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DI PAOLA VANESSA MOULLET STEPHANIE MÉHAUT PHILIPPE SKOPE - FESTIVAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES - LONDON School to work transition in the French style.

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Presentation on theme: "DI PAOLA VANESSA MOULLET STEPHANIE MÉHAUT PHILIPPE SKOPE - FESTIVAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES - LONDON School to work transition in the French style."— Presentation transcript:

1 DI PAOLA VANESSA MOULLET STEPHANIE MÉHAUT PHILIPPE SKOPE - FESTIVAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES - LONDON School to work transition in the French style

2 From School to School In the French meaning, what encompass all what is inside the school system from 3 to the end of tertiary education No or few break between lower and upper secondary or higher education. French model as a continuity within school Thats does not mean that there is no drop outs. However discontinuity as an exception Average age at the labour market entry 21

3 From School to Work Work is after the school (at each level), after a qualification (passe ton bac dabord). (see Van de Velde) Mixing school and work (apprenticeship, internship) was unusual in the late 70. However a growing importance. Unlike the UK, the post lower secondary is not a boundary Unlike the Uk, it is usual to go to the upper level… Free fees, few incentives to go to the labour market, race for qualifications.

4 To be replace within A strong effect of the school system both - Within the social hierarchy (the high school) (Dubet, Duru-Bellat 2013) - Within the labour market : queue and waiting list. For the new entrants, competing with owners of upper qualifications and, for all competing with those with experience on the labour market (including internal labour markets). However, not an insider/outsider story (Askenazy et al, 2011)

5 Consequences for the school to work transition A delayed effect to get a permanent job (depending also of the conjuncture) Some over-education effect (Di Paola, Moullet) A difficult position of those who are in the bottom of the job queue And family and pupils competing for places in the educational system (except in some specific period)

6 School to work transition School to work transition (in the French meaning) takes time, 3 years in average for a whole cohort School to work transition will oppose the best performers in the school system to the lowest performers. Often starting with atypical contracts (fixed term, temp agency, subsidized jobs…) (Di Paola, Moullet, 2013)

7 Quick transition (58%) Unemployment then employment (7%) Four among 8 patterns (Cereq, survey of all school leavers 2007-2010)

8 Unemployment (9%) Neets (2%) Four among 8 patterns (Cereq, survey of all school leavers 2007-2010)

9 After 7 years of experience (Cereq, 7 years surveys, Di Paola Moullet, 2013) 2005 2011 G1998G2004 Typical job69,0464,73 Aypical job 11,5612,52 including: Alternance0,330,51 Market sector assisted contract0,210,02 Non market sector assisted contract0,880,43 Fixed-term employment contract10,1411,56 Other5,127,52 Unemployment9,3810,03 Out of labor market4,915,2 Weighted Number741184737000

10 After 7 years experience: effects on the quality of employment

11 Policies (1) : educational policies Decreasing the number of drop out without any qualification. Early drop out (end of lower secondary, beginning of upper secondary vocational tracks), about 12%, decreasing, however, according to the EU definition, France is a bad performer 18% without upper secondary qualification, stable. Done partly by developing vocational tracks, apprenticeship, individual guidance, special local devices Arising problems within tertiary education

12 Policies (2) ALM A lot of special devices, more or less focusing on young people, low skilled or broader (classical dilemna between targeting or not) A cyclical and political effect (more or less work fare policy) And balancing between labour costs policies and training policies

13 Policies (3) ALM, various kinds of subsidized jobs DeviceLabour cost component (tax exemption, premium…) Training component Duration S.job, private sector highlowSome months S.Job public, non for profit sector highlowSome months to 2 years S.job, private, alternance mediumSometime high (qualification) 1 to 2 years S.Job, public, n.f.p. in specific new jobs High to mediumSometime high (qualification) 1 to 4 or 5 years ApprenticeshipHigh to mediumHigh (qualification) 2 or 3 years Ageing policy (part time retirement and young hiring) medium ?

14 Subsidized contracts from 1974 Source : Dares

15 "The effect" of subsidized contracts.... At short-term (transition matrix, compared to fixed term contract)

16 "The effect" of assisted contracts.... At more long-term (transition matrix)

17 To conclude A kind of age dualism on the French labour market, with firms hiring practices based on qualification+ experience Heterogeneous groups within the school leavers : Gender effect (women +,perform better at school), Local area (bad neighbors - ), racial origin - ?, Level of qualification, up to day tertiary education, upper secondary with good vocational profile + Apprenticeship + (at least at short term)

18 To conclude High level of mobility during the first 3 years : 54% with 2 or more employers, 38% with only one, 58% with at least one unemployment spell Then entering into more stable areas : ILM still alive, other kinds of jobs positions (in SMEs) Weakness of the LLL policies : few chances to get a new qualification (less than in the UK ?). Too much pressure on the initial education ALM : work fare policy in casual jobs with few efficiency, long job position with training contents perform better


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