2Welcome In this presentation we try to give you: An overview of lead acid batteries and how they work.An overview of Hawkins battery chargers and how they work together with some charging curves.Some common battery charger problems.
3All Devices Using Lead Acid Batteries Need a Battery Charger Regular supplementary charging with a battery charger extends battery life substantially.This results in an economic benefit to the end user for which he will pay.
4Our Battery Charger Range Covers Domestic & Recreational ChargersProfessional Chargers used commercially in all the Automotive and Agricultural sectorsFully Automatic Chargers used for standby and sealed batteries
5Battery Types We deal with rechargeable Lead-Acid batteries only. 2 Fundamental TypesEngine Starting – Quick bursts of high current for a few seconds.Deep Cycle – Prolonged discharges of low current
6Battery Construction 2 Basic Types depending on plate construction Flooded Cell - Usually allows water additionLow Maintenance (Lead-Antimony)Maintenance Free (Lead-Calcium)Valve Regulated (VRLA) - Always SealedGel CellAbsorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
7Amp Hours - A Useful Battery Term Ah – Amp HoursThis indicates the battery capacity. If a battery is rated at 100 amp hours, it should deliver 5 amps for 20 hours or 20 amps for 5 hours, etc. This is useful for deep cycle batteries.An old rule of thumb is to choose a battery charger capable of delivering in amps, one tenth of the battery capacity in amp hours. eg For a battery with 100 amp hours capacity, choose a charger capable of delivering 10 amps. Some modern batteries may use C/5 & even C/3 & high tech batteries ask for 3 x C.
9Battery LifeIn general, only 30% of lead –acid batteries sold attain a 4 year life.80% of all battery failure is due to stale sulphation of the plates.
10Stale Sulphation – the Silent Killer Stale Sulphation is caused byStorage without some energy inputDeep discharging an engine start type batteryUndercharging a batteryHeat - increases internal dischargeLow electrolyte level. The exposed portion of the plates will sulphateIncorrect charging levels – cheap chargers cause problemsParasitic drain – the load put on the battery in a standby mode – see below
11Parasitic DrainParasitic drain is a load put on a battery that has been switched offMost vehicles today have clocks, alarm systems, engine management computers etc all of which may be operating without the engine running or when it is idling. This is parasitic drain.The constantly low or flat battery caused by excessive parasitic drain will have a dramatically shortened battery life.
12Battery ChargingIf you don’t put the energy used back into the battery soon after use, it will commence to sulphate which affects life and performance.The vehicle’s alternator is a battery charger. It works well if the battery is not deeply discharged.The alternator will usually maintain the battery’s state of charge at somewhere around 80% - see the following diagrams & charts.Full state of charge is best achieved by using a separate battery charger when the vehicle is at rest.
13Battery State of Charge vs Regulator Settings Typical RegulatorSetting+/- 73%of capacity
14Driving Patterns Alternator Current Delivery ex Bosch SA Engine idling= battery discharging
15Driving Patterns Engine Speed : Idling as % of Driving Time
16What is a Battery Charger ? In simple terms, a battery charger is a device that applies a d.c. voltage across the battery terminals.If the applied voltage is higher than the battery voltage, energy flows into the battery.This continues until the two voltages are approximately equal. At this point the battery has been charged up to the capability of the charger.
17Battery Charger Construction Good quality battery chargers should have the following fundamental componentsSome type of transformer to reduce the supply voltage down to the nominal battery voltageSome type of rectifier to turn the a.c. into d.c.Some type of control over the output of energy to the batterySome type of device that will fail safe & limit or prevent damage to the battery or the charger
18Battery Charger TypesBattery Chargers are divided into three broad types:Non-adjustableAdjustableAutomatic.
19How to Select a Battery Charger - 1 Establish the battery’s capacity in Amp Hours Ah.Look at the output current data on the back of the range of chargers (use the lowest current rating.)Choose a charger capable of delivering a MINIMUM current in Amps equal to 10% of the battery Capacity. Eg for a 50Ah battery, choose a charger that can deliver at least 5 Amps
20How to Select a Battery Charger - 2 Is the battery sealed or refillable?If it is sealed, you MUST use an automatic charger.If it is refillable, you can use an automatic, a manually adjustable charger or a non-adjustable charger.A non-adjustable (trickle) charger cannot be left on a battery permanently.
21How to Select a Battery Charger - 3 A non-adjustable (trickle) charger will continue to trickle current into the battery as long as the battery voltage will allow this.Over time, this trickle is quite capable of taking the battery in to the gassing stage where it will lose water and may suffer permanent damage.All battery chargers except the automatics have to be monitored to prevent overcharging.
22How to Select a Battery Charger - 4 If the battery is not used very often – eg leisure application, boating, biking etc – leave it connected to an automatic charger permanently.The automatic charger will keep the battery at optimum voltage for years if need be, ready to go at a moment’s notice.
23Hawkins Non-Adjustable Chargers These chargers include the Power 4, the Power 6, the Power 8 and the Power 10.These chargers all have similar charging profiles.They are taper chargers which rely on the rising voltage in the battery to reduce the current into the battery.They use fuses &/or thermal cut-outs for protection.The charging operation must be monitored from time to time to check on the battery’s state of charge.
27Power 10 charging 12V Exide 628 50 Ah Battery This taper charger must be monitored Voltage well into electrolytegassing stage: stable at +/- 15VCurrent tapered downand still delivering +/- 1,3A
28Hawkins Adjustable Chargers These chargers include the Pro 15, Pro 30, Pro 615, the Pro 224, Pro 324 & Pro 524.All these chargers have operator controlled switches for both voltage & current. These allow the operator to charge multiple batteries if desired and vary the charging current to obtain the best charging profile.They use fuses &/or thermal cut-outs &/or circuit breakers for protection.They use toroidal transformers – a very efficient designThe last 3 are combination engine starters/battery chargers and are able to boost start a vehicle with a flat battery.
29Hawkins Pro 15 Operator Adjustable Taper Charger Current SelectorOverload c/bVoltage Selector
30Pro 15 Charging 50 Ah Exide Battery This charger has manually operated switches to control the output currentPos’n 3 on current selectorVoltage rising, currenttapering downCurrent low..Pos’n 4 selectedCurrent increases &voltage rises
31Hawkins Regulated Chargers These chargers include the Classic 6, the Smart 6, the Smart 15, the Auto Pro 5, Auto Pro 10, Auto Pro 20 & Auto Pro 50.They subdivide into 2 types, voltage regulated and fully regulated.The Smart chargers are voltage regulated onlyThe Auto Pro chargers are fully regulated and conform to a precise charging profile. They self adjust their performance with ambient temperature change.They all use fuses &/or thermal cut-outs for protection
32Hawkins Smart 6 Voltage Regulated Automatic Battery Charger 3 indicator lightsRed – Power onYellow – ChargingGreen - Charged
33Smart 6 charging Exide 628 50 Ah Battery This automatic charger is voltage regulated only Voltage reaches top limit &charger switches off. Current fallsVoltage decays to bottom limit& charger switches on.Current & voltage riseto top limit and cycle repeats.
36Sealed, Maintenance Free Batteries There is an accelerating trend to sealed, maintenance free batteries particularly in hard-to-service applications.Such batteries demand an automatic charger.The more intelligent the charger, the better the result.Time constraints for charging dictate the rating of the charger and thus the turn round time of the battery.
37Common Battery Charger Problems A damaged or sulphated battery will result in little or no current flow. The customer then complains that the charger does not work. Check this by connecting the charger to a known good battery.An automatic charger needs a minimum voltage in the battery of about 10v before it will switch on. An extremely flat battery may not allow this to occur.Customers short out the clamps to see if the charger is working. This will result in blown cable fuses or rectifiers.Badly corroded clamps mean a poor connection between charger and battery. Poor maintenance of clamps can mean no current flow and/or heating at the point of contact i.e. the battery terminal.
38Typical Battery Charger Applications Home Use – Unsophisticated customer generally topping up batteries – suggest Smart 6, Smart 15.Leisure/Recreation – Biking, Boating, Fishing, Golfing, Caravanning. Wants battery always ready to go. Suggest Smart 15, Auto Pro 10,Auto Pro 20.
39Hawkins Manufacturing (Pty) Ltd Thank you for watching this Presentation.If you have any queries or comments please contact usvia our website oror telephone/fax (Tel)(Fax)