Presentation on theme: "Ratuagung11 Referensi : CARLINER, SAUL. 2003. Training Design Basics. American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) Press."— Presentation transcript:
Ratuagung11 Referensi : CARLINER, SAUL. 2003. Training Design Basics. American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) Press.
Who needs to be a part of your training project team and what each will contribute to the project Issues to address when planning a schedule for your training project How to realistically estimate the cost of your project. In addition, worksheets at the end of this chapter can help you plan a project Because training projects happen within a business context, before you begin designing and developing a training course, you need to address three key business questions that regularly arise during the project: Who will be involved in the design and development of your training program? When will you finish the program? How much will the program cost?
members of the sponsoring organization members of the training organization
Paying Client. This person (also called the executive sponsor or benefactor) is the executive who has responsibility for the project Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). This category includes one or more people who developed the technical content to be addressed by the training program Legal Staff. A representative of the corporate legal department can serve in this capacity. Learners. The learners are the people who will take the training program. You precisely identify the learners when analyzing the needs for the program (M3)
Type of Training Typical SMEs Product Training Engineers, programmers, and scientists who designed and developed the product. In many organizations, marketing professionals who have played a role in developing and marketing the product also serve as SMEs. Marketing Training Marketing managers and staff (that is, people who develop sales strategies, create promotional programs, and oversee the salespeople in the field). In some cases, you may also consult with sales representatives in the field Management Development Members of the HR staff and other managers who have responsibility for overseeing company policies, employee supervision, and succession planning. Subject Matter Experts...1
Type of TrainingTypical SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) Medical TrainingMedical staff, engineers, and others involved in the service or product. For regulated products and services, members of the government regulation agency, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, may also serve as an external SME. New Employee Orientation Members of the HR staff and managers from areas addressed in the training Manufacturing TrainingEngineers who designed the manufacturing process and managers of the manufacturing lines affected.
Manager: The person within the organization for whom you work that has overall responsibility for a project. Managers assign projects, establish budgets and schedules, secure resources for a project (such as computers and prototypes of products), and resolve problems with projects in progress Curriculum planner: The person who plans all of the training in a particular subject area, determining which courses to include, the content that each course covers, related materials, resources needed to develop this content, and overseeing the success of courses. Course designer and developer: The person who performs the needs analysis; chooses and sequences content; drafts the slides, instructor's notes, and workbooks; and oversees production of the course materials
Graphic designer: The person who designs the physical appearance of the training materials and prepares art work Illustrator: The person who prepares specialized drawings, such as medical illustrations and drawings of new products. Production personnel: The people who prepare training materials for duplication. The skills needed for production vary, depending on the communications medium of the final product and may include desktop publishing, video, and audio skills Training administrator: The person who oversees the running of training programs, including promotional activities, scheduling of classrooms and instructors, enrollment, attention to learners during a course, recording courses completed by learners, and compiling evaluations.
five suggestions that will help you and your team perform much more efficiently (Carliner, 1995):Carliner, 1995 1. Know yourself 2. Before you start working together, spend some time getting to know one another 3. Build respect for, and trust in, one another. 4. Initiate communication. 5. Be prepared for feedback.
Team work is more than sharing labor; it's sharing work. By following certain strategies at the beginning of a project, you increase the likelihood that the team will work together cohesively throughout the project
Decisions. One of the most common problems in groups is members feeling that they have been left out of the decision-making process. So, before any major decisions are made, determine how you will make them. By openly discussing the decision-making process in your first meeting, you can avoid problems later Conflict. What happens if the group can't reach consensus on a decision? Do you not make a decision, defer to someone's judgment, or take a vote? And, what happens if two people can't work together? Does someone intervene? Do you let them work out the conflict by themselves? Deciding how to handle conflict before you actually experience it gives you a strategy for dealing with problems that arise (Carliner, 1995).Carliner, 1995
Commitment. Discuss the degree of commitment that you expect from each group member. Like most aspects of team work, each team member has a different concept of commitment. Standards of Behavior. Until team members are fully comfortable with one another, encourage everyone to be on his or her best behavior.
There are a few common issues that affect the estimates of training projects. The first is the stability of subject matter. The second common issue that will most likely affect the estimate is the material that you do not intend to cover
The less stable the subject matter, the more likely that you will need to completely revise sections that you have already written Identify, as specifically as possible, the aspects of the subject matter that are not stable. State what is not stable about the subject matter. Identify the sections affected by the unstable subject matter. Determine how to respond to the instability. Notes : State your assumptions about a project up front. The budget and schedule for a successful project emerge from those assumptions.
Designing a training program is a complex project, requiring different piecessuch as the slides, instructor's guide, and student materialsthat you might develop separately to come together at one time. In addition, you must have some assurance that the materials really work. For these reasons, development of a training program involves a series of intermediate steps (called milestones or checkpoints) so that the project is handled in manageable steps
Setting the proposed schedule involves performing the following activities in this order: Estimating the size of the project. Estimating the total length of the project (in number of workdays). Establishing intermediate deadlines
A budget is an itemized estimate of the cost of producing the project. Because the most significant cost is labor, and you pay for labor by the amount of time that you use it, much of the budget is based on the length of the project, which you determine when you estimate the schedule In addition are costs for equipment, software, training, duplication, and the cost of specialized services
unanticipated costs: This category includes, for example, permission fees for using illustrations and graphics in a course unless the materials were produced by a staff illustrator. Most course designers and developers usually forget to budget for these. underestimated costs: Here's an example: When estimating the budget, you assumed that you needed 450 copies of the student materials but you actually needed 925. The cost of the additional copies is unanticipated. scope creep: Scope creep refers to a situation in which a project increases in scope after you estimate the budget and schedule. Because the additional scope creeps up (usually, a bit at a time), it is called scope creep. Scope creep results either from failing to understand the actual scope of work required by the project or by making wrong assumptions.
Some proven ways to address these problems are fudge factors: A fudge factor is an additional percentage built into a project to give you additional funding should unanticipated problems arise. This is also called a contingency. Different organizations have different levels of contingency. tracking: By carefully tracking how closely schedules and budgets match their estimates, you can notify sponsors early if you anticipate problems and negotiate for additional resources or, in the case of scope creep, return the project to its original scope