Presentation on theme: "Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 1 Teaching English for Employment A Work-Like Integrated Learning Approach Laura Ficorilli"— Presentation transcript:
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 1 Teaching English for Employment A Work-Like Integrated Learning Approach Laura Ficorilli October 2008 Macquarie University
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 2 This section of the workshop is aimed at: - exploring possibilities of applying work-like integrated approaches to the ESL class. This section of the workshop is aimed at: - exploring possibilities of applying work-like integrated approaches to the ESL class. - exploring ways for developing second language learners awareness and knowledge of the Australian workplace requirements and, and knowledge of the Australian workplace requirements and, - developing their own potential and aptitude in making the most of the opportunities available in the labor market. the opportunities available in the labor market.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 3 Language > occupational status Learning a second (or in some cases third language) might become more meaningful if seen as a means to acquire occupational status which leads to recognition.Learning a second (or in some cases third language) might become more meaningful if seen as a means to acquire occupational status which leads to recognition. Clients are motivated by, and benefit from, vocational content courses as they include content of relevance to their current and career lives. ( Murray, 2007 p. 4)Clients are motivated by, and benefit from, vocational content courses as they include content of relevance to their current and career lives. ( Murray, 2007 p. 4)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 4 CSWE I & CSWE II LEARNERS Often regarded as not ready to tackle the jobs literacy requirements. However many still want to enter the workforce as soon as possible. The aim is to channel their drive and efforts into initially familiarizing with the Australian workplaces system.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 5 Certificate I 1/1/03 – 30/09/03 Reported on AMEP Information Sheet – May 2006 (ARMS) Total enrolments = 5182 Total withdrawals for work-related reasons = 150 3% of all enrolments in Certificate 1
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 6 Certificate II 1/1/03 – 30/9/03 Reported on AMEP Information Sheet – 2006 (ARMS) Total enrolments = 1723 Total withdrawals for work-related reasons = % of all enrolments of Certificate II
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ESL, ADULT LITERACY AND NUMERACY AND THE WELL PROGRAMME Work has been a major focus in ESL classes since the very beginning of the provision of English language training in Australia in Free lessons were provided to help migrants assimilate into the host community and to help them get work. As early as 1952, there were courses specifically focused on employment (Victorian Government Railways). In 1959, classes for employees had begun at the Gas Fuel Corporation, Containers Ltd, Bradford Cotton Mills and Robert Bosh Pty.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 8 Generic Skills From 1973 to 1985, English in the workplace courses focused on occupational health and safety, basic work- related communication and offered some guidance on rights and entitlements. Specific needs After 1985 courses focused on the specific needs of industry. English tuition was established as an industrial right in an Industrial Relations Commission decision in 1987 (Eyles Miltenyi Davis Pty 1989, p.5).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 9 The Kangan Report (1974 ) - The Kangan Report, TAFE in Australia: Report on needs in technical and further education, determined the beginning of the systematic adult literacy provision especially in pre- vocational preparation. - Substantial federal funding was increasingly focused on assisting the unemployed to access training. - The case had already been made in the Industrial Relations Commission for English language training for workers whose first language was not English. The case was now being made for all workers (Long, 1989).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 10 Longs study on employer and union perceptions showed that: …literacy is an important skill for both English and non- English speaking workers. In fact literacy is seen as a more important skill than most other technical job- related skills, in that it is a first order skill necessary for acquiring higher order skills… (Long, 1989)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 11 The Workplace English Language and Literacy Programme (1989) Workplace English Language and Literacy Programme (WELL) commenced in 1989 As a joint initiative between the Department of Industrial Relations, Immigration and Multicultural Affairs and Employment Education and Training.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 12 The international Literacy Year (1990) and the Australian Language and Literacy Policy - National language policies provided further momentum in considering Australias language resources for economic and social development (Lo Bianco, 1987; Commonwealth of Australia 1991a, 1991b). -The Australian Language and Literacy Policy essentially retained the Adult Migrant Education Programme as a settlement strategy for migrants. It identified English literacy as a barrier to employment and training and injected funding linked to unemployment entitlements through labor market programs.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 13 WELL and the link to accredited courses The WELL initiative has been maintained and funding has remained fairly constant through the years. However one of the perceived weaknesses of the English in the Workplace Programme was the lack of accreditation and direct articulation between the workplace courses into occupational qualification (Mawer, 1992). This was then addressed in the WELL Programme by requiring language, literacy and numeracy to be directly linked to accredited courses and, since the introduction of training packages, to units of competency.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 14 Principles underpinning the link Training must provide English language, literacy and numeracy skills that meet workers employment and training needs and should: be integrated with workplace training to support the underpinning language, literacy and numeracy skills within units of competency from a Training package where available… be integrated with workplace training to support the underpinning language, literacy and numeracy skills within generic units of competency… be integrated with workplace training required to obtain licences, certificates or mandatory qualifications. (Dept. of Education, Science and Training 2004b, p.6)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 15 Language vs Work The historical background seems to indicate a pattern where language has been seen as a vehicle to be geared to industrial requirements rather than create the conditions for learning on the job Or For progressing through the job itself
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 16 This is despite the fact that both literature and theories of learning show language and literacy learning instances on the job (Balzary, 2004). teaching and learning strategies do not always come from structured languages and programs but happen because of a number of factors such as peer teaching, learning on the factory floor or participation to other training courses (Fitsimons, G. & Mlcek; S. 2005, Gleeson, L. 2005; Hayes et al. 2004; McCurry, 2004).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 17 Group Discussion 1.What have you learnt on the job that you had not learnt at school or uni? 2.Have you been in a different job before teaching? 3.What skills did you acquire in your previous job that you then transferred to the teaching profession? 4.Can you describe the process/patterns of your learning at work? 5.What has been most useful for you to learn?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 18 THEORIESOFLEARNING THEORIES OF LEARNING Knowles Andragogy Knowles identified five distinguishing features of adult learners (Smith, 2002): 1.Self-concept: from being a dependent personality toward being a self-directed human being. 2.Experience 3.Readiness to learn: orientation to the development tasks of ones social roles 4.Orientation to learning: from postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and, shift from subject centeredness to problem centeredness 5.Motivation to learn: increasingly internal motivation
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 19 Literacies of Work vs Literacies of School The work of Mikulecky further differentiated between adult and children education. The literacies of work were identified as being different from the literacies of school (Mikulecki, 1988).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 20 Competence-based training CBT was introduced in Australia in the late 1980s as a strategy to improve the skills levels of the Australian workforce, enable Australian industry to be more competitive in global markets and to establish new career structures for the Australian workforce (Carmichael,1989; NCVER,1999, p.1; Hawke, 2002).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 21 Evolution of outcomes statements/standards for Competency- Based Training Competency- Based Training The standards developed by the National Training Board and those now forming part of training packages are significantly different from earlier versions, particularly in the heightened awareness of and prominence given to generic skills such as language, literacy and numeracy.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 22 Constructivism Constructivist theories infer that learners construct knowledge for themselves and that learning and language are intertwined ( Bruner, 1960; billet, 2001). Chappell notes the importance of context in constructivist theories of learning: There is general agreement that learning involves the active There is general agreement that learning involves the active construction of Meaning by learners, which is context- construction of Meaning by learners, which is context- dependent, socially mediated and situated in the real world of dependent, socially mediated and situated in the real world of the learner. the learner. (Chappell, 2004 p.4) (Chappell, 2004 p.4) The view is that the knowledge required for the new economy is less foundational or disciplined based and is acquired through collaborations and networks which exists within specific sites and particular contexts.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 23 Workplace learning In Billets model (Billet 2001) learners move from peripheral In Billets model (Billet 2001) learners move from peripheral participation undertaking activities of low accountability to participation undertaking activities of low accountability to full participation and activities of high accountability. full participation and activities of high accountability. Activities are embedded in the workplace setting and tools, Activities are embedded in the workplace setting and tools, and learning occurs through observation and listening. and learning occurs through observation and listening.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 24 Modes of workplace learning Direct learning is available from more experienced co-workers using modeling, coaching, scaffolding, questioning, diagrams and analogies. The essential elements for learning to take place are: The situation (shaped by the tools, artifacts The situation (shaped by the tools, artifacts and processes of the workplace); and processes of the workplace); direct guidance (opportunity for authentic direct guidance (opportunity for authentic practice); practice); indirect guidance (opportunity to observe, indirect guidance (opportunity to observe, discuss). discuss).
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 25 Personal experience As a workplace ESL teacher and as a postgraduate student I have come across many ESL speakers in the workforce who had managed to acquire new technical skills and qualifications along with language skills and progress in their job to take on key-positions.As a workplace ESL teacher and as a postgraduate student I have come across many ESL speakers in the workforce who had managed to acquire new technical skills and qualifications along with language skills and progress in their job to take on key-positions. As a mother/client I have had my two children in Family Day Care over a number of years and at times met great carers, with limited language skills. Most had at least Certificate I in Work Skills. All were successfully dealing not only with demanding parents but also with a huge amount of paperwork.As a mother/client I have had my two children in Family Day Care over a number of years and at times met great carers, with limited language skills. Most had at least Certificate I in Work Skills. All were successfully dealing not only with demanding parents but also with a huge amount of paperwork.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 26 Personal experience Recently I have interviewed a number of students at an AMEP centre in the Sydney metropolitan area for the LTS project. They are newly arrived migrants still ranking between pre-CSWE and CSWE 1 levels. Despite their conscious struggle with English, their apparently slow progress and lack of specific skills, most of them want to start working soon. They also believe this would be the only way to improve their English.Recently I have interviewed a number of students at an AMEP centre in the Sydney metropolitan area for the LTS project. They are newly arrived migrants still ranking between pre-CSWE and CSWE 1 levels. Despite their conscious struggle with English, their apparently slow progress and lack of specific skills, most of them want to start working soon. They also believe this would be the only way to improve their English.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 27 Group Work Discussion 1.What is your experience with learners who want to enter the workforce as soon as possible? 2.How do they most commonly manifest this wish? 3.What are their motivations and expectations? 4.What are your views on the difficulties they will encounter in finding/keeping a job? 5.What advice do you give them?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 28 A gap between A gap between - their expectations of getting a job without English and the reality of literacy requirements in the Australian the reality of literacy requirements in the Australian labor context. labor context. - Besides the obvious workplace cultural differences new migrants also face the very complicated new migrants also face the very complicated Australian training and certification system as we know Australian training and certification system as we know it. it. - Notions like certificate, accountability, assessment etc. might be themselves completely unknown to etc. might be themselves completely unknown to students. students.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 29 Behaviorist model Focuses on adhering to the process rather than on analysing critically what one engages in Clearly defines the parameters of the task and minimalises the demand for creativity, judgment and initiative Getting the job done (Virgona, C. 1994)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 30 job learner
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 31 Job market learnerjob
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 32 AWARENESS An awareness of the Australian labor markets demands is An awareness of the Australian labor markets demands is needed whereby students are provided with an appropriate needed whereby students are provided with an appropriate mix of skills and knowledge preparing them to undertake mix of skills and knowledge preparing them to undertake work or ongoing learning. work or ongoing learning. The aim is not necessarily that of mapping VET The aim is not necessarily that of mapping VET communication courses or modules to ESL programs or communication courses or modules to ESL programs or more specifically to CSWE curricula but to help learners more specifically to CSWE curricula but to help learners develop pathways toward their future goals. develop pathways toward their future goals.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 33 How can the workplace context or work-based training How can the workplace context or work-based training constitute a vehicle for further learning and enhancing ones constitute a vehicle for further learning and enhancing ones language and literacy skills? language and literacy skills? How are individual learning strategies best activated while How are individual learning strategies best activated while in action? in action? What learning patterns successful learners possess to carry What learning patterns successful learners possess to carry out tasks or apply processes and procedures. out tasks or apply processes and procedures. In a word, how is literacy developed while it is being In a word, how is literacy developed while it is being applied? applied? (Sticht, 1997; Levine cited in Lankshear, 1992) (Sticht, 1997; Levine cited in Lankshear, 1992)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 34 Pathways are learner-centred Community Workplace Context Training Job Job Market Workplace Interactions Learner
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 35 WORK-LIKE INTEGRATED LEARNING APPROACH It originates from Certificate I Pathway qualification. It links technical and employability skills by bringing together a number of units of competency into a work activity. It links learning to the application of work-based issues and tasks.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 37 Delivering language literacy and numeracy using Training Packages (TP) Interpretation/understanding of vocational training requirements or more specifically workplace requirements. What literacy practices are required and how are they identified in a workplace setting? How are they translated in learning/teaching practices? What are the key factors that might describe the integrated model?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 38 Example: OH&S within Certificates and Qualifications One of the 6 learning outcomes for the OHS module within the Certficate II in Engineering Production requires learners to: … describe the requirements for industrial housekeeping in an engineering environment. This might imply the following actions: Recognizing and researching OHS risks Filling up forms Compiling reports Reporting to the person responsible/informing coworkers Participating in meetings about related issues Example from Virgona, C. (1994)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 39 Group Task DRAFTING A WORK-LIKE INTEGRATED LEARNING PLAN WITHIN THE CSWE CURRICULUM BY LINKING ITS LOs TO UNITS OF COMPETENCY FROM : CERTIFICATE II IN COMMUNITY SERVICES CERTIFICATE II IN CIVIL CONSTRUCTION Hand-outs (authentic material )provided
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 40 SUGGESTIONS: Select the appropriate Learning Outcomes Select the appropriate Learning Outcomes Find suitable teaching materials (sample copies will be provided) Find suitable teaching materials (sample copies will be provided) Design and plan activities (fill up the bubbles and rectangles) Design and plan activities (fill up the bubbles and rectangles) Set up training setting and practice opportunities Set up training setting and practice opportunities Remember: break down the units of competency or elements into activities Remember: break down the units of competency or elements into activities (what actions they might require) (what actions they might require) Example in next slide Example in next slide
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 41 Set up a play-group venue for toddlers Team Building activity Training Setting Team Building activity Training Setting Group learning activities: Teaching materials Workplace Documents Group learning activities: Teaching materials Workplace Documents Communication Skills: LOs Reading Listening Underpinning knowledge and skills Teamwork: simulated activities Safety and Hygiene Procedures -Tools and Equipment -Workplace Documentation CHCCN1C Ensure children health and safety Practice opportunities Practice opportunities Demonstration Work Context Family Day Care (house)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 42 Challenges to consider: choice of contentchoice of content students perceptions and groupingstudents perceptions and grouping balance between language and contentbalance between language and content logistics of offering courses across siteslogistics of offering courses across sites certificate levelcertificate level delivery/learning modesdelivery/learning modes background content knowledge ofbackground content knowledge of learners learners
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 43 Group Discussion: Feedback on Group Work-like learning plans 1.Best ways of integrating units and activities 2.How to set up the learning context 3.How to find suitable workplaces for practice and observation 4.How to find /collect authentic material and develop it into learning and assessing resources 5.Identify barriers to learning and possible solutions to overcome these
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 44 STRATEGIES 1.Best ways of integrating units and activities a) Preparation of plan based on workplace practices observation b) Narrative text approach (underpinning skills and knowledge, first language support); c) Names of jobs with matching, spelling, puzzles, word games; d) Introduction to practical issues such as qualifications, skills & experience, punctuality, ability to travel to workplaces
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo How to set up the learning context a) Videos showing learners experiences, workplaces and work process and procedures. b) Engaging in community projects b) Simulated activities, role-plays. c) Setting of classroom as resembling as possible to workplace. d) Visits to workplaces.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo How to find suitable workplaces for practice and observation a) Job network agencies b) Community based organizations c) Private companies
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 47 4) How to find/collect authentic material a) visual (documentaries-filmaustralia.com, companies/businesses promotion material b) workplace paperwork from friends working in specific industries c) Training Packages (TP)
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 48 5) Identify barriers to learning and possible solutions to overcome these a) developing a learners profile and a training needs analysis b) Individual Learning Plan can be used as a starting point
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 49 Issues to be targeted are: Strengths, realistic goals, likes/dislikes of possible Strengths, realistic goals, likes/dislikes of possible jobs. jobs. Specifically: Specifically: Are there any fears expressed? (e.g.: lack of language Are there any fears expressed? (e.g.: lack of language skills) skills) What can be gauged about confidence for learning? What can be gauged about confidence for learning? Are there negative/positive experiences being Are there negative/positive experiences being expressed? expressed? Do they have any concerns in attending lessons Do they have any concerns in attending lessons outside the classroom setting? (e.g.: in a workplace) outside the classroom setting? (e.g.: in a workplace) How do the students view training in the workplace? How do the students view training in the workplace? Do they seem to embrace the idea, as new as it may Do they seem to embrace the idea, as new as it may be to them, or do you sense some resistance? be to them, or do you sense some resistance?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 50 TASK: Design a questionnaire/interview for the students by taking into considerations the following points: 1)What environment will allow the learners to feel secure? secure? 2) Past learning experiences: how they learn best? (repetition, listening watching, doing, individual, small group, self paced, etc.) 3) What understanding of the Australian workplace do the learners have? do the learners have?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 51 DEVELOPING LEARNING AND ASSESSING RESOURCES Gather authentic material from workplaces The development of learning resources is based on the following key areas: Learning preferences of the participants (see LP Learning preferences of the participants (see LP and TNA) and TNA) Learning needs (see LP and TNA) Learning needs (see LP and TNA) Workplace processes, practices and Workplace processes, practices and documentation documentation Language, literacy and numeracy skills Language, literacy and numeracy skills development in both the context of the development in both the context of the industry and the level of students within the industry and the level of students within the CSWE framework CSWE framework
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 52 Overview of the types of suggested learning resources/activities to be integrated in the plan: handbookshandbooks visual displaysvisual displays billboard noticesbillboard notices training manuals/hand-outstraining manuals/hand-outs forms and formatted textsforms and formatted texts reportsreports samples of conversationssamples of conversations samples of spoken instructionssamples of spoken instructions simulationssimulations role-playsrole-plays researchingresearching Matching pictures with names of jobs – puzzles – crosswords. Arranging/assembling pictures/cards of objects /processes. Grammar activities – simple present (routines), simple past, can/cant, use of links. Talking about goals an time Reading narrative texts. Reading/acting upon simple procedures.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 53 Further development of resources include the following considerations: - Which documents only have to be read and understood? understood? - Which documents require written responses - Which workplace practices are described, demonstrated and communicated orally? demonstrated and communicated orally? - Which work practices are described, demonstrated and communicated via print? and communicated via print? - Which work practices are described, demonstrated and communicated via technology? and communicated via technology? - Which practices require team/individual work? - How is feedback sought/given for specific operations or procedures? operations or procedures?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 54 MACRO-SKILLS MACRO-SKILLS AND AND DELIVERY /LEARNING MODES DELIVERY /LEARNING MODES
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 55 SPEAKINGSPEAKING Students are enabled to recognize the different situations and occurrences in the specific work context and use the appropriate structures/forms required accordingly (e.g. meeting, team work, instructing, requesting, repeating, paraphrasing, checking if someone heard correctly, bargaining an agreement, negotiating a range of events, giving feedback, etc)Students are enabled to recognize the different situations and occurrences in the specific work context and use the appropriate structures/forms required accordingly (e.g. meeting, team work, instructing, requesting, repeating, paraphrasing, checking if someone heard correctly, bargaining an agreement, negotiating a range of events, giving feedback, etc) TASK: Suggest training activitiesTASK: Suggest training activities Choose a sample from the material provided and indicate how it can be developed into speaking activities
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 56 LISTENING Students comprehend the context of exchange and content of discussions, instructions, requests, etc. and other cues such as humor, sarcasm, urgency, execute or respond accordingly. TASK: Suggest activities from the samples provided provided
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 57 READING Mixture of workplace and personal topics the Mixture of workplace and personal topics the participants can identify with (see LP and TNA). participants can identify with (see LP and TNA). Vocabulary extension through visual aids and Vocabulary extension through visual aids and comprehension checks comprehension checks Predicting the context of a text by context/text Predicting the context of a text by context/text cues or illustrations cues or illustrations Understanding graphic material Understanding graphic material Action upon written instructions or operating Action upon written instructions or operating procedures procedures Literal and interpretative comprehension activities Literal and interpretative comprehension activities to develop skills in understanding and to develop skills in understanding and interpretation. interpretation.
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 58 WRITING Speed copying Filling up formatted texts (accidents reports, time sheets, etc.) Writing reports
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 59 NUMERACY Measuring and reporting numeric values in appropriate docs Estimating depths, distances, weights, loads and quantities
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 60 GROUP DISCUSSION What is your view on the teachers role in helping ESL learners develop their future pathways?
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 61 EVALUATION
Laura FicorilliWork-like integrated approachNo 62