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Julio Auto [julio {funny a} julioauto com]. The Problem The Solution Demo Solution Details Whats Next? Greetings & References.

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Presentation on theme: "Julio Auto [julio {funny a} julioauto com]. The Problem The Solution Demo Solution Details Whats Next? Greetings & References."— Presentation transcript:

1 Julio Auto [julio {funny a} julioauto com]

2 The Problem The Solution Demo Solution Details Whats Next? Greetings & References

3 We will be talking about analyzing closed- source software here Absolutely no debugging information needed However... Depending on the complexity of the bug, even people with the source might opt for this analysis too E.g. Vendors receiving crash reports

4 Sometimes people just have to analyze bugs in closed-source software These bugs may come from: A fuzzing session Contributor-sent Proof-of-Concept codes In-the-wild exploit code Etc... As varying as the sources of bugs are the reasons why one wants to analyze them, but this is irrelevant. The fact is...

5 ANALYZING BUGS CAN BE HARD! A seasoned reverse engineer may take weeks to get somewhere If the target software is too big If the data consumed is in a very complex and/or undisclosed format If bugs in this target are so rare that your reversing team has no previous experience with it But which bugs do we mostly care for?

6 Analyzing bugs is very broad No./write-me-a-very-detailed-advisory We will concentrate in answering one question: what exact part of my data made the program crash? Understanding that and how such data is transformed is primordial

7 Dynamic Dataflow Analysis Watching data and its ramifications as the doomed program executes What we do really is Taint Analysis We start with a subset of the programs data: the attackers input – assume its evil Its ramifications are tainted memory, tainted registers... but we do it backwards.

8 Is any of these from the Evil Input? This is of interest Is any of these of interest? This is the Evil Input TAINT ANALYSIS BACKWARDS TAINT ANALYSIS

9 So we really dont care about every tainted piece of data in the process space Most of it is legitimate, anyway Thus, we avoid the explosion of watched data Plus we can do stuff like: Bug: mov eax, [esi] (where esi = DEADBEEFh) Analysis runs and reports: esi = user[4] + var_unk * 8

10 This is all done in two steps: tracing and analysis First we trace the program from a good point until it crashes The trace is incrementally dumped to a file Not just the disassembly, but also some extra info E.g.: In the past slides example, effective address ([esi]) == DEADBEEFh Then the trace file goes under analysis

11 Target starts Evil Input enters (and we start tracing) Target crashes! The good starting point

12 So we feed the trace file to the analyzer and tell it: Address ranges from ABCDh to ACCDh and from DCBAh to DCCAh held Evil Input I wanna know if esi was tainted by Evil Input And magic happens!

13 Considerations Tracing is very time-consuming For the bug Ill analyze as an example, it takes about 2 hours to dump the 650,000+ instructions it executes The analysis... not so much 1 to 2 minutes May sound like much, but how long would take to do it manually? Plus, you can always use this time to do something else while the computer is working for you

14 Introducing... Visual Data Tracer!

15 The VDT Tracer is implemented as a WinDbg extension Because WinDbg is free and its a great debugger The VDT Analyzer is a stand-alone C++ app The tracer needs to understand some simple instruction semantics E.g.: The source and destination operands Currently only the basic x86 subset is implemented (no x87, MMX, etc)

16 The semantic rules are simplified to avoid dumping useless info to the trace file E.g.: a push does not meaninfgully change esp (same for inc, dec, and their destination ops) They are also written to fit the very simplistic format of the trace file entries All of this makes the analysis easier, thus faster, and yet useful

17 Trace file entry: Mnemonic Destination operand Source operand Up to three source operand dependences Dependences are, for example, the elements of an indirectly addressed memory operand This effectively exposes the dataflow relations as a Tree (rooted at the crash instruction) Performing the backwards taint analysis becomes then a matter of searching the tree, which VDT does with a BFS algorithm

18 Putting it together so far mov edi, 0x1234 ; dst=edi, src=0x1234 mov eax, [0xABCD] ; dst=eax, src=ptr 0xABCD ; Note 0xABCD is evil addr lea ebx, [eax+ecx*8] ; dst=ebx, src=eax, srcdep1=ecx mov [edi], ebx ; dst=ptr 0x1234, src=ebx mov esi, [edi] ; dst=esi, src=ptr 0x1234, srcdep1=edi mov edx, [esi] ; Crash!!!

19 Simplifying semantic rules to fit that format is not always easy CMPXCHG r/m32, r32 Compare EAX with r/m32. If equal, ZF is set and r32 is loaded into r/m32. Else, clear ZF and load r/m32 into EAX. The aftermath: the need for conditional taints i.e. One of the possibilities of controlling r/m32 is controlling r32 AND eax Note that alternative taints is also existant, implemented in the form of srcdep{1,2,3}

20 Other subtleties to watch for AH defines EAX EAX defines AL AL does not define AH Similar problem for 1-byte and 2-byte memory accesses EAX (32)AX (16)AL (8)AH (8) Unnamed (16)

21 Extending the coverage of x86 Enhancing speed God knows how... Heuristically detecting user input e.g. By making the tracer understand CreateFile() Automatic exploit generation What else? Any ideas, let me know...

22 SpiderPig Project - Very similar ideas, different approach !exploitable - A more superficial (but much faster) tool for bug triaging If you have many bugs to triage, you can first run !exploitable on them and, then, use VDT on those that seem really interesting

23 Julien Vanegue For all the lecturing, motivating and supporting Piotr Bania For discussing DDF analysis and much more People from PSV ( For letting me idle on IRC, leeching their knowledge Everyone else who talks to me about security and similarly cool stuff

24 Julio Auto [julio {funny a} julioauto com]

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