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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Explain what market segmentation is and when to use it. LO1 Identify the five steps involved in segmenting and targeting markets. Recognize the bases used to segment consumer and organizational markets. LO3 LO2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LO) AFTER READING CHAPTER 8, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 8-2

3 Develop a market-product grid to identify a target market and recommend resulting actions. Explain how marketing managers position products in the marketplace. LO4 LO5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LO) AFTER READING CHAPTER 8, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 8-3

4 ZAPPOS.COMS WOW = SEGMENTS + SERVICE A Clear Market Segmentation Strategy Delivering WOW Customer Service 8-4

5 WHY SEGMENT MARKETS? WHAT MARKET SEGMENTATION MEANS LO1 Product Differentiation Market Segmentation Market Segments Segmentation: Linking Needs to Actions The Zappos Segmentation Strategy 8-5

6 FIGURE 8-1 FIGURE 8-1 Market segmentation links market needs to an organizations marketing program through marketing mix actions 8-6

7 FIGURE 8-2 FIGURE 8-2 A market-product grid shows the kind of sleeper that is targeted for each of the bed pillows with a different firmness Using Market-Product Grids Using Market-Product Grids 8-7

8 WHY SEGMENT MARKETS? WHEN AND HOW TO SEGMENT MARKETS LO1 One-Size-Fits-All Mass Markets No Longer Exist One Product and Multiple Market Segments Multiple Products and Multiple Market Segments 8-8

9 Sporting News Baseball Yearbook What market segmentation strategy is used? LO1 8-9

10 WHY SEGMENT MARKETS? WHEN AND HOW TO SEGMENT MARKETS LO1 Segments of One: Mass Customization Mass Customization Build-to-Order (BTO) 8-10

11 WHY SEGMENT MARKETS? WHEN AND HOW TO SEGMENT MARKETS LO1 The Segmentation Tradeoff: Synergies vs. Cannibalization Organizational Synergy Cannibalization Tiffany/Walmart Strategies 8-11

12 FIGURE 8-3 FIGURE 8-3 The five key steps in segmenting and targeting markets that link market needs to a firms marketing program 8-12

13 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 1: GROUP POTENTIAL BUYERS INTO SEGMENTS LO2 Criteria to Use in Forming the Segments Simplicity and Cost-Effectiveness of Assigning Potential Buyers to Segments Potential for Increased Profit Similarity of Needs of Potential Buyers Within a Segment Potential of a Marketing Action to Reach a Segment Difference of Needs of Buyers Among Segments 8-13

14 Ways to Segment Consumer Markets Geographic Segmentation Demographic Segmentation STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 1: GROUP POTENTIAL BUYERS INTO SEGMENTS LO3 8-14

15 Ways to Segment Consumer Markets Psychographic Segmentation Behavioral Segmentation Product Features Usage Rate or Frequency Marketing Usage Rate or Frequency Marketing 80/20 Rule STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 1: GROUP POTENTIAL BUYERS INTO SEGMENTS LO3 8-15

16 MARKETING MATTERS To Which Flock Do You Belong? LO3 8-16

17 FIGURE 8-A FIGURE 8-A Segmentation bases, variables, and breakdowns for U.S. consumer markets 8-17

18 FIGURE 8-B FIGURE 8-B Patronage of fast-food restaurants by adults 18 years and older Source: Experian Simmons Winter 2012 NCS Full Year Adult Survey 12 Month OneView Crosstabulation Report: Based on Visits within the Past 30 Days 8-18

19 FIGURE 8-4 FIGURE 8-4 Comparison of various kinds of users and nonusers for Wendys, Burger King, and McDonalds fast-food restaurants Source: Experian Simmons Winter 2012 NCS Full Year Adult Survey 12 Month OneView Crosstabulation Report: Based on Visits within the Past 30 Days 8-19

20 Variables to Use in Forming Segments Students Nonstudents Dorms, Sororities, & Fraternities Faculty & Staff Apartments Day Commuters Night Commuters Residents in Area Workers in Area STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 1: GROUP POTENTIAL BUYERS INTO SEGMENTS LO3 8-20

21 Ways to Segment Organizational Markets Geographic Segmentation Demographic Segmentation Behavioral Segmentation STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 1: GROUP POTENTIAL BUYERS INTO SEGMENTS LO3 8-21

22 FIGURE 8-C FIGURE 8-C Segmentation bases, variables, and breakdowns for U.S. organizational markets 8-22

23 FIGURE 8-5 FIGURE 8-5 Wendys new products and innovations target specific market segments based on a customers gender, needs, or university affiliation Wendys Ad 8-23

24 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 2: GROUP PRODUCTS INTO CATEGORIES LO3 Individual Wendys Products Breakfast Groupings of Wendys Products: Meals Lunch Between Meal Snack Dinner After Dinner Snack 8-24

25 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 3: DEVELOP A MARKET-PRODUCT GRID AND ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF MARKETS LO4 Forming a Market-Product Grid Estimating Market Sizes 8-25

26 FIGURE 8-6 FIGURE 8-6 Selecting a target market for your Wendys fast-food restaurant next to an urban university (target market is shaded) 8-26

27 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 4: SELECT TARGET MARKETS LO4 Criteria to Use in Selecting Target Markets Those That Divide a Market into Segments Two Types of Criteria Those That Actually Pick the Target Segments 8-27

28 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 4: SELECT TARGET MARKETS LO4 Criteria to Use in Selecting Target Markets Market Size Expected Growth Competitive Position Cost of Reaching the Segment Compatibility with Organizational Objectives and Resources 8-28

29 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 4: SELECT TARGET MARKETS LO4 Choose the Products & Segments No Breakfast Four Student Segments Only 8-29

30 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 5: TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS TO REACH TARGET MARKETS LO4 Immediate Wendys Segmentation Strategy Day Commuters Between-Meal Snacks Dinners to Night Commuters Future Strategies for Wendys Keeping an Eye on Competition 8-30

31 FIGURE 8-7 FIGURE 8-7 Advertising actions to market various meals to a range of possible market segments of students 8-31

32 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 5: TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS TO REACH TARGET MARKETS LO4 Apples Ever-Changing Segmentation Strategy Marketing Synergies Market-Product Synergy Analysis: A Balancing Act Product/R&D-Manufacturing Synergies Apples 1984 Ad 8-32

33 MARKETING MATTERS Apples Segmentation Strategy Camp Runamok No Longer LO4 8-33

34 FIGURE 8-E FIGURE 8-E A test of your skills: Where are the synergies? 1. Where are the marketing synergies? 2. Where are the R&D-manufacturing synergies? 3. What is the ideal market-product grid for a merger? 8-34

35 FIGURE 8-F FIGURE 8-F Market-product grids show alternative strategies for a lawnmower manufacturer 8-35

36 STEPS IN SEGMENTING AND TARGETING MARKETS STEP 5: TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS TO REACH TARGET MARKETS LO4 Market Specialization Market-Product Concentration Product Specialization Selective Specialization Full Coverage 8-36

37 POSITIONING THE PRODUCT LO5 Product Positioning Head-to-Head Positioning Product Repositioning Two Approaches to Product Positioning Differentiation Positioning Writing a Positioning Statement 8-37

38 POSITIONING THE PRODUCT LO5 Identify Important Attributes for a Product or Brand Class Product Positioning w/ Perceptual Maps Customers Ratings of Competing Products or Brands on These Attributes Customers Ratings of the Companys Products or Brands on These Attributes Reposition the Companys Products or Brands in the Minds of Consumers 8-38

39 POSITIONING THE PRODUCT LO5 Perceptual Map A Perceptual Map to Reposition Chocolate Milk for Adults Identify Important Attributes for Adult Drinks Discover How Customers See Chocolate Milk Reposition Chocolate Milk to Make It More Appealing to Adults Discover How Adults See Competing Drinks 8-39

40 FIGURE 8-G FIGURE 8-G A perceptual map of the location of beverages in the minds of American adults 8-40

41 FIGURE 8-8 FIGURE 8-8 The strategy American dairies are using to reposition chocolate milk to reach adults 8-41

42 PRINCE SPORTS, INC.: TENNIS RACQUETS FOR EVERY SEGMENT VIDEO CASE 8 8-42

43 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 Prince Sports targets racquets at specific market segments 8-43

44 VIDEO CASE 8 PRINCE SPORTS 1. In the 21 st century, what trends in the environmental forces (social, economic, technological, competitive, and regulatory) (a) work for and (b) work against success for Prince Sports in the tennis industry? 8-44

45 VIDEO CASE 8 PRINCE SPORTS 2. Because sales of Prince Sports in tennis-related products depends heavily on growth of the tennis industry, what marketing activities might it use in the U.S. to promote tennis playing? 8-45

46 VIDEO CASE 8 PRINCE SPORTS 3. What promotional activities might Prince use to reach (a) recreational players and (b) junior players? 8-46

47 VIDEO CASE 8 PRINCE SPORTS 4. What might Prince do to help it gain distribution and sales in (a) mass merchandisers like Target and Walmart and (b) specialty tennis shops? 8-47

48 VIDEO CASE 8 PRINCE SPORTS 5. In reaching global markets outside the U.S., (a) what are some criteria that Prince should use to select countries in which to market aggressively, (b) what three or four countries meet these criteria best, and (c) what are some marketing actions Prince might use to reach these markets? 8-48

49 Market Segmentation Market segmentation involves aggregating prospective buyers into groups that (1) have common needs and (2) will respond similarly to a marketing action. 8-49

50 Market Segments Market segments are the relatively homogeneous groups of prospective buyers that result from the market segmentation process. 8-50

51 Product Differentiation Product differentiation is a marketing strategy that involves a firm using different marketing mix activities to help consumers perceive the product as being different and better than competing products. 8-51

52 Market-Product Grid A market-product grid is a framework to relate the market segments of potential buyers to products offered or potential marketing actions by an organization. 8-52

53 Usage Rate Usage rate is the quantity consumed or patronage (store visits) during a specific period. Also called frequency marketing. 8-53

54 80/20 Rule The 80/20 rule is a concept that suggests 80 percent of a firms sales are obtained from 20 percent of its customers. 8-54

55 Product Positioning Product positioning is the place an offering occupies in a consumers mind on important attributes relative to competitive products. 8-55

56 Product Repositioning Product repositioning involves changing the place an offering occupies in a consumers mind relative to competitive products. 8-56

57 Perceptual Map A perceptual map is a means of displaying or graphing in two dimensions the location of products or brands in the minds of consumers to enable a manager to see how consumers perceive competing products or brands, as well as the firms own product or brand. 8-57


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