Presentation on theme: "Framework 7 project EC Contribution of 7 Million Euro 39 partners Co-ordinated by CEH Clare Howard, Mark Sutton, Eiko Nemitz Centre for Ecology & Hydrology,"— Presentation transcript:
Framework 7 project EC Contribution of 7 Million Euro 39 partners Co-ordinated by CEH Clare Howard, Mark Sutton, Eiko Nemitz Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, UK + ÉCLAIRE Consortium
What is ÉCLAIRE about? ÉCLAIRE is targeting climate-ecosystem- atmosphere interactions and their implications for ecosystem effects at the European scale, combining observations and experiments in the field and laboratory with modelling experiments from plot to European scales, while accounting for changes in global background.
Overall Project Objectives Focusing especially on the role of ozone and nitrogen, and (where relevant) their interactions with volatile organic compounds, aerosols and sulphur, ÉCLAIRE aims: O 1. to provide robust understanding of air pollution impacts on European land ecosystems including soils under changing climate conditions, and O 2. to provide reliable and innovative risk assessment methodologies for these ecosystem impacts of air pollution, including the economic implications, to support EU policy.
Key questions What are the expected impacts on ecosystems due to changing ozone and N-deposition under a range of climate change scenarios, taking into consideration the associated changes in atmospheric CO 2, aerosol and acidification? Which of these effects off-set and which aggravate each other, and how do the mitigation and adaptation measures recommended under climate change relate to those currently being recommended to meet air pollution effects targets? What are the relative effects of long-range global and continental atmospheric transport vs. regional and local transport on ecosystems in a changing climate? What are the appropriate metrics to assess O 3 and N impacts on plants and soils, when considering state-of-the-art understanding of interactions with CO 2 and climate, and the different effects of wet vs. dry deposition on physiological responses?
Key questions (continued) What is the relative contribution of climate dependence in biogenic emissions and deposition vs. climate dependence of ecosystem thresholds and responses in determining the overall effect of climate change on air pollution impacts? Which mitigation and/or adaptation measures are required to reduce the damage to acceptable levels to protect carbon stocks and ecosystem functioning? How do the costs associated with the emission abatement compare with the economic benefits of reduced damage? How can effective and cost-efficient policies on emission abatement be devised in the future?
~41.5 m M Coyle, CEH 2012 C1 Campaign: Bosco della Fontana, Mantova O3O3 CO 2 /H 2 O ~32 m ~24 m ~16 m ~8 m GRAEGOR O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 CO 2 /H 2 O Gas inlet Gas inlets Gas inlet ~5 m Met : wind; rainfall (bucket & WXT); Temperature (RHT & APT); Direct/Diffuse PAR; Net. Rad Met : RHT & APT Met : RHT Metek sonic Gill HS sonic Gill Windmaster sonics INRA In-canopy flux monitoring Auto-chambers Tow-a-van & Cabin - PTR-MS, PTR-ToF-MS - HR-ToF-AMS - EEPS - NO flux - GRAEGOR - Gradient O 3 /NOx/CO 2 /H 2 O AETHALOMETER, APS, DMPS CEILOMETER by offices Surface wetness clips UHSAS/CPC (In-canopy) chemistry of: NO-O 3 -NO 2 O 3 -VOC NH 3 -HNO 3 -NH 4 NO 3
VOC fluxes (as a driver of in-canopy chemistry)
Courtesy of Giannelle et al. (2007) Field site The vegetation survey was performed for the entire forest, but Quercus was more abundant in our site Carpinus betulus Quercus robur Corylus avellana Acer campestre
C1: Comparison satellite vs. ground based NH 3 Monte Cimone Bologna SPC Bosco Fontana IASI Product
C3: Solardome experiments Results from Ozone × Nitrogen interaction solardome experiments, UK, 2013. Generating data for model development.
C3: Lab work on leaf level protection mechanisms
C4: % NPP enhancement in global FACE experiment Without C-N With C-N
C2: Wildfire emissions Representations of emissions of biogenic pollutant precursors have been improved, in particular regarding wildfire emissions and nitrogen. These improvements the investigation of separately and jointly the effects of climate change and changes in socioeconomic conditions on wildfire emissions. Emissions of CO and particle mass computed with LPJ-GUESS global ecosystem model and GFED burned area according to different emissions models. CF: combustion factor for woody litter. CO emission [Mt C] Aerosol [Mt PM]
C5: Interaction with policy Estimating environmentally relevant fixed nitrogen demand in the 21st century (Winiwarter et al., 2013), Climatic Change Estimation of Nitrogen fixation to 2100, through the use of RCPs, and assigning key drivers to underlying scenarios.
C5/C2: NH 3 emission predictions – temperature effect Sutton et al., Proc. Roy. Met. Soc. 2013
Selected achievements Integrated dataset on in-canopy chemistry Dataset for validation of IASI EO products Growing database on flux measurements for process parameterisations across 9-site network Direct emissions of isoprene oxidation products Identification of litter as major NO source Effects of multiple drivers (composition × climate) Scenarios of N usage and emissions Quantification of effect of temperature on NH 3 emissions
Preliminary results First results indicate that climate change will worsen the threat of air pollutants on Europes ecosystems: Climate warming may cause an increase the emissions of many trace gases, such as biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and the soil component of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions. These effects are expected to increase ground-level concentrations of NH 3, NO x and ozone (O 3 ), as well as atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The emerging message is that this interaction is likely to be significant Climate warming may increase the vulnerability of ecosystems towards air pollutant exposure or atmospheric deposition. Such effects may occur as a consequence of combined perturbation, as well as through specific interactions, such as between drought, O 3, N and aerosol exposure. Further evidence is required before clear statements can be made