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Motivation at Work.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation at Work."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation at Work

2 Motivation Theories Scientific Management Bureaucratic Management
Human Relations Era Need Theories Goal Orientation Motivator-Hygiene Theory Job Enrichment

3 Scientific Management
Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor) Objective is to improve the productivity of the individual worker Develop a science for each aspect of individual’s job Find the one best way to perform a task Time & motion studies “Science of shoveling” Motivate employees through $$ Standard amount of production is set Going above the standard earns you more money

4 Bureaucratic Management
Bureaucratic Management (Max Weber) In an industrialized economy, how can we manage organizational growth & size? How can we make sure the overall system is supporting the organization's goals? Reduce opportunities for individuals to take advantage of organization

5 Human Relations & Behavioral Era
Hawthorne Studies Human behavior is not necessarily “rational” Employee needs & attitudes influence behavior Soliciting employee opinions contributes to feeling of importance and can lead one to work harder Maslow, Herzberg, Hackman & Oldham

6 The Container Store What is the secret of The Container Store’s success? What does The Container Store do that sets it apart from other companies? What evidence is provided by The Container Store’s success that organizational behavior is an important element in employee productivity and organizational profitability?

7 Employee Motivation What is it? Why is it important?
Can you influence the level of work motivation in your employees? How? What approaches can be considered?

8 What is Motivation? Motivation – the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior

9 Where Does It Come From? The Person The Environment Human Needs
Theory X and Y Liking of the task The Environment Enriched Job Tasks Goal setting interventions Leader behavior Group Norms and Organizational Culture

10 Maslow’s Needs SA Esteem Love (Social) Safety and Security
Lowest to highest order Esteem Love (Social) Safety and Security Physiological

11 McClelland’s Needs Need for Achievement –need for excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties Need for Power – need to influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life Need for Affiliation - need for warm, close, intimate relationships with others

12 SAS Institue What employee needs is SAS Institute meeting with their policies and practices? Why does meeting these needs foster employee motivation?

13 What is Your Motivation Style?
Complete the motivation style self assessment – 10 minutes Provide responses that are as honest as possible about how you approach job tasks

14 Goal Orientation Refers to the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation individuals in their work situation learning orientation – relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a task performance orientation – refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to others Avoid goals Prove goals Learning Goal orientation is associated with the highest performance

15 Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation
Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Company policy and administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary? Motivation factors increase job satisfaction

16 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
KITA versus “true” motivation Short-term movement versus long-term motivation Job enrichment is an attempt to instill an internal generator in the employee Studies of Herzberg’s theory have included employees working in a variety of industries and jobs Accountants, engineers, nurses, military officers, and others

17 Motivator Factors Motivators Examples
Tap needs for psychological growth Job content: The work itself Lead to high levels of employee motivation and satisfaction Examples Recognition Responsibility Achievement Growth and learning

18 Job Enrichment Job Enrichment
Job Enrichment – designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them Emphasis on Recognition Responsibility Advancement opportunity Job Enrichment

19 Principles of Job Enrichment
Removing some controls & retain accountability Reduce the percentage of proofreading Taps responsibility & achievement Increasing employee accountability Subordinates sign their own work Taps responsibility & recognition Psychological ownership

20 Principles of Job Enrichment (cont.)
Enabling one to become a topic expert Taps achievement, responsibility, growth Competence Make organizational reports available to all Revenue, expenses, projections, trends, customer satisfaction reports Taps responsibility, recognition, growth

21 Job Enrichment Outcomes & Issues
Employees are internally motivated (internal generator) versus externally moved Enriching jobs (Motivators) can be significantly less expensive in comparison to hygiene Supervisors can focus more on the future (planning) as opposed to the past (checking work) Expect initial drop in quantity of work, followed by increase in quantity and quality.

22 Starbucks Why is Starbuck’s such a successful company?
What does Starbuck’s do that is motivating to employees?

23 Themes What do Starbucks, SAS Institute and the Container Store have in common? Using the following motivation theories, analyze what makes these three companies successful: Need Theory Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

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