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A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and.

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Presentation on theme: "A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the Internet (2nd Edition) by Sara Baase San Diego State University PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall

2 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work2 A Gift of Fire Computers and Work The Changing Nature of Work The Impact on Employment The Work Environment Employee Monitoring Health Issues

3 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work3 The Changing Nature of Work Impact of Computers on Work: Some jobs have been eliminated. Other jobs have been created. Repetitious or boring jobs are now done with computers. There is more time for creativity. Some workers telecommute. Employers can better monitor their workers. Health issues have been associated with computer usage.

4 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work4 The Impact on Employment Job Destruction and Creation Computers and Unemployment: Automation leads to loss of jobs. Computerization eliminates some jobs. Computer efficiency means fewer jobs. Computers and Employment: The need for computer designers, builders, and programmers creates jobs. Growing computer networks creates jobs for administrators. The need for training, sales and technical support creates jobs. In general, computers make many products affordable to more people. Thus, more jobs are created to make those products.

5 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work5 The Impact on Employment Job Destruction and Creation (contd) Technology, Economic Factors, and Employment: Technology is often blamed for massive unemployment. The Luddites feared weaving looms would take away jobsthey did not. Likewise, Neo-Luddites fear technology will eliminate jobs. The Great Depression was not caused by technology taking away jobs. Instead, complicated economic and political factors contribute to job destruction. Q : What new technology might be perceived as eliminating jobs?

6 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work6 The Impact on Employment Job Destruction and Creation (contd) How Have Computer Technology and Other Technologies Affected: Hourly wages? Fringe benefits? Spending on leisurely activities? The number of working hours? The percentage of taxes we owe? Our productivity? Employer productivity?

7 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work7 The Impact on Employment Job Destruction and Creation (contd) A Global Workforce Some jobs moved from wealthy countries to less wealthy ones. Pay rates are lower in less wealthy countries. The Internet and Web reduce the need for transportation of people (e.g. teleconferencing) and paper (e.g. and attachments). The Internet and Web make it easier for information technology (e.g. software updates) and some service jobs (e.g. technical support) to be far from customers or employers. Q : When you call Customer Service for a large company, what state is the service representative in? What Country?

8 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work8 The Impact on Employment Changing Skills and Jobs Optimistic Outlook: The educational system adapts rapidly to create newly trained workers. Technology can be used to retrain displaced workers. Pessimistic Outlook: Advanced software will eliminate many jobs requiring high skills. Automation and the Web will lead to mass unemployment. Q : Do you anticipate holding the same job all of your working years?

9 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work9 The Work Environment Teleworking Benefits: Flexible schedule and work options. Reduced overhead. Reduction in transportation and parking resources. Problems: Less productive or overworked employees. Lack of belonging (social isolation). Potential distractions are counter-productive. Q : Would your current or future job lend itself to teleworking?

10 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work10 The Work Environment Changing Business Structures Trends That May Impact the Size and Structure of Business: Smaller businesses. More independent consultants and contractors. More self-employment. Small businesses operating globally. Multi-national corporations and mergers. Decline in number of employees per firm. Flattened hierarchies. Empowered workers. Q : Identify a business for each trend.

11 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work11 Employee Monitoring Background Categories of Employee Monitoring: Data entry, phone work, and retail. Location. , Web surfing, and voice mail. Q : Why would an employer bother to monitor the Web sites visited by an employee?

12 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work12 Employee Monitoring Data entry, Phone Work, and Retail Types of Monitoring: Keystroke: to determine if quotas are met or employee is on task. Phone: to determine customer satisfaction and proper use of phone resources. Transactions: to reduce theft. Q : What monitoring guidelines should employers follow?

13 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work13 Employee Monitoring Location Types of Monitoring: Badges: to replace worker keys or track down workers. GPS tracking systems: to locate vehicles; employee driving speed and driving habits. Q: Do the benefits of location monitoring justify invasion of privacy? How much privacy should people expect while at work?

14 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work14 Employee Monitoring , Web Surfing, and Voice Mail Some Reasons Employees Are Monitored: Find needed business information when employee is not available. Protect proprietary information. Prevent or investigate possible criminal activities. Prevent personal use of employers facilities. Check for violations of company policy. Investigate complaints of harassment. Check for illegal software. Q : How should workplace monitoring be controlled?

15 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work15 Health Issues Manufacture and Use of Computers Possible Health Problems: Radiation exposure from terminals. Toxic wastes from discarded computer parts. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) from frequent use of keyboards and other automated gadgets. Q : How are computers discarded in your school? Work? Community?

16 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work16 Health Issues Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) Some Possible Causes: Extended use of computer terminal and/or mouse. Extended use of automated system (e.g. bar-code scanner). Improper user technique or posture. Poor ergonomic work area. Some Solutions: Ergonomically-designed keyboard and mouse. Ergonomically-designed work area. Retraining proper technique (including rest breaks). Q : What ergonomic adjustments should be made to your computer work area?

17 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work17 Health Issues Repetitive Strain Injury (contd) The Role of Management Be proactive. Give credence to employee complaints. Money spent to prevent injury is less than money needed for treatment. Study and modify work tools and procedures to reduce or prevent RSI. Q : Describe a repetitive task that has been modified to reduce or prevent RSI.

18 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 8: Computers and Work18 Health Issues Repetitive Strain Injury (contd) Legal Issues Linking keyboard usage to RSI is not clear. Conclusive scientific studies have not been done. Should input device makers be held liable for injuries? Should OSHA set legally binding standards for keyboards? Q : What was learned from the Australian epidemic of RSI?


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