Presentation on theme: "Improving Womens Economic Position and Local Economic Problems at a time of Recession ANGELA OHAGAN."— Presentation transcript:
Improving Womens Economic Position and Local Economic Problems at a time of Recession ANGELA OHAGAN
The differential impact on women versus men will vary across countries. The effects depend on the gender job segregation in a country. In developed economies, in which men have dominated in construction and durable goods manufacturing industries that have been hardest hit by sharp drop in demand, mounting job losses have affected men more than women. But women, too, will be affected in coming months. Female joblessness can be expected to rise disproportionately as public sector budget cuts are made, since women are disproportionately employed in education, health, and social services, (Seguino, 2009).
with the recession there is some indication that existing gains, including those in legislation, may be lost, (Prof. Diane Perrons, LSE) Gender equality is at risk if the downturn is used as a reason to slowdown progress on equality policies or even to rethink policies that help women on the labour market, (Smith, 2009). Productivity and fairness are not alternates, but both are necessary for the realisation of the other, (Sylvia Walby, UNESCO Chair in Gender Research)
Tackling occupational segregation and gender pay gap are questions of policy for gender justice and productivity and economic growth (Walby, 2007). The links between womens low pay and poverty, and the economic inefficiency of under-valuing womens work (TUC,2008).
Horizontal – workforce is made up of mostly one gender Vertical – opportunities for advancement by a particular gender are limited (similar to glass ceiling) Restricts freedom of choice Maintains sex stereotyping Restricts choice for business Increases skills deficiencies Maintains undervaluation Contributes to the pay gap Inflexible working (lack of options) Undervaluing of roles and occupations (women's work of low/no value)
Occupational segregation Discrimination Effect of caring on earnings Market failure Standard productivity measures Legislative framework
Olsen and Walby (2003)Olsen and Walby (2004) Education (6%) Segregation (13%) Discrimination and being female (29%) Full time employment experience (26%) Interruptions due to caring (15%) Part time employment experience (12%)
Modern Apprenticeships Close the Gap 27,520 MAs, 2008 22% women Vocational and skills areas: construction, engineering, childcare, health and social care, management Engineering: £20.4m – men; £297k - women Childcare: £5.47m – women; £54.5k - men Men, £69:Women,£1 Initially funded under EQUAL, 2002 Scottish Government funded to promote equal pay, tackle pay gap and occupational segregation Ministerial priority under Gender Equality Duty Cross-Directorate Working Group on occupational segregation Gender Equality Scheme, Annual Report 2010
Assume gender neutrality Result in gender-blind policies and differential outcomes Require gender-aware analysis Trans-national (G20, UN), European Union, National and regional/local level Role of civil society
Governance and Decision-Making Support for Industrial Sectors and Companies Supporting Labour Markets Supporting Investment Supporting Household Purchasing Power Credit (Source: Walby, (2009): Auditing the gender implications of recovery policies for the financial and economic crisis)
Gender Mainstreaming Involvement of all actors in policy process Disaggregated data Policy appraisal Equality impact assessments Gender Budget Analysis Time Use Analysis Gender Audits Gender Pay Audits
What is the gender composition of employment in the industrial sectors and companies that are given financial support? Is training supportive of womens access to non-standard occupations, or does it reinforce existing patterns of occupational segregation? Do considerations of infrastructure investment include human capital as well as fixed? Is education included as well as transport? Is attention on ICT development extended to a more inclusive concept of knowledge economy? What are the gendered effects of variances in taxes and have the gendered consequences been identified and mitigated? What are the gendered implications of variances in access to credit arrangements?
Capabilities Local authority responsibilities and functions Modena, 2003; Emiglia-Romagna, 2004; Bologna, 2007; Piedmont, 2007; Lazio, 2008;Rome Drawn from work by Tindarra Addabbo, Antonella Picchio et al, and Annalisa Rosselli on Siena
Access to knowledge Capability to live a health life Capability to work and carry on business Access to public resources (services/transfers) To live and work in adequate and secure places and in an eco-compatible environment To travel Caring for others Caring for oneself Participating in public life and living in an equitable society
Gender equality is a policy goal Gender equality is a legal requirement Reducing labour market rigidities like occupational segregation and discrimination leads to improved economic growth and productivity Gender equality analysis means more effectively targeted policy interventions and outcomes.