Presentation on theme: "Conference on Work, Family, Health, and Well-being Washington, D.C. June 16 – 18, 2003. The psychosocial work environment and the associations with work-family."— Presentation transcript:
Conference on Work, Family, Health, and Well-being Washington, D.C. June 16 – 18, The psychosocial work environment and the associations with work-family conflict. Tage S. Kristensen, Denmark. Lars Smith-Hansen, Denmark. Nicole Jansen, The Netherlands.
Program: 1.A tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) 2.The associations between psychosocial factors at work and work-family conflict (WFC). 3.Conclusions
The 3-level concept Work environment professionals Researchers The workplaces
COPSOQ The three levels Research questionnaire: Questionnaire for work environment professionals: Questionnaire for workplaces: 141 questions 30 dimensions 95 questions 26 dimensions 44 questions 8 dimensions
Special features of the COPSOQ Three levels of different length and complexity National normative values Five different kinds of job demands
Purposes of the 3-level concept To develop valid instruments for use at different levels To improve communication between researchers, work environment professionals, and the workplaces To make national and international comparisons possible To improve surveys of the work environment and evaluations of interventions To make it easier to operationalize complicated theories and concepts
The philosophy of the three level concept Empowerment of employees and workplaces Improved quality of the work of work environment professionals Theory based interventions and assessments
Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Scales and number of questions at all three levels
The three types of psychosocial work environment dimensions 1. Demands –Quantitative (working hours, work pace) –Emotional demands –Demands for hiding emotions –Cognitive demands –Sensory demands
The three types of psychosocial work environment dimensions 2. Organization and content of work –Influence at work –Possibilities for development –Degrees of freedom –Meaning of work –Commitment to the workplace
The three types of psychosocial work environment dimensions 3. Interpersonal relations and leadership –Social support –Feedback –Social relations –Role clarity –Role conflicts –Predictability –Quality of leadership –Sense of community
p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001 Multivariate associations: Associations between psychosocial factors at work and WFC in the COPSOQ database General conflict Energy conflict Time conflict Quantitative demands Cognitive demands Emotional demands Demands for hiding emotions Influence at work Possibilities for development Degrees of freedom at work Meaning of work Commitment to the workplace Role-clarity Quality of leadership Sense of community
Familiy situation Working conditons Work- family conflict Health & well-being -fatigue -mental health Basic model for work-family conflict
Family situation and WFC in the SARA Study Family situation: Energy conflict General conflict Single32% 9% Couple without children39%14% Couple with children, age 7+46%21% Couple with children, age 0-653%32% Single with children52%27% Total43%19% WFC
24% 37% 49% 65% 11% 16% 22% 30% Energy conflict General conflict % Quantitative demands (quartiles) Quantitative demands and WFC in the SARA Study
Family situation and psychological well-being in the SARA Study Points Children Adult(s) Mental health Vitality Family situation
Points Mental health Vitality Quantitative demands Quantitative demands and psychological well-being in the SARA Study
WFC and psychological well-being in the SARA Study Mental health Vitality Men Women Points on scale from 0 to 100 General work-family conflict
MenWomen Psychological job demands Physical demands Emotional demands Shift work Overtime Influence at work Ability to take a day off Social support Conflicts at work Work roster known in advance Prospective results on WFC from the Maastricht Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work. Significant predictors of WFC over one year of follow-up (N=12,095)
Feedback loop in the Maastricht Cohort Study Long working hours Work-Family Conflict Work-Family Conflict Reduced working hours (In particular among women) Implications for gender differences and for study design.
Conclusions In two Danish and one Dutch study of WFC all three types of psychosocial factors were strongly related to WFC. Demands: In Particular quantitative and emotional demands. Work structure & content: In particular influence at work. Interpersonal relations and leadership. Intervention studies aiming at reducing WFC should be guided by a comprehensive model of the psychosocial work environment.
Modern work: Work without limits Modern professional work tends to be work without limits: –No limits with regard to time –No limits with regard to space In the balance between family and work without limits, the family will lose. Work will invade the family sphere of life. Only conscious and deliberate efforts related to psychosocial factors at work can prevent a drastic increase in Work- Family Conflict.