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Social Work 120 Valerie Southard Section 1 – Spring 11 Week 9 4/1/11.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Work 120 Valerie Southard Section 1 – Spring 11 Week 9 4/1/11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Work 120 Valerie Southard Section 1 – Spring 11 Week 9 4/1/11

2 In Your Research Paper Do Not Use the Following Personal Pronouns - I - My - You - Your - We - Our - Us ….except in the first paragraph in the sentence where you explain why you are interested in the topic. Example: I am interested in this subject because my grandmother is living on a limited income, which is supplemented by Social Security. I see that it would be very difficult for her to live, if she did not receive Social Security. There is a debate about privatizing Social Security, and I wonder what that would mean for me.

3 We know what happens when the radicals get power. – It is known what happens when the radicals get power. You never know what the consequences of that policy will be. –One does not know what the consequences of that policy will be.

4 Do not use contractions such as: dont, its, wouldnt, arent, etc. Watch your capitalization Avoid asking questions in your paper Make sure your information is accurate! Proof read your paper or have someone proof read it

5 Do not use slang …stick around …Its no big deal Do not editorialize. This is not an opinion paper. Stay away from drama language. Do not make absolute guess or assumptions.

6 A Professional without Respect NASW ethics are often in conflict with standard American values. Its clients are generally deviants from the social norm Largely made up of women Targets many groups and problems, so no exclusive domain of practice.

7 How Is Social Work Different from Other Helping Professions Focus on the client system Looks at the relationships and reciprocal interactions that cause and perpetuate social problems Focus on clients in their environment Client may be an individual, group or community Its ethical stance is codified in the National Association of Social Workers code of ethics

8 Areas of Social Work Casework – personal counseling Group work – treatment centers or volunteer groups Community practice – grassroots organizations to address housing, employment, services Administration – directing organizations, supervising staff Policy practice – Program planning and evaluation Research and teaching

9 Beginnings of Social Work Started in the mid-1800s with the rise of the Industrial Revolution and the waves of immigrants that came to America Charitable Organization Societies were developed to regulate charity to the poor Child-saving emerged around the time of the Civil War Settlement Houses developed around the concept that that people could work together to change society in ways that would address the needs of the poor.

10 Charity Organization Societies (COS) Began in England First one in American established in Buffalo, NY in 1877 By 1904, there were 150 throughout the States Developed by the elite classes, the initial goal of COSs was to restore the natural order or class stratification Initially saw poverty as the result of bad heredity and was against providing outdoor relief – Promoted indoor relief: orphanages and almshouses Maintained case registries and used friendly visitors As a result of the data collected, COSs eventually operated on the premise that causes of poverty were social rather than personal in nature Josephine Shaw Lowell –

11 Hull House Founded in 1889 in Chicago by Jane Addams Part of the Settlement House movement Emphasized social reform rather than relief or assistance

12 Social Workers By the end of the 19 th century, social work was paid employment and given recognition as a profession In the beginning of the 1900s schools that taught social work skills were beginning to spring up. –Graduates of these programs were thought to have authoritative knowledge about the needs of the disadvantaged and deviant populations

13 Social Welfare in the 1900s Settlement Houses progressively excluded from the field of social work Social work professionalism took on social diagnosis and casework method Bureaucratization created structures for accountability in social work Social workers formed coalitions with public agencies providing relief Welfare became a business issue to defuse political agitation

14 Professional Associations 17 Schools of Social Work Association of Professional Schools of Social Work Council on Social Work Education Council on Charities and Corrections American Association of Social Workers National Association of Social Workers

15 Casework vs. Social Reform The status of medical science was being raised –Focus of practice –Body of knowledge that could be taught Settlement Houses were being related to socialism and revolutionary thought

16 Medical and Psychiatric Social Work American Association of Hospital Social Workers 1918 Psychiatric social work programs began being offered in colleges The mental hygiene movement led to explaining psychological problems in the disease model Mental health clinics gave impetus to trained social workers Parens patriae was legitimized through intimated conformity to middle-class standards of child rearing

17 Mary Richmond – Pioneer in developing the social work profession Authored books "Social Diagnosis" in which she demonstrated her understanding of social casework Believed in the relationship between people and their social environment as the major factor of their life situation or status

18 Professionalization of Social Work Rift between tax supported relief and private casework developed The profession embraced casework, based on the medical model -Middle-class profession American Association of Social Workers (later became NASW) –Required 4 years experience or college education

19 The Progressive Era 1900 to 1917 Progressive Movement –More citizen participation –More government responsiveness and honesty Big Trusts and monopolies formed

20 4 Goals of Progressives: Promote Moral Reform –Improve Personal Behavior Protect Social Welfare –Improve City Life Create Economic Reform –Improve workers lives Improve Factory Efficiency –Raise Production

21 The Progressive Era reform movement sought to: Create economic reform through the break up of corporate monopolies Improve the conditions of workers, children, and all those in need, regardless of race, ethnicity, or religion Apply social welfare reform from an institutional perspective All of the above

22 Two notable African-American women of the Progressive Era who fought for social justice were: Sojourner Truth Ida B. Wells Harriet Tubman Mary Church Terrell

23 The goal of the Immigration Act of 1924 was to open immigration to Europeans and Asians because a bigger labor force was needed to fuel the growing industries of the U.S. True False

24 W.E.B. DuBois was a social reformist who: Was the first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) Promoted issues of economic opportunity and social equality for African-Americans Wanted African-Americans to strive for economic gains before they moved on to social reform Worked with Mary Richmond in establishing casework practice among pioneering social workers

25 During the Progressive Era, protective legislation aimed at women in the workforce promoted womens right to work. True False

26 Which factor did not contribute to Mexican immigration to the U.S. in the early 1900s were: World War I and the need for factory laborers Irrigation systems that brought arable land to the southwest dessert The promise of citizenship for anyone who worked in the U.S. for one year The Mexican Revolution

27 Seeing Asian-Americans as having secret super-powers which threatened Whites is an example of which two: An argument put fort by pioneers in casework who used social diagnosis to explain behaviors Conflict theory Xenophobia An argument put forth by the Eugenics Movement

28 At the turn of the 20 th century, a significant portion of the workforce was children. Working conditions were dangerous and inhumane. Established in 1917 Purpose was to protect children from early employment, dangerous working conditions, and disease Child labor reform 1)Businesses found loopholes in child labor reforms and 2)reforms were consistently declared unconstitutional Childrens Bureau

29 Mothers Pensions Social workers opposed this, believing in institutionalization; they demanded to be able to investigate the applicants Payments were very low State (government) began giving outdoor relief in the form of pensions to poverty-stricken widows By 1926 aid was given to women whose husbands were unable to provide support, not just widows Target white women, primarily of Anglo-Saxon decent

30 Child and Maternal Health Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921 established public health clinics Infant mortality rates dropped

31 Mothers pensions were a form of outdoor relief provided to those women considered to be needy but morally upstanding. True False

32 The Childrens Bureau, established in 1917, had as one of its main goals to reforms child labor laws. True False

33 The term parens patriae is a Latin term that is used to mean: A parent who is patriotic to the country The State having the power to act as the parent to a child who is abused or neglected Parents rearing their children to be productive members of society Parents having the power to refuse State involvement in the way they rear their children

34 Veterans Welfare WWI resulted in increased benefits for veterans Veteranss Bureau established in 1921 under the federal government Social workers began attending to issues of mental illness of shell-shocked soldiers

35 Aid to the Blind and Disabled The Blind were one of the first groups to be granted outdoor relief (late 1880s) Disabled were ushered into employments Vocational rehabilitation established in 1920 Need outpaced that available resources

36 Old Age Assistance – early 20 th century Because people began living longer, meant that children could not support them and savings did not go far enough There continued an increase in poverty of the aged Public aid in the form of old age pensions was provided on a state to state level –Most states adopted some form of old age pensions

37 Unemployment Insurance and Workmens Compensation High rates of industrial injuries and deaths Federal Employment Act 1906 – insurance for federal employees By the 1920s the majority of states had some compensation for those who could not work due to injuries Health insurance was opposed because it was seen as socialistic

38 Juvenile and Criminal Justice Separate facilities for juveniles and adults For adults, probation, parole, and rehabilitation was used Expanded services for prisoners including medical care and vocational training

39 Womens Movements Women continued reform movements in the Progressive Era –Sufferage –Health

40 Cont. notes page

41 Womens Suffrage National American Womens Suffrage Association (NAWAS) 19 th amendment did not guarantee equal rights for women The Nineteenth (19 th ) Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits each state and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's sex.

42 Woman Suffrage Headquarters, Cleveland, 1912

43 Women and Health Public Health movement Margaret Sanger founded Planned Parenthood One goal of public health was to conquer SDTs which were prevalent –Targeted prostitution Distribution of contraception remained illegal until 1938

44 Population Movements and Immigration From , the U.S. population doubled Immigration Acts Asian Immigration Hispanic Immigration

45 Japanese American farm women. Creator/Contributor: Unknown. Date: 1915.


47 African-Americans Civil Rights ignored Migration to northern factories Segregated and denied services Denied the right to join unions

48 Native Americans Native American activism was repressed in early 1900s but continued Pan-Indian Society Served in WWI 1924 Indian Citizenship Act

49 Labor and the Unions Series of depressions led to labor strikes and riots –1907, 1910, 1919, 1920 Protective legislation for women and children in the workplace Women in labor unions –International Ladies Garment Workers Union

50 Social Welfare in the Progressive Era Welfare became increasingly a business issue The upward economy engendered a feeling of triumph over poverty Expansion of public education

51 Reforms for Children New child labor laws and compulsory education led to a decrease in number of child laborers White House Conference on Child Dependency 1912 – Children Bureau established under the Dept. of Commerce and Labor (federal)

52 Other Areas of Reform (cont.) Mothers Pensions Child and maternal health Medical and psychiatric social work Veterans Welfare Aid to blind people and those with disabilities

53 Other Areas of Reform (cont.) Old Age Assistance Unemployment Insurance and workers compensation Juvenile and criminal justice

54 Womens Suffrage Movement

55 Women and Health Protection against STDs Contraception –Margaret Sanger – founder of Planned Parenthood

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