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Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) The Key to High Reliability Source Switching.

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Presentation on theme: "Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) The Key to High Reliability Source Switching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) The Key to High Reliability Source Switching

2 2 ATS – The Key to High Reliability Source Switching Various technologies are used to switch critical loads from a primary to a backup power source. When nothing goes wrong in the facility (overloads, short circuits, etc.) most technologies perform adequately. When problems occur, certain ATS technologies will keep the power on…others will not. Knowing the differences and correctly applying ATS in your facility is key to providing high reliability source switching. This presentation will include: A definition of ATS An overview of typical ATS applications, constructions, and types A review of the IEC codes and testing procedures for ATS A comparison of the performance of each technology under IEC testing – under normal and abnormal circumstances Application guidelines for selectively coordinated, high reliability, fault- tolerant source switching. Overall recommendations for a Power Quality installations. Presentation Overview

3 Section 1 – ATS Basics What is an ATS ? What are typical applications of ATS? Common constructions of ATS Common types of ATS

4 4 G What is an Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) ? An ATS is a device designed to Automatically switch (transfer) between (2) sources of power to improve the reliability of the electrical supply to a connected load. Primary Source (typically a Utility Supply or Utility Bus) (Normally Energized) Backup Source (typically a Generator Supply (Normally De- Energized)

5 5 Typical Applications of ATS Utility and Engine Generator Single unit standby applications are very common Utility and Utility Dual utility applications are becoming more common Generator and Generator Prime power / standby application

6 6 Types of ATS construction Knife Blade Type Knife Blade Type Twin Contactor Type Twin Contactor Type Twin MCCB Type Twin MCCB Type Power Contactor Type Power Contactor Type Static Transfer Type Static Transfer Type GE components GE Power Quality Market Trend

7 7 Typical ATS Constructions Knife Blade Typically Non-Load breaking Usually Manually Operated (and slow) Sometimes motor operated (still slow) Low withstand ratings – no arc chutes or vents Low endurance ratings = limited life

8 8 Typical ATS Constructions Twin Contactor Switching device having 1 position of rest (IEC defn) Returns to position of loss power (un-latched type) or addl latching arrangement to hold position on loss of power Built using 1 of up to 12 types of contactors under IEC Code, from basic contactor to high-capacity motor starters. Often very basic controller Mechanical/safety interlock often not available or optional Variety of operators, from motor to electromagnets Not a True double throw device - possible to close into both Sources IEC

9 9 Typical ATS Constructions Twin MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker) 2 Position device, typically operated from add-on motors Built using 1 of up to 2 types of breaker under IEC Code, from basic instantaneous-trip type to short-time rated devices. Mechanical/safety interlock is an add-on, sometimes optional Motor operators usually slow, often unreliable for high duty. Wide range of manf-assigned withstand ratings (low, med, or high) Not a True double throw device - possible to close into both Sources IEC

10 10 Typical ATS Constructions Power Contactor Type (GE Zenith Std.) UL 1008 IEC Std. Double Throw mechanism - Inherent mechanical interlock against closing to both sources No add-on interlocks required Fewer moving parts High Withstand Current ratings to allow fault clearing coordination Integrated Arc quenching components Solenoid Operated (very fast)

11 11 Power Contactor ATS - Composition Arc quenching grids & enclosed arc chutes Movable contact assembly has 2 pieces, arcing contact and main current carrying contact. Arcing contacts make first, break last [See Video]. Silver alloy contacts Resists welding Enhanced withstand ratings Over center switching principal to achieve a mechanically locked position in either Source 1 or 2 High speed solenoid actuated drive assures contact transfer in msec (Click to see video)

12 12 Typical ATS Constructions Static Two live sources required. Solid-state switching >> no moving parts Extremely FAST operation, transfer in less than ¼ cycle. SCR technology Typically used on critical loads where 2 reliable and independent power supplies available, or switching 2 x UPS Outputs. Both sources must be in sync Often cost prohibitive for Standby applications N E 1 2 L

13 13 Standard Transition (No Center Position) Delayed Transition (With Center OFF Position) NOTE: OFF Position indicates Neither Source connected Closed Transition (Make-Before-Break Operation) NOTE: P Position indicates both sources paralleled for 5 cycles Standard Transfer Switch: Types

14 14 Essentially (2) ATS in Parallel, (1) Automatic Switch (ATS) & (1) Manual Switch (MTS). ATS is withdrawable, similar to withdrawable CBs (2) redundant paths from each source to load. ATS & MTS are mechanically and electrically interlocked –To prevents accidental closure of both sources Bypassing power from Source to Load permits testing or maintenance of ATS without interruption to load. Available in Open, Delayed, and Closed Transition If power fails while bypassed, Genset is auto started to permit fast transfer using MTS. Bypass Isolation ATS MECHANICAL INTERLOCKS TWO PATHS FROM SOURCE TO LOAD WITHDRAWABLE ATS FIXED MOUNT MTS

15 Section 2 - Codes & Standards for equipment applied as ATS What are the Internationally- recognized codes? What is the Performance difference of devices tested to these codes?

16 16 Devices arranged for Source Switching, but not IEC rated as ATS Contactors & Motor Starters Circuit Breakers Contactors & Motor Starters Circuit Breakers Power Contactors Devices arranged for Source Switching, IEC rated as ATS Internationally-recognized ATS Codes and Standards IEC UL 508 IEC UL 489 IEC UL 1008 Devices may be arranged to function as an ATS, but not be rated as ATS by a Recognized body

17 17 Twin Contactors Twin CBs CB: Breaker typePC/CC: Contactor types. IEC Code Circuit Breaker Contactor Transfer Switching Equipment (IEC A) (IEC AC-1) Util. Cat. IEC Performance Testing of ATS - Overview (AC-33A, 33B)(AC-31A, 31B) Operational Performance Overload or Low current short circuit Performance High/Short Circuit Performance High Rated current Low majority No Current 31A: High Rated Current 33A: High 2 x Rated Current 31B: Low Rated Current 33B: Low 2 x Rated Current Low 6x Rated Current, High pf, for up to 630A Rating. (N/A >630A) Low 1.5x Rated Current, High pf 31A: High 1.5 Rated Current 33A: High 6x Rated Current 31B: Low 1.5 Rated Current 33B: Low 6x Rated Current GE ATS Ratings No Requirement s Break SC: Yes Make SC: Yes Make & Hold: No Withstand SC: No CC/PC Type: Break SC: No Make SC: Yes Make & Hold: Yes Withstand SC: Yes CB Type: Break SC: Yes Make SC: Yes Make & Hold: No Withstand SC: No

18 18 Short Circuit Testing of PC-Type ATS PC-type ATS are tested to: Withstand fault currents (remain closed), for a set period of time, permitting downstream devices to trip and isolate the fault. Close into faults, to permit the Backup supply fault current necessary to clear the fault. For this reason, PC-type ATS have Withstand and Close Ratings (WCR) vs. Traditional kAIC Fault rating (as in a CB). FaultTesting (click to see video)click to see video Contactors and Circuit Breakers have Fault current ratings, expressed in kAIC

19 19 Performance of ATS Technologies - Summary Twin CBs CB: Breaker typePC/CC: Contactor types. Twin Contactors Low Operation switching of Rated Load Building Event OK Switching Motors w/ 6-10X start OK (up to 630A) >630A Not OK 31A, 31B 33A, 33B OK High Duty Cycle/Switching OK Not OK 31A, 31B 33A, 33B Switching into a short circuit on load side of ATS. Short on load side of ATS Need upstream SCPD to trip Big problem Inst. Trip. Selectivity w/ downstream SCPD ??? Same as above Designed to withstand & permit downstream SCPD to clear Not OK Real life performance of ATS in your facility Same as CB Designed to close into and withstand to permit downstream SCPD to clear

20 Section 3 - Application Guidelines for PQ Installations

21 21 PQ Application Recommendations for ATS Specify ATS certified As an ATS to IEC or UL 1008 Un-certified ATS have not been tested for the purposes of source switching. Specify an ATS with adequate duty cycle rating A or B IEC Utilization Catagories, based on application Specify an ATS with adequate overload capability for switching inductive loads 31 or 33 IEC Utilization Catagories, based on application Specify PC Type of ATS for critical load application … Specify PC-type where fault withstand, vs, tripping under faults, is required for proper system Selective Coordination for faults below ATS.

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