Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session"— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session
Jairo Gutiérrez

2 Outline Brief History of the Internet Evolution of the Internet
“Convergence” Network Architecture Characteristics Networks Protocols (TCP/IP) Internet Infrastructure in NZ NetHui 2012, Auckland

3 Origins of the Internet
THIS IS A PICTURE CREATED IN THE 1950’S AS PART OF A PUBLIC RELATIONS DISPLAY OF THE US DOD I THINK YOU GET THE PICTURE JOSEPH STALIN WAS SOVIET PREMIER -- HE WAS PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEATHS OF PERHAPS 15 MILLION PEOPLE RED ARMY AND THE WARSAW PACT COMMUNIST CHINA IN 1949 CHURCHILL -- IRON CURTAIN US POLITICAL SOLIDARITY US CANADIAN COOPERATION TO PROTECT NORTH AMERICA J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

4 NORTH AMERICAN AIR DEFENSE COMMAND NORAD
J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

5 Semi-Automated Ground Environment SAGE
HERE IS THE IDEA THE THREAT AT THE TIME WAS SOVIET LONG RANGE BOMBERS ARMED WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS THE BOMBERS WOULD TAKE THE SHORTEST ROUTE TO NORTH AMERICA, OVER THE POLE LINES OF RADAR LINKED BY HARDWIRE TO COMPUTERS AT REGIONAL CENTERS THAT WOULD MONITOR AND ASCDERTAIN INCOMING THREATS MAJOR THREATS WOULD BE FORWARDED TO A CENTRAL COMMAND CENTER WHERE RESPONSE DECISIONS WOULD BE MADE IF A THREAT WAS PERCEIVED THE COMMAND CENTER WOULD DIRECT THE APPROPRIATE REGIONAL AIR DEFENSE BASES TO RESPOND WITH INTERCEPTOR AIRCRAFT OR ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

6 System Development Corp.
MIT Lincoln Labs IBM Hardware A/N FSQ-7 ATT Communications MITRE Corporation Systems Integration MAJOR TECHNICAL INNOVATION HUGE ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION SEVEN ORGANIZATIONS CREATED SAGE MIT LINCOLN LABS SPUN OFF THE WHIRLWIND HARDWARE OPERATION TO IBM WHICH MADE THE COMPUTERS, RENAMED THE A/N FSQ-7 A NEW NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION CALLED THE MITRE CORPORATION WAS CREATED TO DO SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RAND CORPORATION -- STRATEGY OF COLD WAR -- SPUN OFF A NEW NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION CALLED SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION TO CREATE SOFTWARE WESTERN ELECTRIC -- CONTROL CENTERS ATT LONG LINES COMMUNICATIONS BURROUGHS CORPORATION -- MODEMS SAGE Burroughs Modems Western Electric Control Centers System Development Corp. Software Rand Corporation NetHui 2012, Auckland J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

7 24 Centers 100 operators 24/7 operation SAGE CONSISTED OF
24 REGIONAL CENTERS LIKE THIS ONE AT GUNTHER AFB -- 1 CANADA INSIDE WAS A CONTROL ROOM AS SHOWN IT TOOK ABOUT 100 PEOPLE PER SHIFT TO RUN THE REGIONAL CENTER OPERATIONS THEY RAN IN FOUR SHIFTS, 24 HOURS A DAY, 365 DAYS A YEAR J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

8 DETECTION WAS PROVIDED BY HARD SITE RADAR PLATFORMS ERECTED WHEREVER NEEDED, INCLUDING ON FROZEN TUNDRA AND AT SEA IN JACK-UP PLATFORMS CALLED TEXAS TOWERS -- SHOWN IN LOWER RIGHT J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

9 EACH OBJECT IDENTIFIED WAS GIVEN A TRACKING NUMBER
THE HEART OF THE SAGE OPERATION WAS HUMAN BEINGS -- THAT IS WHY THEY CALLED IT SEMI-AUTOMATED OPERATORS SAT AT CONSOLES LIKE THIS ONE AND WATCHED THE LARGE ROUND CRT SCREENS EACH OBJECT IDENTIFIED WAS GIVEN A TRACKING NUMBER OPERATORS COULD CALL UP DATA ON OBJECTS BY POINTING AT THEM WITH A LIGHT GUN -- AN EARLY VERSION OF THE LIGHT PEN THE CONSOLE WAS HARD-WIRED TO THE DATA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK, AND ALSO HAD A TELEPHONE HANDSET FOR THE OPERATOR EACH CONSOLE HAD AN ASHTRAY AND A CIGARETTE LIGHTER J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

10 HERE IS AN ERSTWHILE USAF OPERATOR USING HIS LIGHT PEN TO CALL UP INFORMATION ON AN OBJECT ON THE COSOLE CRT SCREEN NetHui 2012, Auckland J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

11 EACH CENTER HAD MULTIPLE CONSOLES, ENOUGH TO COVER ALL THE RADAR DEVICES THEN OPERATING
EACH OPERATOR SHIFT WAS SIX HOURS NetHui 2012, Auckland J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

12 THIS IS A PICTURE OF THE MAIN CONTROL CENTER IN CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN
THE ENTIRE OPERATION WAS CONTROLLED AT NORAD HEADQUARTERS LOCATED NEAR COLORADO SPRINGS IN THE STATE OF COLORADO THIS SITE WAS KNOWN AS CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN, AND IT REALLY WAS A MOUNTAIN. THE AIR FORCE HAD LITERALLY BURROWED DEEP INTO CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN AND CREATED A SMALL AIR FORCE BASE INSIDE THAT HOUSED THE CONTROL CENTER FOR NORTH AMERICAN AIR DEFENSE BEING INSIDE A MOUNTAIN WAS BELIEVED TO PROTECT THE SITE AGAINST NUCLEAR ATTACK THIS IS A PICTURE OF THE MAIN CONTROL CENTER IN CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

13 Pioneering Features Ferrite core memory A/D and D/A conversion
Light pen Multiprocessing Real-time database management Distributed processing Timesharing Interactive displays Networking Marginal checking for component failure Memory cycle-stealing Buffered I/O COMPOOL 500,000 line real-time executive Ferrite core memory used from 1953 until the mid-1970s A/D and D/A conversion -- invention of the modem Light pen -- precursor to the mouse Multiprocessing -- did not get to the Wintel world until 1995 Real-time database management Distributed processing -- PDP-11 and VAX Timesharing -- OS-360, TX2 Interactive displays -- Xerox Networking -- IBM, DEC, ARPA Marginal checking for component failure -- intelligent devices Memory cycle-stealing -- LISP machines Buffered I/O -- IBM 360 COMPOOL -- an area in system memory shared by various subroutines; re-emerged in COBOL 500,000 line real- time executive -- BIGGEST EVER J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

14 Estimated costs of SAGE: $ 8-12 billion in 1964 dollars
Fully operational in 1963 Decommissioned in 1983 Never saw a missile (or not on record!) Estimated costs of SAGE: $ 8-12 billion in 1964 dollars (today > $20 billion) Fully operational in 1963 Decommissioned in 1983 Never saw a bogie NetHui 2012, Auckland J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

15 SAGE BEMEWS Air Traffic Control WWMCCS NASA Space Tracking
BMEWS AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL WWMCCS MANNED SPACE TRACKING SEMI-AUTOMATED BUSINESS-RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT SABRE IBM SYSTEM MOST SUCCESSFUL COMPUTER IN HISTORY WITH MORE THAN $100 BILLION IN SALES MIT TX2 WHICH LED TO THE DIGITAL EQUIPMENT PDP-10 THE FIRST MACHINE TO BE USED SERIOUSLY FOR AI RESEARCH SDC TOGETHER WITH IBM CREATED THE PROGRAMMING PROFESSION -- PICTURE OF GUY WITH SANDWICH BOARD AT MUSCLE BEACH IN 1955 SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND THE IDEA OF ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS NASA Space Tracking Semi-Automatic Business-Research Environment (SABRE) IBM System 360 Systems Management Organizations as Systems MIT-TX2 DEC PDP-10 The Programming Profession J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

16

17 Brief History of the Internet
Late 50s, early 60s: SAGE Late 60s: ARPANET In 1969 there were 4 nodes: UCLA, UCSB, SRI, U. of Utah In July 1970: MIT, SDC, RAND and BBN were added Early 70s: TCP/IP (Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn) Late 80s: NSFNET : World Wide Web (Sir Tim Berners-Lee) Early 90s: Commercial Internet NetHui 2012, Auckland

18 Accelerating Technology Evolution
Networking 1990–2000s PC/LAN/NOS Mini/WAN Mainframe 1960–1970s 1970–1980s 1980–1990s NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco 2 4 4

19 Internet Host Domain Growth, 1980-2000
70 60 50 HERE IS WHAT HAPPENED NOW, VERY FEW IN THE IS COMMUNITY PREDICTED THAT THIS WOULD HAPPEN -- IN FACT, NO ONE DID, EXCEPTING PERHAPS SOME FOLKS WHO ARE NOW FAR TOO RICH TO BE INTERESTED IN COMING TO ICIS BUT PEOPLE IN THE IS WORLD, WHILE MAYBE SURPRISED THAT IT WAS THIS THAT TOOK OFF, WERE NOT SURPRISED AT THE LARGER STORY HERE -- THAT SOMETHING REALLY IMPORTANT INVOLVING COMPUTERS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS WAS GOING TO OCCUR IT IS NOT THAT WE WERE GENIUSES WE WERE JUST PAYING ATTENTION WELL, THE REST IS HISTORY 40 Millions of Hosts 30 20 10 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 Year 1980 J.L. King, ICIS2K Keynote

20 More than two billion users and counting…
Word Wide Internet Usage Statistics NetHui 2012, Auckland

21 NetHui 2012, Auckland

22 Evolution of the Internet
Intelligent Internet Today’s Internet Connectivity Commodity: “plain old data service” No integrated infrastructure for service creation New differentiated services Services tailored to market segmentation and value Rapid deployment for services evolution and creation NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco 4 9 9

23 Business Requirements are the Driver
Do more with less… Support evolving applications quickly Scale the network to accept new users Reduce WAN and management costs Consolidate infrastructure NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco 11 10

24 Voice and Data Voice Data Can “lose” small % packets
Must arrive in order Delay tolerance—low Data Can’t lose ANY packets Can arrive out of order Store and forward—delay tolerant NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco 14 16 22

25 Two Solutions More Bandwidth Intelligent Queuing NetHui 2012, Auckland
Source: Cisco 18 20 17

26 Internet Hierarchy Routers and circuits Multiple paths
There ISP POP Backbone ISP ISP POP NAP NAP Here Routers and circuits Multiple paths Adaptive routing NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

27 Internet Architecture Characteristics
Characteristics of the Internet that help it scale to meet user demand Hierarchical Common standards Common protocols Source: Cisco

28 Function of Protocol in Network Communication
The importance of protocols and how they are used to facilitate communication over data networks A protocol is a set of predetermined rules NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

29 Function of Protocol in Network Communication
Network protocols are used to allow devices to communicate successfully Source: Cisco

30 Function of Protocol in Network Communication
Example of different protocols and how they interact NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

31 Function of Protocol in Network Communication
Technology independent Protocols Many diverse types of devices can communicate using the same sets of protocols. This is because protocols specify network functionality, not the underlying technology to support this functionality. NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

32 Layers with TCP/IP Benefits of using a layered model:
- assists in protocol design - fosters competition - changes in one layer do not affect other layers - provides a common language NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

33 Layers with TCP/IP Protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation
NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

34 Layers with TCP/IP The process of sending and receiving messages
Source: Cisco

35 Addressing and Naming Schemes
NetHui 2012, Auckland Source: Cisco

36 The DP “Pendulum” Centralized systems (mainframes, etc)
Distributed systems (PCs) Networked systems Client-Server computing Application Service Providers (ASPs) Cloud Computing NetHui 2012, Auckland

37 Infrastructure pre- and UFB
Internet access network market share in the pre UFB world (approx.): 85% are on chorus copper 10% are on other cable networks with remaining 5% mainly mobile UFB: Source: NZ Herald, 6 July 2012 NetHui 2012, Auckland

38 Chorus Internet Infrastructure - Copper
www Internet Provider Chorus provides xDSL service to ISPs Each home has ADSL, ADSL2+ or VDSL modem installed Chorus UBA service aggregates traffic from homes and delivers to ISP via handover connection Chorus provides second tier faults service to ISP ISP provides authentication and first tier help desk Analogue voice service provided over same copper pair ISPs can alternatively install their own equipment in exchanges and cabinets then ‘rent dark copper’ to provide xDSL services Chorus Exchange DSLAM FTTN Cabinet DSLAM NetHui 2012, Auckland

39 Chorus Internet Infrastructure – UFB Fibre
www Internet Provider Chorus provides UFB service to ISPs Each home has ONT (Optical Network Terminator) installed with Ethernet and analogue voice ports. Up to 20 homes connected via one fibre to equipment using splitter in cabinet or exchange Chorus UFB service delivers ISP a VLAN with traffic from homes via handover connection Chorus provides 2nd tier faults service to ISP ISP provides authentication and 1st tier help desk ISPs can alternatively install their own equipment in exchanges and ‘rent dark fibre’ to provide services Chorus Exchange OLT FTTH Cabinet NetHui 2012, Auckland

40 Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session
THANKS! Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session Jairo Gutiérrez


Download ppt "Internet Infrastructure 101 Up to Speed Session"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google