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3 The Video Camera and Support Equipment © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the differences.

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Presentation on theme: "3 The Video Camera and Support Equipment © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the differences."— Presentation transcript:

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2 3 The Video Camera and Support Equipment

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the differences between the various video cameras available. Identify each part of a video camera and note the corresponding function. Differentiate between the focal length and the focal point related to a zoom lens. Explain the interrelationship between f- stops, the iris, and aperture in controlling light. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Identify the challenges and benefits involved in using hand-held camera shooting. Recognize the types of tripod heads available and cite the unique characteristics of each. Implement the proper procedures for cleaning and storing video equipment. Objectives

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of Cameras Studio camera Camcorder Convertible camera

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Studio Camera Remains in studio Unsuitable for field work because of: Size Weight Paired with Camera control unit (CCU) orCamera control unit (CCU) Remote control unit (RCU)

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. TripodTripod with DollyDolly Dolly has three wheels with tripod legs that fit into it

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Studio Pedestal Vertical column with base and three wheels on bottom Heavy Pneumatics or hydraulics assist movement Has wheel to steer it as it moves Vinten Broadcast Ltd.

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. CCU/RCU Two names for the same device Controls technical specifications of video signal from camera to match images from all cameras – Color – Tint – Contrast – Brightness – Iris

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camcorder Contains camera and recorder in one unit Lightweight and portable Sits on tripod or rests on operators shoulder Records on variety of digital tape and other media Usually can be directly connected to editor to download footage

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camcorder (Cont.)

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Convertible Camera Camcorder that can be accessorized to become studio camera Larger viewfinder Rear controls for lens operation CCU/RCU may be added Less expensive than studio camera and more versatile

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Parts of a Camera Many parts are interchangeable, allowing user to customize camera to exact needs Camera head Viewfinder Camera lenslens

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camera Head Actual camera Contains all the electronics needed to capture image Light enters camera and hits targettarget Target is front of charge coupled device (CCD)charge coupled device (CCD) CCD converts light to electrical signal Professional quality camera has three CCDs Consumer quality camera has one CCD

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. GainGain Control Feature found on higher-end cameras Allows strength of video signal to be increased or decreased Used when image is too dark or too bright Has negative effects – Entire image becomes increasingly grainy – Brighter areas begin to glow unnaturally Should not be activated without supervisor approval

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Viewfinder Small video screen that lets camera operator see image that camera is obtaining 1 screen with eye cup for operator with camera on shoulder Small screen (3.4/4.5) that unfolds from side of camera used when camera is on tripod Larger screen (5–7) separate unit attaches above studio camera head

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Diopter Adjustment Adjusts magnification on 1 viewfinder for operators who wear glasses

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Zebra Stripes Alert for camera operator Stripes only appear on viewfinder when camera is not recording Diagonal black and white lines in areas of viewfinder that are beyond set limits of video brightness Any area with zebra stripes will glow Action is recommended to eliminate stripes

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camera Lens Assembly of glass discs on front of camera through which light passes into camera Focus–occurs when adjoining areas of contrast are as sharp as possibleFocus Auto-focus–optional electrical circuit that tries to automatically keep image focusedAuto-focus Professionals do not use auto-focus Auto-focus removes possibility of creative focus techniques

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Zoom Lens Allows smooth transition from close-up to wide-angle shot Accomplished by moving zoom ring on lens assembly Transition from wide-angle to close-up called zoom in, or tightenzoom in Transition from close-up to wide-angle called zoom out, or widenzoom out

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Optical CenterOptical Center of the Lens Also known as focal point Place where the image inverts inside of lens Wherever actual zoom lens is located

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Focal Length Distance in millimeters between focal point and back of lens

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Variable Focal Length Lens Another name for zoom lens Since actual zoom lens moves back and forth within zoom assembly, and since zoom lens is always focal point, distance between zoom lens and back of lens varies Therefore, zoom lens is variable focal length lens

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lens Control Rings

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. F-stop Settings on lens which indicate size of iris

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Iris Metal blades form circle High blades create thick circle and small hole Low blades create thin circle and large hole Controls amount of light that reaches back of lens/target of camera

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Aperture Actual hole or opening in lens Large hole lets in much light (fast lens)fast lens Small hole lets in little light (slow lens)slow lens

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Iris/Aperture

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Relationship F-stop controls size of iris, which controls size of aperture

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Auto-Iris Circuit Electrical circuit that automatically controls size of iris Good feature that professionals may use

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shutter Circuit that regulates how long CCD is exposed to light before sending signal to recorder Normal shutter speed is 1/60, i.e. CCD sends its signal 60 times per second Pro cameras can increase shutter speed to 1/8000+ Higher shutter speed = clearer images when played back in slow motion Excellent feature for shooting sports

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camcorder Camera Mounts Hand-held shooting Image stabilization devices Tripod shooting

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Hand-Held Should be avoided if possible Produces good images for mere seconds Otherwise, produces shaky camerawork Never use zoom-in settings when hand holding

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. If You Must Hand-Hold…

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Image Stabilization Device Glidecam Industries, Inc.

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Subjective Camera

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Tripod Three legs Length of each leg can be independently extended Sometimes has vertical column in center which can be raised and lowered Pedestal column Handle that raises and lowers pedestal is pedestal control, which should not be used when camera is recording, or hot, to avoid audience seeing shaking screen pedestal controlhot

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Tripod Head Attaches to top of tripod Camera attaches to tripod head Head allows pans and tilts to occur Head has one or two pan handles attached so operator can stand behind camera and move it with handlepan handles

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Tripod Head and Pan Handles

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Fluid Head Two pieces of metal, separated by grease, screwed together Professional More expensive High quality because grease allows varying degrees of pressure to cause varying levels of resistance (drag) when panning and tiltingdrag

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Friction Head Two pieces of metal mashed together by tightening screw Unprofessional Inexpensive Low quality because drag is either fully on or fully off Offers poor resistance when panning and tilting

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Jib EZFX Inc.

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lens Cleaning Do's Use lens cleaning paper to wipe lens Use canned compressed air to blow dust off

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lens Cleaning Donts Dont blow on lens with mouth Dont touch lens with bare fingers Dont use saliva to moisten lens before wiping

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. After Use of Studio Camera Lock pedestal and tripod head of camera Close iris and place lens cap on camera Move camera to safe location in studio Coil camera cable as instructed

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. After Use of Camcorder Remove tape, if present, from camcorder Close lens and attach lens cap Power down camera Detach camera from tripod Fold up tripod Secure camera in case Coil and secure cables where instructed

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. United States Department of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors information page Career Page

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is a convertible camera a good investment? It can serve as both field camera as well as studio camera. In a pinch, it could be a spare in either environment. Review Question

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the function of a CCD? Light goes through lens, hits target on front of the CCD. Then CCD converts that light into electrical signal and sends it on to be recorded after electronics of camera head completes image processing and refinement. Review Question

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is a hand-held not the camera of choice? Produces shaky camerawork and low-quality images. Review Question

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Name and describe the different tripod heads. Friction head–Unprofessional, inexpensive, low quality, offers poor resistance when panning and tilting. Fluid head–Professional, expensive, high quality, allows varying degrees of resistance when panning and tilting. Review Question

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is another name for optical center of lens? What is another name for variable focal length lens? Optical center of lens is also known as focal point. Variable focal length lens is also known as zoom lens. Review Question

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Name the parts of a video camera and their functions. Camera head–Actual camera, target is front of charge coupled device (CCD). Viewfinder–Video screen that lets operator see image camera is displaying. Camera lens–Glass discs on front of camera through which light passes into camera. Review Question

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the relationship between the f-stop, iris, and aperture? F-stop indicates the size of iris, which determines size of aperture. Review Question

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why are f-stop, iris, and aperture important? Aperture is most important of the three. F- stop and iris merely determine size of aperture. Aperture is gateway for light to enter camera. It determines amount of light that camera receives. Too much light and image is over-exposed; too little light and image is too dark. Review Question

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is auto-focus generally a bad thing to activate? It automatically tries to keep center of picture in focus. This prevents camera operator from performing creative composition of shots. It will cause important objects to be out of focus merely because they are not in center of shot. Review Question

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Which is bettera fluid head or a friction head? Why? Fluid head is better because it will provide drag when panning or tilting, which makes for more stable picture. Review Question

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain how to clean dirty lens. Use either compressed air from a can to blow away dirt or lens cleaning paper to wipe away dirt. Review Question

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain why you should not blow on lens with your mouth or use saliva to moisten lens prior to wiping it clean. Either method can cause saliva to touch surface of lens. Saliva is very acidic and will destroy coating on surface of lens. Lens is unusable after that happens. Review Question

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. aperture: The opening, adjusted by the iris, through which light passes into the lens. auto-focus: A common feature on consumer cameras that keeps only the center of the picture in focus. Glossary

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. auto-iris circuit: A feature on many consumer and professional cameras that automatically examines the light levels coming into the camera and adjusts the iris according to generic standards of a good picture. Glossary

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. camcorder: A portable camera/reader combination camera control unit (CCU): A piece of equipment that controls various attributes of the video signal sent from the camera to the video tape recorder, and is usually placed in the control room or the master control room. Also commonly called a remote control unit (RCU). Glossary

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. camera head: The portion of the video camera that contains all the electronics needed to convert the reflection of light from the subject into an electronic signal. charge coupled device (CCD): A dime-sized component of the camera head into which light enters and is converted into an electronic, or video, signal. The video signal exits on the opposite side of the CCD and enters the rest of the camera. Glossary

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. convertible camera: A camera with a variety of accessory packages available to make it operational in a studio, as a portable field camera, or both. diopter adjustment: A knob or lever that adjusts the magnifier on the viewfinder to compensate for differences in vision. Glossary

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. dolly: A three-wheeled cart onto which the feet of a tripod are mounted. A dolly allows smooth camera movements to be performed. drag: Resistance to movement created by tripod head mount. fast lens: A camera lens that can produce a large aperture and let a great deal of light into the camera. Glossary

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. fluid head: A mounting assembly on some tripods that stabilizes the camera using the pressure between two pieces of metal and a thick fluid that provides additional resistance to movement. focal length: The distance (measured in millimeters) from the optical center, or focal point, of the lens assembly to the back of the lens assembly. Glossary

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. focus: The act of rotating the focus ring on a camera lens until the lines of contrast in the image are as sharp as possible. friction head: A mounting assembly on some tripods that stabilizes the camera using the pressure created when two pieces of metal are squeezed together by a screw. Glossary

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. f-stop: A camera setting that determines the amount of light passing through the lens by controlling the size of the iris. gain: The strength of the video signal. hot: The state of a video camera when the image captured by the camera is being recorded. Glossary

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. iris: A component of a lens that is comprised of blades that physically expand and contract, adjusting the aperture size. jib: A type of camera mount that allows the camera to be raised high over the set and swung in any direction. lens: An assembly of several glass discs placed in a tube attached to the front of a camera. Glossary

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. optical center: The physical location within the lens assembly where an image is inverted. Also called the focal point. pan handle: A device attached to the back of the camera when on the tripod head that allows the camera operator to move the tripod head while standing behind the tripod. Glossary

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. pedestal column: A column in the center of a tripod used to raise or lower the camera. pedestal control: A crank on the side of the pedestal column that twists a gear to raise and lower the pedestal column. shutter: A circuit on a video camera that regulates how long the CCD is exposed to light coming through the lens. Glossary

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. slow lens: A lens that is capable of small aperture settings and lets little light into the camera. studio camera: A television camera placed on a tripod or studio pedestal for exclusive use within the studio. studio pedestal: A large, single column on wheels that supports the camera and is pneumatically or hydraulically controlled. Glossary

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. subjective camera: A hand-held camera technique, in which the camera itself becomes the eye of one cast member. The viewers see the world through the eyes of that character. target: Photosensitive surface of a charge coupled device (CCD). tripod: A three-legged stand that supports a camera. Glossary

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. tripod head: The assembly at the top of the pedestal column to which the camera attaches. variable focal length lens: A lens in which the optical center can vary its position within the lens assembly, varying the focal length measurement as well. Also called a zoom lens. Glossary

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. viewfinder: A small video monitor attached to the camera that allows the camera operator to view the images in the shot. zebra stripes: A special function of some viewfinders that displays black and white diagonal stripes on any object in a shot that is too brightly lit. Glossary

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. zoom in (ZI): The act of rotating a ring on the zoom lens so that the center of the picture appears to be moving toward the camera. Also called tighten. zoom lens: The particular piece of glass within the lens assembly that moves forward and back, magnifying or shrinking the image accordingly. This individual lens is the focal point, or optical center, of the zoom lens assembly. Also called a variable focal length lens. Glossary

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. zoom lenses: A camera lens assembly that is capable of magnifying an image merely by twisting one of the rings on the outside of the lens housing. zoom out (ZO): The act of rotating a ring on the zoom lens so that the center of the picture appears to be moving away from the camera. Also called widen. Glossary


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