2Implementation GoalAnyone responsible for implementing and using Standardized Work will gain an appreciation for Standardized Work by learning:WHAT it isHOW it fits into the lean systemWHY it can help in your daily job performance
3Objectives Define Standardized Work State the reasons and benefits for implementing Standardized WorkCompare and contrast current work performance to Standardized Work performanceIdentify barriers to implementing Standardized Work and develop ways to remove themUnderstand and learn how to develop Standardized Work
5What is it ?Work conditions, methods, and procedures that allow consistently repeatable results.Work-group generatedGuided by documentationStarting point for Problem SolvingFoundation for continuous improvement
6History of Standardized Work Based on proven U.S. military methodsIncorporated by T. Ohno during the 1950’s at ToyotaPart of Standardization, which is the foundation of Toyota Production System
7“I don’t care how you get the job done, just do it.” Old Paradigm“I don’t care how you get the job done, just do it.”
8“Everyone does the job the same way each time.” New Paradigm“Everyone does the job the same way each time.”The Process not the PersonConsistent working sequence, cycle time and standard in-process stock regardless of which team member is performing the job.A proper method of problem solving is to repeatedly ask “Why?” something has occurred until you can get to aroot cause of the problem.
9Traditional vs. Standardized Work Traditional WorkReacts to firesSearches for thingsProcesses designed without input from staffWork is equipment- centeredUses a variety of individual methodsProduces inconsistent resultsStandardized WorkPrevents problemsFinds things easilyProcesses designed by staff & supervisorsWork is human-centeredFollows and improves the standard processProduces consistent results
10Standardized Work Allows for… Worksite Management:Abnormal situations can be easily identifiedProblem solving can occur based on the discrepancy from the StandardEfficient training that produces operators who perform to the StandardContinuous Improvement:Identification of waste in the processTeam members can suggest improvements
11Standardized Work Ensures… Built-in Quality at every process in the system.Just-in-Time processingThe next process is provided with the right product and/or service, at the right time, in the right quantity
12Standardized Work Summary Four Main AdvantagesPrevents Over Processing (Waste)Ensures Quality RequirementsLowers/Stabilizes CostEstablishes Normal vs. Abnormal Criteria
20Daily Available Time Total daily operating time: EXAMPLE: The total time to treat the demand MINUS the scheduled downtimeEXAMPLE:ED department runs 24 hours per dayTotal available time in a day – 1440 minutesNo scheduled downtimeDaily Available Time = 1440 minutes
21The total processing requirement EXAMPLE: Daily Demand RateThe total processing requirementEXAMPLE:ED department is treating patients at the rate of 3,000 per month. Based on 30 days per month, patients must be treated per day.Daily Processing Requirement =Patient Takt Time =3,000 pts./month30 days/month= 100 pts./day1440 mins/day100 pts./day= 14.4 mins/pt.Takt Time = 14.4
23Work Sequence Is…The repetitive performance of work elements that produce quality in an efficient manner:Work sequence can be work performed at multiple processes or multiple elements at a single process.
26Standardized Work Forms Time Study SheetStandardized Work Chart or Spaghetti DiagramStandardized Work Combination TableStandardized Work SheetJob Instruction Training Sheet
27Time StudyStart and stop point identified for accurate and consistent timingTime for each individual element capturedTime given to operator is based on the average time of 10 separate studies per elementWorker effort rated if standard data not usedPerson with knowledge of area review current state assessment to check for accuracy
30Spaghetti Diagram or STW. Chart… Diagrams operator work sequenceDocuments:Walking patternsSequence of job elements
31Lab Process Current State Spaghetti Diagram Average time for lab process was 13 minutes with excessive walkingSpaghetti Diagram for Lab ProcessPAT ENTRANCE3 PATIENTS4PATlab walk timeOne patient 210 feet process20 per day =4200 feet per dayWILMA0.5 second per foot = 35 minutes walk time31LAB AREADispatch boxlabtubecubicles72cupboard6workbench85
33Standardized Work Combination Table Combines human and machine movements, based on Takt Time.Visually displays times for:Operator:WorkingWalkingWaitingAutomatic machine timesCycle Time compared to Takt TimeCreates a timed picture of human work and process flow.Helps identify waste within the cycle.
39Standardized Work Uses SafetyReduces ergonomic burdenHighlights potential hazardsTrainingTraining New Team MembersCross-Training for FlexibilityProblem SolvingPin Pointing DiscrepanciesContinuous ImprovementWork BalancingKaizen Activities
41Purpose of Job Instruction Transfer the needed knowledge and skills to the team member so that Standardized work is performed resulting in the work being completed:SafelyCorrectlyConsistently
42Job Instruction Training Sheet Major StepsWHAT to doDiscreet value- added actionsSimple, Correct, ConsistentKey PointsHOW to do itSpecific motion or information needed to perform the major step correctlySafety is always a key pointReasonsWHY to do itEffects on:SafetyErgonomicsGov’t. Reg’sQualityProductivityCostOther
45Continuous Improvement Problem SolvingContinuous ImprovementYamazumi ChartSeven WastesMotion Kaizen
46Yamazumi (Work Balance) Chart An effective tool for identifying:WasteOverburdenUnevennessA graphical tool used to compare each staff member’s workload to Takt TimeCompares all of the staff members’ workloads in one chartUsed to calculate the quantity of staff members needed for a work area
47Receptionist Process Time (secs) Current State Waste Reduced Cycle TimeWalk back to seat(15 feet)Place sheet to binWalk sheet Back toLab (15 feet)Stamp Top sheetReceive Top sheetWalk back to seatWASTEPlace sheet to binFuture stateCycle TimeWalk sheet back toLabPlace sheet to binTime(secs)WASTEReceive Top sheetStamp Top sheetStamp Top sheetReceive Top sheetCurrent StateWaste ReducedFuture State
49What is Lean?“A process of continuously identifying, reducing and eliminating waste (non-value added activity)”“Waste is defined as anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space and worker's time which are absolutely essential to add value to the product”Shoichiro ToyodaPresident, Toyota
50Lean is…A system of thinking, not just a set of toolsA learning system which encourages staff to perform better in technical operations, which, in turn, increases process performance.The relentless pursuit of waste!!
517 Wastes + 1 Correction/Rework Movement Waiting Inventory Dirty instruments in Assembly, damaged instruments, bent instruments, aborted sterrad cycleMovementSearching for paperwork, walking long distance to printer or scanner, getting wrap, obtaining containersWaitingWaiting for scopes and light cords, waiting on sterile carts, waiting on cases to startInventoryExtra sets and instruments, excessive amounts of filters or supplies, extra containersOverproductionCleaning and Assembly of several sets not needed for OR, Pulling OR cases by supplies days ahead of timeTransportationSearching for sterile, stat, or distribution carts; extra trips for decon rounds, distribution of setsOver-ProcessingSecond signature of assembled sets, two or more indicators in a set, extra instruments in setsPeopleNot using people’s abilities to their fullest potential, improper training and education of staff
52Causes of Waste Organizational issues Operational issues Lack of workplace organizationLack of trainingInconsistent performance measuresPoor production planning and schedulingOperational issuesLong setup timeLack of Preventive MaintenanceLayout (distance)Work methodsIncapable processesSupplier quality
56Kai = Change Zen = for the Better Definition of KaizenKai = Change Zen = for the Better“A change for the better” or “continuous improvement”
57Kaizen Events… Targeted Improvement Document Standardized Work Study through observation to improveDocument and train new Standardized Work to maintain the improvement
58Instructions for Work Kaizen ObjectivesIn order to Kaizen, we look at the worker’s motions. The goal is not to make the individual tasks faster, but to develop smooth and repetitive motions with little waste.Priority of Work Kaizen vs. Equipment Kaizen:Work Kaizen can be done in little timeWork Kaizen can be done with little investmentIf Kaizens are unsuccessful, other Kaizens can be easily tried
59Kaizen Example: - Current State Lab Process Spaghetti Diagram for Lab ProcessPAT ENTRANCE3 PATIENTS4PATPATlab walk timeOne patient 210 feet processPAT20 per day =4200 feet per dayPCA0.5 second per foot = 35 minutes walk timePAT3PAT1PATLAB AREAPATDispatch boxlabtubecubicles7lab2cubicleslabcupboard6workbenchcubicleslabcubicles8lab5cubiclesAverage time for lab process was 13 minutes with excessive walking
60Lab Process Future State Spaghetti Diagram Spaghetti Diagram for Lab ProcessLAB Triage1PAT ENTRANCE3 PATIENTSPATLab walk timeOne patient 15 feet processPCALAB AREADispatch boxlabtubecubicles2cupboardworkbench3EXITDOORImplemented efficient and standardized process focusing on waste reduction ( 54% Reduction in lab process time )