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The Video Camera and Support Equipment

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Presentation on theme: "The Video Camera and Support Equipment"— Presentation transcript:


2 The Video Camera and Support Equipment
3 The Video Camera and Support Equipment

3 Objectives Explain the differences between the various video cameras available. Identify each part of a video camera and note the corresponding function. Differentiate between the focal length and the focal point related to a zoom lens. Explain the interrelationship between f-stops, the iris, and aperture in controlling light.

4 Objectives Identify the challenges and benefits involved in using hand-held camera shooting. Recognize the types of tripod heads available and cite the unique characteristics of each. Implement the proper procedures for cleaning and storing video equipment.

5 Types of Cameras Studio camera Camcorder Convertible camera

6 Studio Camera Remains in studio Unsuitable for field work because of:
Size Weight Paired with Camera control unit (CCU) or Remote control unit (RCU)

7 Tripod with Dolly Dolly has three wheels with tripod legs that fit into it

8 Studio Pedestal Vertical column with base and three wheels on bottom
Heavy Pneumatics or hydraulics assist movement Has wheel to steer it as it moves Vinten Broadcast Ltd.

9 CCU/RCU Two names for the same device
Controls technical specifications of video signal from camera to match images from all cameras Color Tint Contrast Brightness Iris

10 Camcorder Contains camera and recorder in one unit
Lightweight and portable Sits on tripod or rests on operator’s shoulder Records on variety of digital tape and other media Usually can be directly connected to editor to download footage

11 Camcorder (Cont.)

12 Convertible Camera Camcorder that can be accessorized to become studio camera Larger viewfinder Rear controls for lens operation CCU/RCU may be added Less expensive than studio camera and more versatile

13 Parts of a Camera Many parts are interchangeable, allowing user to customize camera to exact needs Camera head Viewfinder Camera lens

14 Camera Head Actual camera
Contains all the electronics needed to capture image Light enters camera and hits target Target is front of charge coupled device (CCD) CCD converts light to electrical signal Professional quality camera has three CCDs Consumer quality camera has one CCD

15 Gain Control Feature found on higher-end cameras
Allows strength of video signal to be increased or decreased Used when image is too dark or too bright Has negative effects Entire image becomes increasingly grainy Brighter areas begin to glow unnaturally Should not be activated without supervisor approval

16 Viewfinder Small video screen that lets camera operator see image that camera is obtaining 1” screen with eye cup for operator with camera on shoulder Small screen (3.4”/4.5”) that unfolds from side of camera used when camera is on tripod Larger screen (5”–7”) separate unit attaches above studio camera head

17 Diopter Adjustment Adjusts magnification on 1” viewfinder for operators who wear glasses

18 Zebra Stripes Alert for camera operator
Stripes only appear on viewfinder when camera is not recording Diagonal black and white lines in areas of viewfinder that are beyond set limits of video brightness Any area with zebra stripes will glow Action is recommended to eliminate stripes

19 Camera Lens Assembly of glass discs on front of camera through which light passes into camera Focus–occurs when adjoining areas of contrast are as sharp as possible Auto-focus–optional electrical circuit that tries to automatically keep image focused Professionals do not use auto-focus Auto-focus removes possibility of creative focus techniques

20 Zoom Lens Allows smooth transition from close-up to wide-angle shot
Accomplished by moving zoom ring on lens assembly Transition from wide-angle to close-up—called zoom in, or tighten Transition from close-up to wide-angle—called zoom out, or widen

21 Optical Center of the Lens
Also known as focal point Place where the image inverts inside of lens Wherever actual zoom lens is located

22 Focal Length Distance in millimeters between focal point and back of lens

23 Variable Focal Length Lens
Another name for zoom lens Since actual zoom lens moves back and forth within zoom assembly, and since zoom lens is always focal point, distance between zoom lens and back of lens varies Therefore, zoom lens is variable focal length lens

24 Lens Control Rings

25 F-stop Settings on lens which indicate size of iris

26 Iris Metal blades form circle
High blades create thick circle and small hole Low blades create thin circle and large hole Controls amount of light that reaches back of lens/target of camera

27 Aperture Actual hole or opening in lens
Large hole lets in much light (fast lens) Small hole lets in little light (slow lens)

28 Iris/Aperture

29 Relationship F-stop controls size of iris, which controls size of aperture

30 Auto-Iris Circuit Electrical circuit that automatically controls size of iris Good feature that professionals may use

31 Shutter Circuit that regulates how long CCD is exposed to light before sending signal to recorder Normal shutter speed is 1/60, i.e. CCD sends its signal 60 times per second Pro cameras can increase shutter speed to 1/8000+ Higher shutter speed = clearer images when played back in slow motion Excellent feature for shooting sports

32 Camcorder Camera Mounts
Hand-held shooting Image stabilization devices Tripod shooting

33 Hand-Held Should be avoided if possible
Produces good images for mere seconds Otherwise, produces shaky camerawork Never use zoom-in settings when hand holding

34 If You Must Hand-Hold…

35 Image Stabilization Device
Glidecam Industries, Inc.

36 Subjective Camera

37 Tripod Three legs Length of each leg can be independently extended
Sometimes has vertical column in center which can be raised and lowered Pedestal column Handle that raises and lowers pedestal is pedestal control, which should not be used when camera is recording, or hot, to avoid audience seeing shaking screen

38 Tripod Head Attaches to top of tripod Camera attaches to tripod head
Head allows pans and tilts to occur Head has one or two pan handles attached so operator can stand behind camera and move it with handle

39 Tripod Head and Pan Handles

40 Fluid Head Two pieces of metal, separated by grease, screwed together
Professional More expensive High quality because grease allows varying degrees of pressure to cause varying levels of resistance (drag) when panning and tilting

41 Friction Head Two pieces of metal mashed together by tightening screw
Unprofessional Inexpensive Low quality because drag is either fully on or fully off Offers poor resistance when panning and tilting

42 Jib EZFX Inc.

43 Lens Cleaning Do's Use lens cleaning paper to wipe lens
Use canned compressed air to blow dust off

44 Lens Cleaning Don’ts Don’t blow on lens with mouth
Don’t touch lens with bare fingers Don’t use saliva to moisten lens before wiping

45 After Use of Studio Camera
Lock pedestal and tripod head of camera Close iris and place lens cap on camera Move camera to safe location in studio Coil camera cable as instructed

46 After Use of Camcorder Remove tape, if present, from camcorder
Close lens and attach lens cap Power down camera Detach camera from tripod Fold up tripod Secure camera in case Coil and secure cables where instructed

47 Career Page United States Department of Labor
Occupational Outlook Handbook Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors information page

48 Review Question Why is a convertible camera a good investment? It can serve as both field camera as well as studio camera. In a pinch, it could be a “spare” in either environment.

49 Review Question What is the function of a CCD? Light goes through lens, hits target on front of the CCD. Then CCD converts that light into electrical signal and sends it on to be recorded after electronics of camera head completes image processing and refinement.

50 Review Question Why is a hand-held not the camera of choice? Produces shaky camerawork and low-quality images.

51 Review Question Name and describe the different tripod heads. Friction head–Unprofessional, inexpensive, low quality, offers poor resistance when panning and tilting. Fluid head–Professional, expensive, high quality, allows varying degrees of resistance when panning and tilting.

52 Review Question What is another name for optical center of lens? What is another name for variable focal length lens? Optical center of lens is also known as focal point. Variable focal length lens is also known as zoom lens.

53 Review Question Name the parts of a video camera and their functions. Camera head–Actual camera, target is front of charge coupled device (CCD). Viewfinder–Video screen that lets operator see image camera is displaying. Camera lens–Glass discs on front of camera through which light passes into camera.

54 Review Question What is the relationship between the f-stop, iris, and aperture? F-stop indicates the size of iris, which determines size of aperture.

55 Review Question Why are f-stop, iris, and aperture important? Aperture is most important of the three. F-stop and iris merely determine size of aperture. Aperture is gateway for light to enter camera. It determines amount of light that camera receives. Too much light and image is over-exposed; too little light and image is too dark.

56 Review Question Why is auto-focus generally a bad thing to activate? It automatically tries to keep center of picture in focus. This prevents camera operator from performing creative composition of shots. It will cause important objects to be out of focus merely because they are not in center of shot.

57 Review Question Which is better—a fluid head or a friction head? Why? Fluid head is better because it will provide drag when panning or tilting, which makes for more stable picture.

58 Review Question Explain how to clean dirty lens. Use either compressed air from a can to blow away dirt or lens cleaning paper to wipe away dirt.

59 Review Question Explain why you should not blow on lens with your mouth or use saliva to moisten lens prior to wiping it clean. Either method can cause saliva to touch surface of lens. Saliva is very acidic and will destroy coating on surface of lens. Lens is unusable after that happens.

60 Glossary aperture: The opening, adjusted by the iris, through which light passes into the lens. auto-focus: A common feature on consumer cameras that keeps only the center of the picture in focus.

61 Glossary auto-iris circuit: A feature on many consumer and professional cameras that automatically examines the light levels coming into the camera and adjusts the iris according to generic standards of a “good” picture.

62 Glossary camcorder: A portable camera/reader combination
camera control unit (CCU): A piece of equipment that controls various attributes of the video signal sent from the camera to the video tape recorder, and is usually placed in the control room or the master control room. Also commonly called a remote control unit (RCU).

63 Glossary camera head: The portion of the video camera that contains all the electronics needed to convert the reflection of light from the subject into an electronic signal. charge coupled device (CCD): A dime-sized component of the camera head into which light enters and is converted into an electronic, or video, signal. The video signal exits on the opposite side of the CCD and enters the rest of the camera.

64 Glossary convertible camera: A camera with a variety of accessory packages available to make it operational in a studio, as a portable field camera, or both. diopter adjustment: A knob or lever that adjusts the magnifier on the viewfinder to compensate for differences in vision.

65 Glossary dolly: A three-wheeled cart onto which the feet of a tripod are mounted. A dolly allows smooth camera movements to be performed. drag: Resistance to movement created by tripod head mount. fast lens: A camera lens that can produce a large aperture and let a great deal of light into the camera.

66 Glossary fluid head: A mounting assembly on some tripods that stabilizes the camera using the pressure between two pieces of metal and a thick fluid that provides additional resistance to movement. focal length: The distance (measured in millimeters) from the optical center, or focal point, of the lens assembly to the back of the lens assembly.

67 Glossary focus: The act of rotating the focus ring on a camera lens until the lines of contrast in the image are as sharp as possible. friction head: A mounting assembly on some tripods that stabilizes the camera using the pressure created when two pieces of metal are squeezed together by a screw.

68 Glossary f-stop: A camera setting that determines the amount of light passing through the lens by controlling the size of the iris. gain: The strength of the video signal. hot: The state of a video camera when the image captured by the camera is being recorded.

69 Glossary iris: A component of a lens that is comprised of blades that physically expand and contract, adjusting the aperture size. jib: A type of camera mount that allows the camera to be raised high over the set and swung in any direction. lens: An assembly of several glass discs placed in a tube attached to the front of a camera.

70 Glossary optical center: The physical location within the lens assembly where an image is inverted. Also called the focal point. pan handle: A device attached to the back of the camera when on the tripod head that allows the camera operator to move the tripod head while standing behind the tripod.

71 Glossary pedestal column: A column in the center of a tripod used to raise or lower the camera. pedestal control: A crank on the side of the pedestal column that twists a gear to raise and lower the pedestal column. shutter: A circuit on a video camera that regulates how long the CCD is exposed to light coming through the lens.

72 Glossary slow lens: A lens that is capable of small aperture settings and lets little light into the camera. studio camera: A television camera placed on a tripod or studio pedestal for exclusive use within the studio. studio pedestal: A large, single column on wheels that supports the camera and is pneumatically or hydraulically controlled.

73 Glossary subjective camera: A hand-held camera technique, in which the camera itself becomes the eye of one cast member. The viewers see the world through the eyes of that character. target: Photosensitive surface of a charge coupled device (CCD). tripod: A three-legged stand that supports a camera.

74 Glossary tripod head: The assembly at the top of the pedestal column to which the camera attaches. variable focal length lens: A lens in which the optical center can vary its position within the lens assembly, varying the focal length measurement as well. Also called a zoom lens.

75 Glossary viewfinder: A small video monitor attached to the camera that allows the camera operator to view the images in the shot. zebra stripes: A special function of some viewfinders that displays black and white diagonal stripes on any object in a shot that is too brightly lit.

76 Glossary zoom in (ZI): The act of rotating a ring on the zoom lens so that the center of the picture appears to be moving toward the camera. Also called tighten. zoom lens: The particular piece of glass within the lens assembly that moves forward and back, magnifying or shrinking the image accordingly. This individual lens is the focal point, or optical center, of the zoom lens assembly. Also called a variable focal length lens.

77 Glossary zoom lenses: A camera lens assembly that is capable of magnifying an image merely by twisting one of the rings on the outside of the lens housing. zoom out (ZO): The act of rotating a ring on the zoom lens so that the center of the picture appears to be moving away from the camera. Also called widen.

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