings) Alloys 7175/7050/7085 Forgings Alloys 7050/ Sports Equipment Alloys 7150/ Extrusions ASM Eastern VA,

10 Aluminum vs. Steel in Automobiles
Steel was used in Europe and USA for outside of vehicles before 1903 Complex body frames in early 1900s – Al castings “All-Steel” car body invented and patented in (Edward G. Budd) Aluminum preferred for auto body panels before (i.e., ductility) First large sheet metal presses (stamping) gave steel edge after 1920 Renewed interest in Aluminum in 1970s following energy crisis and CAFÉ legislation Current steel usage in autos still > 50% of vehicle weight Aluminum usage is currently 130 kg per vehicle Many different materials have been used for a variety of automotive applications over the years. * For instance, steel was used for closure panels as early as 1901 and 1903 in Europe and the United States. * The all-steel car body was invented and patented in 1912 by Edward Budd. * Steel became the favored body panel material after 1920 after the first stamping presses made production more efficient. * Magnesium was used in engines to win the Indy 500 in 1921 and is now used for castings and trim. Some are even discussing the possible use of Mg sheet for body panels. * The world’s first plastic body was developed by Ford in 1941 though this never led to a production car. * The first use of plastics for car exteriors occurred in the late 1940s when metal parts were coated with vinyls that simulated wood grains. * Glass-fiber reinforced resins used in boat hulls was adapted by GM in 1952 for the Brooks Boxer then was used later for the Corvette. * Our favorite material, aluminum, has been used since the dawn of the century. * Aluminum castings were used for complex body sections in the early 1900s. * Because of it’s ductility, aluminum was the favored material for body panels until 1920 when the stamping press made steel panels easier to produce. * Aluminum then faded but was revived in the 1970s following the energy crisis and the establishment of new Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards by the U.S. Govt. ASM Eastern VA,

11 Cast Aluminum Bodies Alcoa Builds Aluminum Auto Bodies for the Ford Model T in New Kensington, PA. ASM Eastern VA,

12 Aluminum in Trucking Applications
By 1930’s aluminum was recognized as key weight saving material for trucks Delivery vehicles Dump trucks Tankers 1800 extra kg. per load 2000 extra liters per load ASM Eastern VA,

13 Al Body Delivery Truck – circa 1936
Weight savings vs. steel – 500 kg 25 extra cases of drink per load; payback in 140 trips ASM Eastern VA,

14 Automotive Applications
Windshield Surrounds Electronic Components Wiring Harness Body-in-white Structure Airbag Canisters Fasteners, Stamping Assemblies Water Pump Housings Steering Yokes Closure Panels Brake Pistons/ Calipers Bumper Beams Wheels Suspension Components Heat Exchanger Components/ Radiators Drive Shaft Yokes Step Plates Cross members Inner Door Panels Transmission Brackets Knuckles and Control Arms Engine Components Full Frames Examples of Aluminum Utility & Flexibility ASM Eastern VA,

15 Product Selection Aluminum sheet Extrusions Castings Forgings
Forming critical parts Flat surfaces Design for dent resistance and stiffness Extrusions Longitudinal stiffeners Energy Absorption Ease of assembly Castings Part simplicity, low cost Forgings High performance finished parts, e.g., wheels ASM Eastern VA,

16 6xxx Alloy Auto Sheet Applications
Chrysler LHS Ford Ranger Nissan Altima 2002 Harley-Davidson ASM Eastern VA,

17 Al space frames use extrusions as energy absorbing structure
Audi A8 Ferrari Modena ASM Eastern VA,

18 Alloy 6061 Forged Wheels Heavy Duty Truck Wheels Motorcycle Wheels
Crane Wheels Automotive\SUV\Light Truck Manufacturing operations in Cleveland, OH Lebanon, VA Monterrey, Mexico Szekesferhervar, Hungary Naoetsu, Japan (Machining only) Produced 2.2 million wheels in 2002 Required 200 million pounds of ingot Wheels currently produced range from 3” to 17.75” wide and from 15” to 25.5” in diameter Capable of producing net shape surfaces ASM Eastern VA,

19 Huck Chassis fasteners
North American Commercial Vehicles Extrusions for skeleton, side posts Roof sheet Huck Cab fasteners Cab doors Cab structure Side sheet Body trim Huck Chassis fasteners                                            Cross members Frame rails Floor, scuff plate, tread plate Wheels Fuel tanks Huck fasteners Bumper Wiring harness Wheels Peterbilt is a Registered Trademark The Utility Logo is a Registered Trademark of Utility Trailer Manufacturing Co. ASM Eastern VA,

20 Advantages of Aluminum
Light weighting saves kg per trailer vs steel Increased payload (payback is very short) (next slide) Marginal fuel savings (493 liters/160,000 km) Better braking and improved safety (lower center of gravity) Less damage to roads from overloaded trucks Longer tire life for dump trailers: $400/year for 8-tire trailer Lower corrosion-related maintenance costs No need to paint flat beds or dump trucks Cost to re-paint steel vehicles every five years: $600 No rust when sheet is sheared or scratched Better appearance over time, easy to clean Premium attractive appearance Bright trim, bumpers, fuel tanks, tread plate Non-sparking ASM Eastern VA,

21 Economics Payload-limited tractor trailers can increase productivity by increasing payload The tare weight of heavy vehicles is limited to 36,363 kg (80,000 lbs) in US Consider: Incremental cost of Aluminum vs steel (~$3000) Increased payload revenue results in payback in 0.5 to 2.0 years depending upon mileage ASM Eastern VA,

22 Highway Safety and Road Damage China – 2001-2002
Many truck accidents caused by overloading 119 deaths in Beijing alone, caused by overloaded trucks in Overloading causes failure of safety critical components: Tires; brakes; wheels; axles Such failures are usually catastrophic. Rmb 4 billion in Hebei province was spent in 2001 alone for road damage repairs. Lightweighting with Al can reduce tendency to overload, improving safety and highway life. ASM Eastern VA,

23 Road Damage from Overloaded Trucks
ASM Eastern VA,

24 Material Selection for Truck Parts
Use Alloy Key Attributes Chassis, Trailer Frames 6061-T6 extrusion Strength, fatigue* Side Sheets 3004, 5052-H291 Painted, durability Roof 3003-H1x Wide width Fuel Tanks 5052-O Impact resistance* Compressed Air 5083, 5754, 5154 Wheels 6061-T6 Fatigue, surface, wear Cab Sheets 6022, 6111-T4, 5182-O Formability Bumpers 6061, 5xxx Surface, strength Trim Various 3xxx, 5xxx Good surface ASM Eastern VA, * After welding

25 Dry Van Wall Product Attributes
Alloy 3004 or 5052-H291 Side Sheets Hard temper for high strength and dent resistance Painted surface for corrosion durability Economical to produce Available in wide range of colors, surfaces, and finishes Alloy 6061-T6 Extrusions Moderate strength, good fatigue Shapes facilitate truck frame manufacture and assembly Alloy 6061 or 5xxx for Bumpers High strength for dent resistance Bright, durable finish after polishing Alloy 3003-H1x Sheet for Roofs Moderate strength, Wide width to eliminate seams ASM Eastern VA,

26 Aluminum Tanker Trucks
ASM Eastern VA,

27 Aluminum in Tanker trucks
Aluminum tankers used to haul petrol for US armed forces in World War II Alcoa marketed aluminum tanker trucks for commercial use starting in late 1940’s Alloy 5454 introduced in early 1950’s to insure good corrosion performance in tanker applications Aluminum tankers currently carry oil, petrol (gasoline), chemicals, cement, and other dense materials Currently alloy 5083 (Europe) and 5454 (USA) are most commonly used alloys Non-sparking nature of aluminum improves safety in crash situation ASM Eastern VA,

28 Economics: Aluminum Tankers
Practically all aluminum tanker trucks are limited by total weight (not by volume) Lightweighting with Aluminum can haul more volume at same weight – or – haul equal volume at lower weight - typically 10% higher payload for same or less operating cost vs steel design Value of Aluminum is in reduced number of loads to haul same amount of cargo ASM Eastern VA,

29 Alloy Selection for Tankers
Alloy 5454 (2.7 Mg, 0.6 Mn) – H321 temper Good combination of strength and formability Excellent corrosion resistance, even after elevated temperature exposure Good weldability Good fatigue resistance after welding Available as Bulk Transport Sheet (BTS) in various finishes Mill finish – Consistent uniform surface finish Specular – Engineered bright finish Al Bright – ultimate in brightness and image clarity Alloys 5083 and 5182 – standard alloys used in Europe ASM Eastern VA,

30 Future Directions Improved alloys for automotive applications
Better formability for sheet Castings which do not require heat treatment (lower cost) Extrusions for energy absorption Couple alloy, process development and design ASM Eastern VA,

31 Filiform Corrosion (3 weeks Exposure to Dry Bottom MASTMAASIS per ASTM G85)
And its corrosion performance exceeds the competition ASM Eastern VA, 26 25

32 Summary and Conclusions
Economics drives aluminum usage More payload: Lightweighting with Al pays for itself quickly in weight-limited applications Reduced maintenance costs due to corrosion Additional benefits: attractive appearance, safety, reduced damage to highways and infrastructure Proper selection of Al alloys enables maximum benefits to be realized High strength where needed High formability (sheet) High fatigue performance (forgings) Parts simplification (extrusions and castings) Development of new materials is proceeding in combination with design technology ASM Eastern VA,

33 Acknowledgements Alcoa Technical Center Alcoa Asia-Pacific
Shawn Murtha Ron McClure Andy Trageser Greg Bartley Jotpreet Chahal Alcoa Asia-Pacific Michael Swain Anil Govada ASM Eastern VA,

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