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Women and Work In Small Group: Assume that you are an academic advisor at SuperDuper College. A female junior level student majoring in ____ comes to.

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Presentation on theme: "Women and Work In Small Group: Assume that you are an academic advisor at SuperDuper College. A female junior level student majoring in ____ comes to."— Presentation transcript:


2 Women and Work

3 In Small Group: Assume that you are an academic advisor at SuperDuper College. A female junior level student majoring in ____ comes to you and asks for your advice on the career she is considering. Answer the following questions in preparation for your talk with her. 1. What is the average salary for a new recruit in that field (give male and female salary separately) 2. What is the average number of male and female workers in that field. Is there gender segregation? 3. List some potential challenges and opportunities for a female in that field.

4 An Interesting Topic 4 By virtue of your college degree, you will/ are likely enter the paid workforce 4 variety of issues you will face, so be prepared 4 Today, more than 50% of women hold paying jobs, so she is not an anomaly but the NORM

5 Outline of Presentation 4 History of Women and Work 4 Where are we today 4 Factors that affect women in the workplace 4 How the wage gap affects salaries 4 Effects of work on a womans personal life

6 History of Women and Work some info from Women Working by Stromberg & Harkness, 1988 4 Women are not new to concept of work 4 differences we see today were prompted by industrial age 4 Colonial America-- work roles for men & women more equitable than today 4 frontier conditions, agrarian duties meant everyone worked hard

7 Colonial America 4 Men and women had many shared activities, worked as part of household economy, gender roles more fluid 4 but tasks generally assigned by age and sex 4 wives had exclusive responsibility for mgmt. of household economy 4 women helped with bookeeping, supervised workers, collected debts, ordered materials 4 men assumed discipline/soc. of children

8 Colonial America 4 Women typically had 7-9 children 4 roles were physically demanding- made soap, candles, fabric, clothes, chopped wood, prepared meals, cared for children 4 many served as midwives, dispensed herbs 4 all women operated under constraints of English legal system

9 English Law in America 4 3 basic assumptions about women: –women depended on men, this was necessary & proper –English law dictated that property mgmt. & public affairs best left to the man –interests of husband and wife were the same- so whatever husband wanted was naturally what wife wanted as well 4 Surest way to property was thru widowhood

10 Industrial Era- early 1800s 4 People moving Westward 4 agriculture becoming commercialized 4 ** Indust. Rev. dramatically changes relationship of individuals to their work 4 work and home roles become more separate 4 men increasingly work outside home for paid wage 4 womens domestic work still exhausting but a little better

11 Industrial Era 4 Women becoming more involved in socialization of children 4 women also expected to attend to husbands emotional as well as physical needs 4 ** gradual but perhaps biggest change: the absence of men from the household also reduced the social visibility of womens domestic work

12 The (de-) value of domestic work 4 Women at home perceived to be in leisurely role 4 men associated home with rest, relaxation, place of seclusion from stress 4 because men didnt associate home with work, they also failed to associate women with work

13 Women and work during 1800s 4 Yes, some women in paid labor force –1890 estimate to be 5% 4 most worked in textile factories 4 those who remained in the home often took on laundry, sewing, piecework for others 4 By end of 19th C. large corporations beginning to form, govt. expands, increase in immigration, transportation, communication

14 Expansion of work roles 4 Late 19th C. changes meant gradual increases in work opportunities for women 4 greatest expansion 1890-1940 4 women in clerical & sales jobs: –1900 - 8% –1940 - 29% 4 women also move into teaching 4 most opportunities only for white women

15 Early- Mid 1900s 4 Despite high unemployment rates, men did not displace women employees. WHY? 4 Despite public ambivalence, women in workforce rose rapidly after 1940s 4 WWI and WWII - mass media campaigns to get women into traditional male jobs 4 then 1950s - mass media campaign to urge women back into the home

16 Mid- late 1900s 4 1950s and 1960s - social pressure to stay at home, increase in childbirths (also marriages and then divorces) 4 1964 - Title 7 Equal Pay Act of Civil Rights Act passes and reinforces women in work 4 since 1940s women increasingly entering the workforce in all age brackets, with fastest increase in 20-34 year-olds

17 So Where Are We Today? 4 1st quarter 2002: –54.1 million men and 42.9 million women (16+ yrs) in the paid workforce 4 70% men and 57% women in civilian labor force ( US Dept Labor Stats ) 4 unemployment rate about 6% overall –higher for women with children and minorities in general. If interested go to:

18 Factors that Affect Women in Workplace 4 Stereotypes –token employees –queen bees 4 Access Discrimination 4 Evaluation & Promotion Bias 4 Job Leaves 4 Sexual Harassment 4 Occupational Segregation 4 Salary Differentials

19 Why do these factors occur? In large part because of our social construction of gender!!

20 The Wage Gap in 2000 4 Women make 73 cents to mans dollar, hovered between 70-74 cents thru 1990s 4 Median earnings: –men: $37,339 –women:$27,355 4 Earnings for others as % of White Men: menwomen –black 78%64% –Hispanic 63%52% –Asian 105%80%

21 2 primary causes of Wage Gap 4 Job Segregation - few jobs are held by 50% men, 50% women. Those held by women usually not valued nor paid as highly 4 Entitlement - individuals sense of what s/he is entitled to receive in pay. 4 Examples of entitlement theory by B. Major

22 Sex-Segregated Occupations Over 80% female 4 Secretaries, stenog98% 4 Health care85 4 Financial Records91 4 Priv hshld maids 90 4 Hairdressers, child care workers 83 BLS (1990). Employment & Earnings, 37(1), Table 20. Over 80% male Mechanics & repairs97% Construction labor97 Engineers92 Health diagnosing83 Protective srvs85 Farm operators&mgr85


24 The Wage Gap By Education: 2001 The following avg.figures reflecting the median earnings in 2001for FT, YR workers, 25 yrs +: Total H.S. Grad. Bachelor's Master's ALL MEN $40,706 $33,037 $53,108 $66,934 White $41,317 $34,792 $55,307 $67,423 Black $32,180 $27,422 $42,999 $51,336 Hispanic $26,502 $26,944 $44,778 $60,661 Total H.S. Grad. Bachelor's Master's ALL WOMEN $30,504 $24,253 $39,865 $48,343 White $30,890 $24,736 $40,192 $48,615 Black $27,351 $22,341 $36,253 $43,884 Hispanic $22,192 $21,600 $34,060 $46,169 Data Source: US Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002, Table PINC-03 "Educational Attainment" - People 25 years old and over by total money earnings in 2001 'Work' experience in 2001, age, race, Hispanic origin and sex.

25 Women of Color in the Workplace The wage gap is most severe for women of color. Consider these facts about the paychecks of black and Hispanic women in the workplace: In one year, the average black woman earns approximately $12,000 less than the average white man does. Over a thirty-five year career, this adds up to $420,000! Black women account for 30% of all female-headed families in the U.S. They have a median income of $18,244 annually, while families headed by white males (no wife present) have a median income of $39,240. In one year, the average Hispanic woman working full-time earns $17,837 less than the average white man does. Over a 30 -year career, that adds up to $510,000! Hispanic women with a high school diploma earn $22,469. That is 33% less than white men with the same level of education. From National Committee on Pay Equity Fact Sheets

26 More stats on women & work 4 1993 - women without HS degree earned $14,700, compared to men at $21,402 4 women with HS diploma earned $19,168, compared to men at $26,820 4 women-headed households are worst: –married couple $43,129 –male head, no wife present $29,849 –female head, no husb. Present $18,545

27 BLS.

28 Wage Gap by Education 1997 all FT workers, 25+ yrs. (US DoL,Census Bureau) HSGradBA/BSMA/MSDoctorate Men White $31,19547,22060,08171,423 Black $25,79035,96242,12561,573 Hisp. $24,02137,72544,70242,082 Women White $21,60233,89641,88452,653 Black $19,99331,01040,58940,342 Hisp. $19,24731,99341,55455,956

29 1999 UD College Grads from UD Career Plans Survey $ Male$ FemaleRatio Agric. Sci.33,90525,6670.76 A&S Human.32,46327,9840.86 A&S Soc Sc.29,69426,5380.89 A&S Life/Hlth.30,00027,8270.93 A&S Phys.35,50434,3310.97 B&E36,21533,0490.91 Engineering41,21141,9931.02 Hlth &Nursing24,45833,3701.36 CHEP27,52728,4701.03 Average34,33630,1700.88

30 2000-01 Faculty Salaries Public 4-yr universities Male Asst Prof$46,859 Assoc Prof 55,384 Full Prof 78,083 ACHE Survey Salaries. TABLE38.pdf Female Asst Prof$43586 Assoc Prof 49,185 Full Prof 65,614

31 Have women broken the glass ceiling yet? 4 What factors affect the glass ceiling? 4 See Table 7.2 in Hyde women are 6.6% executives, minorities 2.6% 4 _archive/gov_reports/glassceiling/ ?page=home 4

32 Global Connections of Poverty (B. Lott in Primis) 4 Although women are 50% of population, they own only 1% of worlds property and 10% of worlds income 4 conditions of womens lives provide markers of poverty and hunger 4 Women comprise two-thirds of the worlds illiterate 4 even a little education for women pays dividends in every index of social progress and development.

33 Effects of Work on Womans Personal Life 4 Marriage 4 Household Tasks 4 Children 4 Personal Adjustment

34 Marriage 4 Employment = delayed marriage for many 4 Sure, its getting better but still the predominant ideology is that mans job comes first - i.e., job transfers 4 hard for some dual career couples; women more likely to choose job to fit family 4 3 kinds of marriage: –traditional, modern, egalitarian

35 Marital Bliss 4 In general, marriage not as satisfying for women 4 Jesse Bernard- studied mental & physical hlth of single and married men and women 4 found married men healthier, likelier to get better-paying jobs & higher pay than unm. 4 Married men commit fewer crimes, get fewer traffic tickets, live longer than unm m. 4 married women - 2 to 3 x more likely to report physical & emotional problems

36 Household Tasks 4 Household chores generally not fun for most 4 dissatisfaction with inequity in household tasks perhaps one if not greatest difficulties 4 In 1971 38% men did little/no housework 4 today changing, but after last 25 years still not equal efforts 4 the double disadvantage 4 women who work outside the home the most dissatisfied with task division

37 Household Tasks 4 Keep in mind--housework generally not a seen, and therefore not a valued task 4 J. Birnbaum (75) found homemakers to have lowest SE (women who had BA) 4 social isolation, lack of reward for job well done, financial dependence create feelings of frustration, little control

38 Children 4 1980s was 1st time more than 1/2 all mothers with children under 6 yrs in labor force 4 much stress, guilt, mommy wars 4 big debates about quality of child care 4 1993 Family & Medical Leave Act 4 time off can be costly for many years

39 Children in Day Care 4 Early research said separation of mother & child had negative effects 4 findings from early studies (some argue) based on poor methods, biased samples, misleading statements 4 other studies show preschoolers in day care not signif. different from those at home 4 Belsky & Steinberg (78) day care may intellectually benefit some children

40 Day Care 4 Some argued that day care = impersonal trtmnt, aggressive behavior, more illness 4 others report day care children show better social adjustment, no difference in later school achievement, girls may have advantage seeing mom role model, encourages independence, daughters of working moms less gender stereotyped

41 Personal Psychological Adjustment 4 2 hypotheses on women in work: –scarcity - work makes one feel tired, overwhelmed, unable to do all tasks –enhancement - work gives one more energy 4 certainly many experience role strain, but that can be minimized (some good, some bad ways)

42 Physical Health 4 Role strain could lead to poor health, but some studies show that employed women are healthier 4 WHY? 4 Many find work mentally stimulating, encourages social interaction, meet/work with people with similar interests, increases self-esteem 4 read A. Hochschilds The Second Shift

43 So whats the right answer? 4 there is no perfect/right answer; its an individual decision 4 those women who can CHOOSE their role and decision of whether or not to enter the paid workforce are the happiest. 4 keep these points in mind as you enter or move to next level of your career

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