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Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety

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Presentation on theme: "Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety"— Presentation transcript:

1 Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety
Jason Spilak, FHWA Peter Amakobe Atepe Tom Notbohm WisDOT Bureau of Highway Operations Contractor – Engineer Conference January 20, 2010

2 Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety
ARRA Work Zone Reviews Transportation Management Plan (TMP) Process Reviews Work Zone Pedestrian Accommodation Night Work Zone Lighting Specification Oversize/Overweight Load Permitting & Lane Closure System Notification

3 Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety
Work Zone Training Strategic Highway Safety Plan and Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan Update Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Update

4 FHWA 2009 ARRA Work Zone Traffic Control Focus Reviews
WTBA-WisDOT Conference January 20, 2010 Traffic Management / Work Zone Safety FHWA - Jason P. Spilak, PE & Bill Bremer, PE Welcome and thank you for allowing us to speak to you today. I will be presenting some of our findings from the 2009 construction season.

5 Scope & Purpose Evaluate the overall quality and effectiveness of work zone traffic control on WisDOT ARRA projects. FHWA and WisDOT engineers conducted in-depth work zone field reviews on 28 projects. Supplemented by other Division staff during routine project oversight reviews. Full range of project types from freeway reconstruction to local bridge replacements. In 2009 Federal Highway conducted 28 in-depth work zone field reviews in Wisconsin. These reviews included projects ranging from local bridges all the way up to interstate reconstruction.

6 Examples of traffic control layouts observed in accordance with
design standards and devices complying with specifications We observed many great practices all summer. These pictures are just a few examples. As you can see in the upper left we have a proper road closure with correct stagger for work zone access for crews; Next in the upper right this is a proper complete road closure; The lower right picture shows a correct one-lane bridge closure using traffic signals and removal of pavement markings; In the lower left is a picture of a proper lane closure using barricades and warning lights; and finally a picture showing the use of temporary concrete barriers properly pinned and in acceptable condition. Please notice that all devices shown are considered to be in acceptable condition.

7 Biggest Statewide Problem - Poor Quality of Old 10’ Long Temporary Concrete Barriers
Our challenge is with the overall poor quality of barrier. From having exposed reinforcing steel too much section loss especially near the joints (greater than 2” ); And having 5 or 6 different design standards for barriers from states surrounding Wisconsin. When barrier from other states is used in conjunction with Wisconsin barrier, the different geometries create a snag point at the joints. This is not good.

8 Inappropriate Use and Installation of 10’ Temporary Concrete Barriers
On the left, the Wisconsin Standards do not allow old, non-NCHRP 350 compliant 10’ temporary concrete barrier to be anchored or used where pinning is required within 8 horizontal feet of a 2 foot vertical or greater drop-off such as on a bridge (SDD e) . And on the right, there is a lack of continuity of barrier because the steel pin does not pass thru both sets of cable loops. Pictured is a steel pin missing one of the bottom loops on the right. On one project we inspected, we found at least 10 of 47 joints not correctly pinned. That is over 20 percent not connected correctly, we are very lucky that system was not tested with an errant vehicle.

9 Resolution to Serious Problem with Temporary Concrete Barriers
Due to significant concern on lack of ability to inspect steel pins passing through both top and bottom sets of wire rope loops to ensure integrity of joints, and overall poor quality of older barriers reviewed, FHWA recommended elimination on high speed situations of 10’ barriers. WisDOT concurred in FHWA finding that all use of old 10’ barriers must be eliminated on high speed roadways for new projects starting in 2010. With the continuing issues with concrete barriers Federal Highway recommended the elimination of all 10 foot barrier in high speed situations. Wisconsin DOT concurred and implemented this elimination starting with the November 2009 letting

10 Temporary Concrete Barrier Special Provision Created for All Contracts Let Starting in November 2009
Under the Concrete Barrier Temporary bid items, use 12.5-foot concrete barrier. The engineer will allow 10-foot barrier in locations meeting both of the following: - Anchoring, as specified in the plan details, is not required. - The posted speed is less than or equal to 40 mph. As can be seen, 10 foot barriers can still be used if: 1.) Anchoring is not required; 2.) The posted speed is 40 mph or less and: 3.) And most importantly, the barrier is in acceptable condition when delivered to the project site. Also, please ensure the systems are connected correctly for they will not work the way they are suppose to if they are not installed correctly.

11 Findings & Conclusions
General conclusion is that overall work zone traffic control practices and condition of devices continues to improve over past years but issues (mostly isolated) continue to be observed. General conclusion is that when WisDOT & consultant inspection staff and prime contractor & traffic control sub work together, a high quality work zone safety product is achieved. As with the overall ARRA program last year, the work zones overall were very good with a few isolated problems. In 2010, we all need to work together like we did in 2009, to make sure all work zones are as safe as possible for all parties concerned. Let us not forget and let me make it clear, safety is our number one priority.

12 Other Issues Primarily Involved Quality of Work Zone Traffic Control Devices on some projects and situations WisDOT Standard Specs (1) requires work zone devices conform to the MUTCD and are in acceptable condition as measured using ATSSA Quality Guidelines for Temporary Traffic Control Devices & Features when project is started. Replace devices the Guide defines as unacceptable at any time through the life of the project. Maintain devices on the project at or above marginal as defined by the Guide using techniques described in the WisDOT spec. Please ensure acceptable quality devices are delivered to the site. Also have unacceptable devices remove from the site as necessary. If you would like to know what is acceptable or not please refer to a copy of the version of the American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA) Guide. Wisconsin DOT will decide and distribute these guides that Federal Highway helped WisDOT purchase.

13 Finding & Resolution to Quality Issues
Reviews found that many inspection staff did not have a copy of the ATSSA Guide available for use to inspect when project started. FHWA has arranged for the purchase of an adequate quantity of the ATSSA Guides for all 2010 project leaders and inspectors. We need to ensure our inspectors are fully equipped with all the information we can possibly provide them so they can fully succeed.

14 Plans for ARRA Phase II Work Zone Reviews in 2010
A Focus Review will be on the effectiveness of Transportation Management Plans for ensuring mobility and safety in work zones on ARRA projects. Review and inspection of work zone plans and devices will continue to be a routine part of on-going ARRA field reviews. Mr. John Berg of my office will be in charge of the Transportation Management Plan and in-depth work zone reviews for 2010. I, along with others from my office, will continue to include work zone safety as part of our routine ARRA field reviews. I would like to thank you for allowing us to speak to you today. As a final reminder, work zone safety is no joke and please remember the life you save may just be your own. Thank you.

15 Work Zone Process Review Transportation Management Plan
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Process Review Transportation Management Plan Findings: Decisions made early on most projects Stake holders are involved in process Meet regularly to discuss impacts on OSOW Public outreach helps mitigate delay Traffic Control Devices are marginal Flagger training is still an issue Nighttime TC reviews are rarely conducted © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

16 Work Zone Process Review Transportation Management Plan
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Process Review Transportation Management Plan Findings Cont.: Contractors are not aware of the requirements in the TMP Chain of Communication is not clearly defined Need for reference to TMP in contract documents Lane closure need to be in specials Guidance for amendment to TMP © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

17 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation Guidance will address: Planning Elements Design Elements Considerations in the field © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

18 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation Planning Elements: Determine TTC Impacts on peds Schools, Senior centers Shopping areas Transit stops etc. Determine the level of accessibility needed Minimize conflicts Address ADA Outreach to the community © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

19 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation Design Elements: Provide pedestrian information Ensure compliance with ADA Maintain continuous accessible path Provide TTC details for peds. Advance signage at intersection Advance Warning Avoid conflict with construction equipment © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

20 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

21 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation During Construction in the field Advance warning Advance signage at intersection Minimize ped and equipment interaction Maintaining pathways Sign reflectivity Path is clear of debris and other hazards Sidewalk detours/Closures Provide access. © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

22 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

23 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

24 Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Pedestrian Accommodation © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

25 Work Zone Traffic Control Nighttime Work Lighting
3/31/2017 5:28 PM Work Zone Traffic Control Nighttime Work Lighting Developed pilot Special Provision Lighting layout (light placement, mounting height) Glare control Light level and uniformity Aiming of fixtures © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

26 Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety
Oversize/Overweight Loads Signing for width/height restrictions Notification needs for closures & restrictions

27 Oversize/Overweight Loads
Install width/height restriction warning signs if: Available width is less than or equal to 16 feet (show actual width minus approx. 1 foot on sign) Available height reduced during construction (falsework, etc.) – allow 3-inch shy distance/tolerance on Review of alternate routes

28 Wisconsin Lane Closure Planning System (LCS)
Web-based system for tracking closures and restrictions Notification needs – required for proper Oversize/Overweight permit issuance

29 Wisconsin Lane Closure Planning System (LCS)
Timeframes 14 days – Project start, full roadway closure, or restriction of width, height, weight 7 days - System ramp closure 3 days – Lane and service ramp closure Project Special Provisions

30 Work Zone Traffic Training
UW Transportation Information Center (TIC) Work Zone and Flagger Safety WisDOT Work Zone Training Flagger Training – identify common objectives

31 UW TIC Work Zone and Flagger Safety Training
March 23 – Barneveld March 24 – Waukesha March 30 – Tomah March 31 – Stevens Point April 1 – DePere April 6 – Eau Claire April 7 – Hayward April 8 - Tomahawk

32 WisDOT Work Zone Training
March 2010 – Dates & locations to be determined Modules for construction, design, and work zone traffic analysis Work zone traffic control plan/device implementation Oversize/overweight loads Lane closure system and analysis Work zone TMP process review outcomes Mitigation strategies & best practices Temporary concrete barrier placement

33 Flagger Training Identify common training objectives Equipment
Advance warning signing Signaling procedures Visibility and positioning Appropriate flagging operation scenarios

34 Traffic Management & Work Zone Safety
Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan Work zone crash/data analysis Alternative project execution strategies Law enforcement training/resources Work zone automated speed enforcement Work zone public awareness

35 SHSP & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan
Work zone crash/data analysis Review broad statistics on number of work zone crashes and fatalities Identify common crash types and causes Determine potential solutions

36 SHSP & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan
Alternative project execution strategies CA4PRS software pilot Analyze multiple staging alternatives for project duration, production rates and all associated costs

37 SHSP & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan
Law enforcement training/resources Work zone traffic control layouts and devices Enforcement mitigation contracts, agreements and contingencies

38 SHSP & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan
Work zone automated speed enforcement Currently prohibited by statutes Some form of automated enforcement in at least 13 states Evidence of reductions in high speeds and injury crashes

39 SHSP & Work Zone Advisory Group Action Plan
Work zone public awareness National Work Zone Awareness Week media event Wisconsin Broadcasters Association spots WKOW-TV announcements Brewers radio network

40 Revisions to MUTCD Part 6 – Temporary Traffic Control
The following slides discuss the significant revisions in Part 6.

41 Guidance on lengths of short tapers and downstream tapers
- To provide practitioners with more information regarding taper lengths, Guidance has been added that the length of a short taper should be a minimum of 50 feet and that a downstream taper with a length of 100 feet should be used to guide traffic back into their original lane. - In concert with this change, minimum taper lengths are added to several figures in Chapter 6H.

42 Minimum length for one-lane, two-way traffic taper added to Table 6C-3
Minimum taper lengths for one-lane, two-way traffic tapers are added to Table 6C-3. The previous table contained only maximum lengths, and it is important to also specify minimum lengths. Taper length, L, is based on speed and width of offset (see Table 6C-4).

43 High-visibility safety apparel
- Required for all workers within the public right of way - Applies to all roads, not just those on the Federal-aid system Option for law enforcement and first responders to use new ANSI “public safety vests” Firefighters and law enforcement are exempted from the requirement under certain conditions December 31, 2011 compliance date - New provisions are incorporated into the MUTCD that require the use of high-visibility safety apparel by all workers (including flaggers) within the public right-of-ways of all federal-aid and non-federal-aid streets and highways. This is an expansion of the 23 CFR revisions adopted in 2006, to extend the applicability from just federal-aid highways to all roads open to public travel. - A new option is added that allows first responders and law enforcement personnel to use safety apparel meeting a newly-developed ANSI standard for “public safety vests” because this type of vest will better meet the special needs of these personnel. - Firefighters or other emergency responders engaged in emergency operations that directly expose them to flame, fire, heat, and/or hazardous materials may wear retroreflective turn-out gear that is specified and regulated by other organizations. Also, a recommendation is added that all on-scene responders and news media personnel in traffic incident areas should wear high-visibility apparel. The FHWA establishes a target compliance date of December 31, 2011 (approximately two years from the effective date of this final rule) for flagger apparel on non-Federal-aid highways. Required compliance of apparel for workers, including law enforcement officers, on Federal-aid highways has been in effect since November 24, 2008, pursuant to title 23 CFR Part 634.

44 Automated flagger assistance device (AFAD) Type 1: STOP/SLOW paddle AFAD
- A new device called an automated flagger assistance device (AFAD) is added, which enables a flagger to be positioned out of the lane of traffic when controlling road users through temporary traffic control zones. The provisions are based on the FHWA’s Interim Approval, dated January 28, 2005 and the devices have been used without any operational problems being reported. - There are two types of AFADs that are adopted for use in the MUTCD. One type of AFAD (shown here) uses a remotely controlled STOP/SLOW sign on either a trailer or a movable cart system to alternately control the right-of-way. If gate arms are used, they shall be fully retroreflectorized on both sides and have vertical alternating red and white stripes.

45 Type 2: Red/yellow lens AFAD
The other type of AFAD uses remotely controlled red and yellow lenses and a gate arm to alternatively control the right-of-way. The gate arm descends to a down position across the approach lane of traffic when the steady CIRCULAR RED lens is illuminated and ascends to an upright position when the flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens is illuminated.

46 Flaggers shall use a paddle, flag, or AFAD, not just hand signals
- A new requirement is added that flaggers shall use a STOP/SLOW paddle, a red or fluorescent orange/red flag, or an Automated Flagger Assistance Device to control road users through TTC zones. This change explicitly deletes the use of hand movements alone from the list of permitted methods to control traffic, except for law enforcement personnel or emergency responders at incident scenes. - The STOP/SLOW paddle should be the primary and preferred hand-signaling device because the STOP/SLOW paddle gives road users more positive guidance than red flags. Use of flags should be limited to emergency situations. - GUIDANCE is also added that flaggers should stand alone, away from other workers, work vehicles, or equipment. Flaggers shall use a paddle, flag, or AFAD, not just hand signals

47 Paddles should be placed on a rigid staff, high enough to be seen by approaching or stopped traffic
A new SUPPORT statement is added to clarify that it is optimal to place the STOP/SLOW paddle on a rigid staff that is tall enough that when the end of the staff is resting on the ground, the message is high enough to be seen by approaching or stopped traffic. In the NPA, a minimum height of 7 feet was recommended, but that Guidance was not adopted in this final rule.

48 Clarified OPTION for self-regulating traffic movement through a one-lane, 2-way constriction - If work space is short (adequate sight distance) - If on a low-volume street A new OPTION is added that explicitly allows for the movement of traffic through a one-lane, two-way constriction on a low-volume street or road to be self-regulating, provided that the work space is short enough that road users from both directions are able to see the traffic approaching from the opposite direction through and beyond the work site. This change provides practitioners with more flexibility on low-volume, low-speed roads.

49 Two flaggers should be used for a one-lane, 2-way constriction unless TTC zone is short enough for the flagger to see from one end to the other A recommendation is added that traffic should be controlled by a flagger at each end of a constricted section of roadway, unless a one-lane, two-way TTC zone is short enough to allow a flagger to see from one end of the zone to the other. This change emphasizes that the preferred method of flagger control is the use of two flaggers.

50 New optional and recommended signs and plaques to accompany Speed Limit signs in TTC zones
G20-5aP R2-1 - A new WORK ZONE plaque is added that may be mounted above a Speed Limit sign to emphasize that a reduced speed limit is in effect within a TTC zone. - In addition to the existing FINES HIGHER plaque, optional FINES DOUBLE and $XX FINE plaques are added that may be mounted below the Speed Limit sign if increased fines are imposed for traffic violations within the TTC zone. - New BEGIN and END HIGHER FINES ZONE signs are recommended to be installed at the upstream end and downstream end of a work zone where increased fines are imposed for traffic violations. R2-10 R2-11 R2-6aP R2-12

51 Center Lane Closed Ahead symbol sign has been removed from the MUTCD
The symbolic version of the message for Center Lane Closed Ahead (W9-3a) that was in the 2003 edition has been removed from the MUTCD in the 2009 edition, because the symbol sign was confusing in its meaning. This symbol has not undergone human factors testing to confirm that its meaning can be comprehended by road users. The word message version can continue to be used as appropriate.

52 New sign to warn road users of a change in the traffic pattern
- A new section is added describing the use of the NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN AHEAD sign to provide advance warning of a change in traffic patterns, such as revised lane usage, roadway geometry, or signal phasing. This change reflects current practice in many States and numerous local jurisdictions as documented in the Sign Synthesis Study and provides a uniform legend for this purpose. - To retain its effectiveness, the W23-2 sign should be displayed for up to 2 weeks, and then it should be covered or removed until it is needed again.

53 New symbol sign and supplemental plaque for shoulder drop-off
- A new symbol version of the Shoulder Drop Off sign is added to warn road users of a low shoulder to be consistent with Chapter 2C. This replaces the previous SHOULDER DROP OFF word message sign. - An option is also added to permit the use of an educational SHOULDER DROP-OFF supplemental plaque with the new Shoulder Drop Off symbol sign.

54 Temporary lane separators and temporary raised islands
- A new section is added that contains provisions regarding the use of optional temporary lane separators that may be used to channelize road users, to divide opposing vehicular traffic lanes, or divide lanes when two or more lanes are open in the same direction, and to provide continuous pedestrian channelization. - Temporary lane separators shall have a maximum height of 4 inches and a maximum width of 1 foot, and shall have sloping slides in order to facilitate crossover by emergency vehicles. They may be supplemented with approved channelizing devices, such as tubular markers or vertical panels. - Concerning temporary raised islands, the recommended width is reduced from 18 inches to 12 inches to facilitate the use of existing devices that have been successfully used in many applications.

55 Temporary Markings Delineate path through the TTC zone when the permanent markings are either removed or obliterated during the work activities. Should not be left in place longer than 14 days Some allowable exceptions to normal longitudinal markings requirements Exceptions to normal markings standards that are allowed for temporary markings (in place 14 days or less): - Half-cycle lengths with a minimum of 2-foot stripes may be used on roadways with severe curvature for broken line center lines in passing zones and for lane lines. - For a two- or three-lane road, no-passing zones may be identified by using DO NOT PASS (R4-1), PASS WITH CARE (R4-2), and NO PASSING ZONE (W14-3) signs rather than pavement markings. - If the State’s or highway agency’s policy so provides, DO NOT PASS, PASS WITH CARE, and NO PASSING ZONE signs may be used instead of pavement markings on roads with low volumes for periods longer than 14 days.

56 Preemption of temporary signals in TTC zones
New provisions are added that require temporary traffic signals that are placed within 200 feet of a grade crossing or to have preemption or unless a uniformed officer or flagger is provided at the crossing to prevent vehicles from stopping within the crossing. This is for consistency with the provisions in Parts 4 and 8.

57 Black and orange are acceptable colors for transverse rumble strips in TTC zones
A new standard is added that black and orange are acceptable colors for transverse rumble strips in TTC zones, in addition to white. This is based on successful experimentation.

58 Typical application (TA) drawings
Except for the TA “Notes,” information in the TA drawings can generally be regarded as Guidance TA 4 – stationary signs may be omitted for mobile work if the work vehicle displays high-intensity strobe lights TA 7 – ROAD CLOSED sign eliminated TA 16 – lanes should be at least 10 feet wide - In the NPA, the FHWA proposed to change the order of Chapters 6H and 6I. Based on comments, in the final rule the existing order of the chapters is retained, so Chapter 6H is still Typical Applications. - Clarification is added that except for the typical application notes, the information presented in the typical applications can generally be regarded as Guidance. - Typical Application 4 is clarified to note that stationary warning signs may be omitted for short duration or mobile operations if the work vehicle displays high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights. - A new recommendation is added to Typical Application 16 that all lanes should be a minimum of 10 feet in width to be consistent with guidance in other typical applications. - In Typical Application 41, a new recommendation is added that channelizing devices should be placed to physically close the ramp when an exit is closed. This change is made to reflect existing practice, and to provide for positive closure rather than just relying on signs.

59 TAs with freeway lane closures
TAs 37, 38, 39, 42, and 44 Arrow board shall be used for all freeway lane closures - Separate arrow board shall be used for each closed lane for multi-lane closures In Typical Applications 37, 38, 39, 42, and 44, a new requirement is added that requires that an arrow panel be used for all freeway lane closures and that a separate arrow panel be used for each closed lane when more than one freeway lane is closed. The FHWA believes that an arrow panel is essential for safety at all lane closures on freeways due to the high speeds.


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