3Scientific Management Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor)Objective is to improve the productivity of the individual workerDevelop a science for each aspect of individual’s jobFind the one best way to perform a taskTime & motion studies“Science of shoveling”Motivate employees through $$Standard amount of production is setGoing above the standard earns you more money
4Bureaucratic Management Bureaucratic Management (Max Weber)In an industrialized economy, how can we manage organizational growth & size?How can we make sure the overall system is supporting the organization's goals?Reduce opportunities for individuals to take advantage of organization
5Human Relations & Behavioral Era Hawthorne StudiesHuman behavior is not necessarily “rational”Employee needs & attitudes influence behaviorSoliciting employee opinions contributes to feeling of importance and can lead one to work harderMaslow, Herzberg, Hackman & Oldham
6The Container StoreWhat is the secret of The Container Store’s success?What does The Container Store do that sets it apart from other companies?What evidence is provided by The Container Store’s success that organizational behavior is an important element in employee productivity and organizational profitability?
7Employee Motivation What is it? Why is it important? Can you influence the level of work motivation in your employees?How?What approaches can be considered?
8What is Motivation?Motivation – the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
9Where Does It Come From? The Person The Environment Human Needs Theory X and YLiking of the taskThe EnvironmentEnriched Job TasksGoal setting interventionsLeader behaviorGroup Norms and Organizational Culture
10Maslow’s Needs SA Esteem Love (Social) Safety and Security Lowest to highest orderEsteemLove (Social)Safety and SecurityPhysiological
11McClelland’s NeedsNeed for Achievement –need for excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficultiesNeed for Power – need to influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in lifeNeed for Affiliation - need for warm, close, intimate relationships with others
12SAS InstitueWhat employee needs is SAS Institute meeting with their policies and practices?Why does meeting these needs foster employee motivation?
13What is Your Motivation Style? Complete the motivation style self assessment – 10 minutesProvide responses that are as honest as possible about how you approach job tasks
14Goal OrientationRefers to the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation individuals in their work situationlearning orientation – relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a taskperformance orientation – refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to othersAvoid goalsProve goalsLearning Goal orientation is associated with the highest performance
15Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfactionCompany policy and administrationSupervisionInterpersonal relationsWorking conditionsSalaryStatusSecurityAchievementAchievement recognitionWork itselfResponsibilityAdvancementGrowthSalary?Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
16Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory KITA versus “true” motivationShort-term movement versus long-term motivationJob enrichment is an attempt to instill an internal generator in the employeeStudies of Herzberg’s theory have included employees working in a variety of industries and jobsAccountants, engineers, nurses, military officers, and others
17Motivator Factors Motivators Examples Tap needs for psychological growthJob content: The work itselfLead to high levels of employee motivation and satisfactionExamplesRecognitionResponsibilityAchievementGrowth and learning
18Job Enrichment Job Enrichment Job Enrichment – designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into themEmphasis onRecognitionResponsibilityAdvancement opportunityJobEnrichment
19Principles of Job Enrichment Removing some controls & retain accountabilityReduce the percentage of proofreadingTaps responsibility & achievementIncreasing employee accountabilitySubordinates sign their own workTaps responsibility & recognitionPsychological ownership
20Principles of Job Enrichment (cont.) Enabling one to become a topic expertTaps achievement, responsibility, growthCompetenceMake organizational reports available to allRevenue, expenses, projections, trends, customer satisfaction reportsTaps responsibility, recognition, growth
21Job Enrichment Outcomes & Issues Employees are internally motivated (internal generator) versus externally movedEnriching jobs (Motivators) can be significantly less expensive in comparison to hygieneSupervisors can focus more on the future (planning) as opposed to the past (checking work)Expect initial drop in quantity of work, followed by increase in quantity and quality.
22Starbucks Why is Starbuck’s such a successful company? What does Starbuck’s do that is motivating to employees?
23ThemesWhat do Starbucks, SAS Institute and the Container Store have in common?Using the following motivation theories, analyze what makes these three companies successful:Need TheoryHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory