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Narrow Rows Twin Rows Populations Chad Lee Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky Chad.

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Presentation on theme: "Narrow Rows Twin Rows Populations Chad Lee Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky Chad."— Presentation transcript:

1 Narrow Rows Twin Rows Populations Chad Lee Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 1

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4 Two Topics Plant Populations Narrow Rows Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 4

5 Contributors Dewey Lee, GA Brian Jones, VaTech R. L. Nielsen, Purdue Kraig Roozeboom, Stuart Duncan, K-State Kurt Thelen, Michigan State Joe Lauer, Wisconsin Robert Kratochvil, Maryland R. W. Taylor, Delaware Pioneer Monsanto AgriGold Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 5

6 Corn Seeding Rates Do we need to change the recommendations? Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 6 Table 3. Recommended corn seeding rates for Kentucky. Seeding rate* (seeds/acre) Grain22, ,000 Silage24, ,000 Irrigated26, ,000 * Range depends on potential yield of soil ranging from less than 100 bu/ac for the low range to more than 200 bu/ac for the high range.

7 Population Studies Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 7

8 Corn Populations, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 8

9 Population and Stalk Diameter Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 9

10 Population and Sunlight Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 10

11 Population Effect, Corn Lexington, 2009, VT3 Hybrids and RRCB Hybrids Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 11

12 Population Effect, Corn Lexington, 2008, VT3 Hybrids and RRCB Hybrids Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 12

13 Corn Grain Yields Woodford County, KY, 2007 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 13 Year: 2007 Location: Woodford County Farm Hybrid: SS777RR2YGPL Poncho 1250-treated seed Planting: May 3, 2007

14 Corn Seeding Rates Do we need to change the recommendations? Year-to-year weather variability can drastically impact corn yield response to seeding rate. We cant accurately predict the weather 3 to 4 months ahead. In irrigated fields, populations can be raised to about 34,000 to 36,000 seeds/acre. For rainfed conditions and good soils, maximum seeding rates should be near 30,000 to 33,000 seeds/acre. Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 14

15 NARROW ROWS Kentucky and other states Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 15

16 What do these have in common? Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 16

17 Dribble-Drive Offense Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 17 Spacing is critical.

18 Spacing is Critical? plants/acrerow width, inches twin (30) within-row plant spacing, inches 25, , , , , , , , Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 18 Could narrow rows improve spacing…and improve yields?

19 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 19 PLANT SPACING VARIABILITY Spacing Between Rows (inches) Plant Population (plants/acre) Spacing Within Rows (inches) Allowable Within Row Spacing (inches) 3030, , Variability up to 2 inches does not hurt yields. Variability above 2 inches will reduce yields. - - R.L. Nielsen, Purdue Univ.

20 Twin Row Planter Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 20

21 Twin Row Planter Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 21

22 Twin Row Corn, Spindletop Farm, KY, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 22 Three hybrids: –1 US Hybrid Developed in 30-inch rows –2 Argentine Hybrids Developed in 20-inch rows

23 Twin Rows, Narrow Rows Lexington, KY, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 23 Spindletop Farm, Lexington, KY No-Till Following Soybean Loradale silt loam Seeded: 27 Apr ,000 seeds/A Lexar+Glyphosate PRE, no POST AX820CL and XA1143MG are from Nidera in Argentina (developed in 20-inch rows). DKC62-54 is from Monsanto DeKalb *, **Significantly different from 30-inch rows at 0.05 and 0.10, respectively.

24 Twin Rows, Narrow Rows Lexington, KY, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 24 Spindletop Farm, Lexington, KY No-Till Following Soybean Loradale silt loam Seeded: 27 Apr ,000 seeds/A Lexar+Glyphosate PRE, no POST 10 ears per plot 3 hybrids 4 replications AX820CL and XA1143MG are from Nidera in Argentina (developed in 20-inch rows). DKC62-54 is from Monsanto DeKalb Rowplants/akernels/earkernel/wt, gvacant tip, inrows/ear Single 15 31, Single 30 35, Twin 30 32,

25 Twin Rows Palmer Amaranth Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 25 Emerged late in this field and was about 2-feet tall when corn was pollinating. Would twin-rows be more competitive? NO!! Weed pressure hurt yields. Hand-harvest: area of plots with less weed pressure. Combine-harvest: entire plot.

26 Fulton County, KY, 2009 Note: Heavy population of Palmer amaranth competing with corn. Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 26 Estimates p value § single, 32K vs twin, 32K single, 32K vs twin, 38K twin, 32K vs twin, 38K

27 Twin Rows or Population? Fulton County, KY, 2009 We cannot conclude if row width or population or both affected yield. We can conclude that weeds cause real problems… Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 27

28 Fulton County, KY, 2009 Note: Heavy population of Palmer amaranth competing with corn. Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 28 Row by Seeding RateA6522BtCLA6633BtCLA6522BtCLA6633BtCLA6522BtCLA6633BtCL 30 inchesplants/A ears/A kernels missing, % 32,000 seeds/A 34,100 28,700 33,000 26, twin rows 32,000 seeds/A 29,000 30,500 27,600 20, ,000 seeds/A 31,900 32,700 30,100 31, Estimates p value in, 32K vs twin, 32K in, 32K vs twin, 38K twin, 32K vs twin, 38K Table 1. Average stand plants per acre, ears per acre and missing kernels for treatments at Fulton County, Kentucky, 2009.

29 Twin Rows, Spindletop Farm, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 29 NOT RANDOMIZED!!! Averaged across 3 hybrids DKC61-19, DKC61-69 and DKC63-42 Each Hybrid Serves as a replicate No-Till, Maury Silt Loam

30 AgriGold Study, Madisonville, KY, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 30 Madisonville, KY, 2009 Herring Farms AgriGold A6533 Planted: 25-Apr-09 Clay loam soil conventional tillage

31 AgriGold Study, Madisonville, KY, 2009 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 31 Madisonville, KY, 2009 Herring Farms AgriGold A6533 Planted: 25-Apr-09 Clay loam soil conventional tillage

32 Narrow Rows from Other States Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 32

33 Georgia: Material and Methods Study included multiple years Tifton Sandy Loam Row widths: 36, 30, 20 inches and Twin 7 inch rows. Plant populations: 28-32,000 Hybrids: Pioneer 3163, DeKalb 687, DeKalb 67-60, Pioneer 32H58, P 32D99, DK Nitrogen rates: 260+ lbs N/acre Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

34 20 inch corn 30 inch corn 36 inch corn Twin row corn Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky Dewey Lee, University of Georgia

35 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 35 Row Spacing (in) Effects on Corn Yield (bu/a) Row width 2 Yr. Av. * yr av a263.2a230.2a267.0b c252.0b224.8a311.1a244.7 Twin b253.8b201.8b265.9b b248.9b201.8b256.7b234.7 Tifton, GA., * 2yr av, 2000, 2001; RDC Pivot Dewey Lee, University of Georgia

36 Georgia: Study Remarks Narrow row (20 inch row width) most productive width Narrow row (20 inch row width) production much improved with the addition of the Roundup Ready system ® Twin row equal to 36 inch row and 30 inch row more variable in intensive mgt. Economically, 20 inch more profitable. Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky Dewey Lee, University of Georgia

37 Georgia, Tiffin, 2003 and 2004 subsurface drip Plant treatment Plant density (plants/m 2 ) Grain yield (kg/ha) Test weight (kg/m 3 ) Stalk diameter (mm) 2003 Single 18.4a10640a704a19.2a Twin 19.1a10870a695a17.9a Twin 214.1b9145b697a14.8b 2004 Single 18.2a9548a702a17.3a Twin 18.6a9224a705a17.8a Twin 222.0b4789b701a10.7b Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 37 Sorensen, R. B., Lamb, M. C., and Butts, C. L Row pattern, plant density, and nitrogen rate on corn yield in the southeastern US. Online. Crop Management doi: /CM RS.

38 Yield Response to Row Spacing at Different Sites, North Carolina Yield (bu/acre) Location 38 NCSU Crop Science Department Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

39 Virginia Tech Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

40 VA Tech Methods 2006 (28,000 plants/ac) – 6 replications under irrigation 2007 (28,000 plants/ac) – 3 replications under irrigation – 3 replications with no irrigation 2008 – 3 populations X 3 Reps – 31,000; 36,000 and 41,000 plants/ac – Irrigated Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension

41 Results: Silage yield ( ) 11.8% 18.9% 8.9% Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension 41 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

42 Results: Silage yield ( ) a b P< ton/ac Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension 42 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

43 Results: Silage yield (2008) a a a b b b P<0.05 Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension 43 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

44 Results: Silage quality (milk/acre) TR SR a b a a a b Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension 44 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

45 Results: Grain yield in 2008 (VT) TR SR Brian Jones, Virginia Cooperative Extension 45 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

46 Delaware, Maryland Row SpacingLocation Georgetown (2003) Poplar Hill (2003) Wye (2003) Wye (2004) Bu acre Twin Rows inch Rows LSD 0.10 NS7.3NS Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 46 Grain yield by row spacing treatment and location averaged over the four hybrids and three populations during 2003 and two hybrids and five populations during Kratochvil, R. J., and Taylor, R. W Twin-row corn production: An evaluation in the mid- Atlantic Delmarva region. Online. Crop Management doi: /CM RS.

47 Delaware, Maryland Row Spacing Plant Population (Plants acre -1 ) 24,00028,00030,00032,00035,00040, % Lodging Twin Rows2 a a 4 a5 a8 a12 a6 a 30-inch Rows3 a4 a 5 a5 b9 a Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 47 Lodging response by row spacing and population treatments averaged across the two hybrids used in the twin row corn study conducted at Wye during Kratochvil, R. J., and Taylor, R. W Twin-row corn production: An evaluation in the mid- Atlantic Delmarva region. Online. Crop Management doi: /CM RS.

48 Delaware, Maryland Year Plant Population (Plants acre -1 ) 24,00028,00030,00032,00035,00040, % Stalk Rot b a 18 b---20 a d24 c 34 b47 a46 a Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 48 Stalk rot incidence by population averaged over locations, hybrids and row spacings for the two years of the twin row study. Kratochvil, R. J., and Taylor, R. W Twin-row corn production: An evaluation in the mid- Atlantic Delmarva region. Online. Crop Management doi: /CM RS.

49 Kansas, 2008 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 49 Kansas, 2008 Atchinson County Stewart Duncan Kansas State University

50 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 50 Staggenberg and Maddux, Kansas State University

51 Pioneer Narrow Row Corn: Research Locations LocationYearPlanting Date Location Grain Yield Average (Bu/A) Previous Crop Irrigation York, NE20052-May-05221SoybeanIrrigation Marion, IA20053-May-05146SoybeanRainfed York, NE May-06184CornIrrigation Johnston, IA May-06185SoybeanRainfed Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 51

52 Pioneer Hybrid Characteristics Hybrid Evaluated YearCRMSilk CRMTech. 34N HX1,LL 34H YGCB 34A HXX,LL 34N HXX,LL Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 52

53 Pioneer: Which row width produced the highest yield? 53 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky

54 Corn Grain Yield Change For Narrower Compared to 30-inch Row Spacing in Wisconsin Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 54 N= 34 trials Increased in 4 trials Decreased in 6 trials Average = 1 bu/A Joe Lauer, University of Wisconsin

55 Corn Grain Yield Response to Row Spacing and Plant Density, Wisconsin Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 55 Joe Lauer, University of Wisconsin

56 Corn Forage Yield Change For Narrower Compared to 30-inch Row Spacing in Wisconsin Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 56 N= 13 trials Increased in 4 trials Decreased in 1 trial Average = 3.5% Joe Lauer, University of Wisconsin

57 Narrow Rows, Wisconsin Grain YieldWhole Plant DM Yield Grain YieldWhole Plant DM Yield Bu/AT/ABu/AT/A 15 inches inches LSD (0.10)ns 9 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 57 Averaged across target plant populations of 15,000 25,000 35,000 and 45,000 plants/A. Joe Lauer, Univ. of Wisconsin.

58 Narrow Rows, Wisconsin – inch rows30-inch rows Grain Yield Seeds/ABu/A 15, , , , LSD (0.10)18 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 58 Joe Lauer, Univ. of Wisconsin.

59 Michigan State University Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 59 Widdicombe and Thelen Agron. J. 94: (corn grain) Widdicombe and Thelen Agron. J. 94: (corn silage) Whole Plant (Silage) Yield Row WidthGrain Yield inchesbu/acre 30165c 22169b 15172a

60 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 60 Pioneer Hi-Bred Steve Butzen and Steve Paszkiewicz, Crop Insights, Vol. 18, No. 15 Keith OBryan with the twin-row data

61 Rows, Summary Grain Yields –Twin rows mixed, but not very impressive Silage Yields –Twin rows/narrow rows better About as many questions as answers –Populations? –Hybrids? –Irrigation? Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 61

62 Chad Lee © 2009, 2010 Univ. of Kentucky 62


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