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Chapter 7 Conservation of Energy. Recap – Work & Energy The total work done on a particle is equal to the change in its kinetic energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Conservation of Energy. Recap – Work & Energy The total work done on a particle is equal to the change in its kinetic energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Conservation of Energy

2 Recap – Work & Energy The total work done on a particle is equal to the change in its kinetic energy

3 Potential Energy The total work done on an object equals the change in its kinetic energy But the total work done on a system of objects may or may not change its total kinetic energy. The energy may be stored as potential energy.

4 Potential Energy – A Spring Both forces do work on the spring. But the kinetic energy of the spring is unchanged. The energy is stored as potential energy

5 Conservative Forces If the ski lift takes you up a displacement h, the work done on you, by gravity, is –mgh. But when you ski downhill the work done by gravity is +mgh, independent of the path you take

6 Conservative Forces The work done on a particle by a conservative force is independent of the path taken between any two points

7 Potential-Energy Function If a force is conservative, then we can define a potential-energy function as the negative of the work done on the particle

8 Potential-Energy Function potential-energy function associated with gravity (taking +y to be up) The value of U 0 = U(y 0 ) can be set to any convenient value

9 Potential-Energy Function of a Spring By convention, one chooses U 0 =U(0) = 0

10 Force & Potential-Energy Function In 1-D, given the potential energy function associated with a force one can compute the latter using: Example:

11 7-1 Conservation of Energy

12 Conservation of Energy Energy can be neither created nor destroyed Closed System Open System

13 Conservation of Mechanical Energy If the forces acting are conservative then the mechanical energy is conserved

14 Example 7-3(1) How high does the block go? Initial mechanical energy of system Final mechanical energy of system

15 Example 7-3(2) Forces are conservative, therefore, mechanical energy is conserved Height reached

16 Example 7-4(1) How far does the mass drop? Final mech. energy Initial mech. energy

17 Example 7-4(2) Final mech. energy = Initial mech. energy

18 Example 7-4(3) Solve for d Since d 0

19 Example 7-4(4) Note is equal to loss in gravitational potential energy

20 Conservation of Energy & Kinetic Friction Non-conservative forces, such as kinetic friction, cause mechanical energy to be transformed into other forms of energy, such as thermal energy.

21 Work-Energy Theorem Work done, on a system, by external forces is equal to the change in energy of the system The energy in a system can be distributed in many different ways

22 Example 7-11(1) Find speed of blocks after spring is released. Consider spring & blocks as system. Write down initial energy. Write down final energy. Subtract initial from final

23 Example 7-11(2) Initial Energy Take potential energy of system to be zero initially Kinetic energy of system is zero initially

24 Example 7-11(3) Final Energy Kinetic and potential energies of system have changed

25 Example 7-11(4) Subtract initial energy from final energy But since no external forces act, W ext = 0, so E f = E i

26 Example 7-11(5) And the answer is… Try to derive this.

27 E = mc 2 In a brief paper in 1905 Albert Einstein wrote down the most famous equation in science E = mc 2

28 Suns Power Output Power 1 Watt = 1 Joule/second 100 Watt light bulb = 100 Joules/second Suns power output x Watts x Watts

29 Suns Power Output Mass to Energy x Watts Kg/s = x Watts / (3 x 10 8 m/s) 2 The Sun destroys mass at ~ 4 billion kg / s

30 Problems To go…

31 Ch. 7, Problem 19

32 Ch. 7, Problem 29

33 Ch. 7, Problem 74


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