Presentation on theme: "RESEARCH PROCESS WITH PROBLEM IDENTIFACTION AND FORMULATION"— Presentation transcript:
1 RESEARCH PROCESS WITH PROBLEM IDENTIFACTION AND FORMULATION Vivek Patkar
2 What Research is not: Research is not just information gathering Research is not rearranging the facts and figures aloneResearch is not playing of wordsResearch is not a sales gimmick
3 What is Research? Starts with a question or problem Accepts certain basic assumptions or theoriesRequires unbiased data collection and analysisExpects critical interpretationPerforms validationNeeds articulated documentation and presentationLeads to further research
4 Research Focus Generating novel but useful ideas. Learning to challenge the existing knowledge.Using creative capacity to discover or invent something new including theory and interpretation.Bringing a new creation to fruition.Diversifying as far as possible, particularly, latter in the career.
5 Research AimsTo understand the properties of the given phenomenon. (voter-behaviour)To understand relationships between variables. (existence of causal links)To predict the outcome. (use of theory)To replicate research for validation. (confirm or refute)To develop new algorithms or instruments. (implementation and testing)To produce a theory. (ultimate goal)
6 Research Methodology Framework Ethics Followed at Every StepPublicationWritingCritical InterpretationChecking for ValidityData Collection, Data AnalysisDesign of ExperimentStrategyHypothesisProblem
7 Research ProcessIt is a systematic linear process with a few parallel activities along sideIt is transparentIt is confined to the study of a well defined problemIt involves in-depth analysis & validationIts outcome is to be interpreted within the data limits, but criticallyIt provides clear verdict on the problemIt is often cumulative in nature
8 Types of ResearchExtension or generalisation of the currently available resultsExplanatory (why), finding the reasons by building theories & hypotheses and testing themDescriptive (what, where, who & how), leading to prescriptionBenchmarking studycontd….
9 Types of Research Predictive (estimating future values) Evaluation study (effect of TV on reading habits)New / Improvement of process or product or servicey = a0 + b1x1 + b2x2
10 Impact Assessment Study Economic: wages, employment, landvaluesDemographic: sex ratio, age structureFiscal: sales tax, property taxCommunity: demand for services,housing, transportSocial: displacement, leisure activity, crimeEnvironmental: quality of air, water
11 Online or E-ResearchUse of research methods to study different aspects of the InternetUse the Internet to apply research methods for the research questionsIt facilitates collaborative researchOnline surveys & interviewing, online focus groups, virtual ethnography are the popular toolsRefer for details:
12 Types of Legal Research Evolution Tracing Research (How legal system evolved?)Evaluative Research (explain what law is)Identification Study (who benefits?)Impact Study (on groups & community)Projective Research (Legal Commission)Predictive Research (misuse possibilities)Collative Research (data organisation)Historical Study (tracing a legal fact)Comparative Study (over time or country)
14 A System of Law ? ? ? Normative System - Legal Norms - Provisions - ConventionsSocialSystem- Roles- Statutes- InstitutionsSocial ControlSystem- Authority- Power- Sanctions???How law is created?What are its criteria?Role of law-makers?Role of law-interpreters?Role of law-enforcers?Role of law-abiders?Role of law-breakers?How legal rules andnon-legal rules areinter-related?
15 A Comparison Legal Research Sci. & Soc. Sci. Research Validity of doctrinal research is unaffected by the empirical worldInternal participant-based epistemological approachSubjective argument-based methodologiesDeductive and analogy reasoning is predominantly usedSci. & Soc. Sci. ResearchValidity of research findings is determined by empirical investigationsGenerally objective approachUse of quantitative and qualitative methodologiesInduction,deduction,retroduction andabduction methods used
17 Select Legal Research Areas Broad areas of legal research could be:Doctrinal Research – study the legal rules, principles and concepts; develop theoriesResearch in Theory – examine conceptual basis for legal rules and principlesEmpirical Investigations - assess impact of law and reveal the gap between legal theories, idealism and social realityReform-Oriented Research – recommend changes in law and legal institutionsNon-DoctrinalDennis Pearce, Enid Campbell, & Don Harding, Australian Law Schools: A Discipline Assessment for the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (AGPS, 1987).
18 A possible career path for a legal academician!
19 Legal Research can help to: ascertain suitable law on a given topic or subject in the given context.highlight ambiguities and inbuilt weaknesses of law.critically examine consistency, coherence and stability of law and legal propositions.undertake social audit of law to understand its creation and impact in practice.make suggestions for improvements in, and development of, law.P M Bakshi, Legal Research and Law Reform, in S K Verma & M Afzal Wani (eds), Legal Research and Methodology, Indian Law Institute, New Delhi, p. 111.
20 Prepare the Research Report Research StepsS-7Ethics isfollowed atevery StepPrepare the Research ReportS-6Analyse & Interpret Data, ValidateS-5Collect the DataApprovalS-4Prepare a Research PlanResearch ProposalS-3Select the Research StrategyS-2PreliminaryResearch Activities[continuousliterature searchis expected]Establish Research QuestionsS-1Identify the Research Problem
21 Starting Point Curiosity Cause Effect relationship study To generalise the available resultsDissatisfied with the existing product or process or explanationTo test an unorthodox idea
22 Locating a ProblemParadox and contradiction: By focusing on such phenomenon new opportunities can be explored – treat them as leverage points (e.g. bumper crop, but starvation continues)Perspective and scale: Building different perspectives from different observation points helps (e.g. legal competence from feminine perspective)Reengineering option: Considering this approach to a situation often provides new opportunities (e.g. virtual classroom teaching and academic performance)
23 Problem Identification The problem is the aspect the researcher- worries about,- thinks about, and- wants to find a solution for.The purpose is to solve the problem,i.e. find answers to the question/s.Examples:1) Suicides in recent years by the farmers in Maharashtra (why?)2) Commercialisation of education in India (what are the impacts?)3) A digital divide prevails in the Indian society (how to bridge it?)4) Social capital in the urban areas helps the migrants (how?)
24 Legal Research Topics Select Areas: Law Reform Research Social-Legal Research or Law in Context ResearchSociology of LawLaw and Environmental Economic MovementsCritical Legal StudiesCyber Laws
25 Ways for Problem Identification Drawing on life experienceHistorical incidenceItem in the newsEye-witnessLocal issuesCountry or region specificGuide’s research programmeCyber inspiration
26 Initiation Outline the general context of the problem area Highlight key theories, concepts and ideas current in that problem areaEnlist basic underlying assumptions of the problem areaWrite down the identified important issuesFocus on what is to be solved or resolved
27 Idea Development Literature Search: Use different libraries; take notes (Refer Index to Legal Periodicals – Indian, Foreign; for Indices Database - CURIA)Do the Internet search; scan pertinent blogs; note the URLs & date of browsingLocate major authors and institutions active in the area (get in touch with them)Actions-Interactions:Crystalise your ideas, frame the objective and prepare first draft of your proposalDiscuss it with various experts
28 Problem BackgroundAre there issues about this problem to which answers have not been found up to the present?Why are these identified issues so important?What needs to be solved?What are the underlying assumptions?How far is it relevant in the Indian context?
29 Problem Statement Grammatically correct Complete, unambiguous and well articulatedAll the technical terms are suitably definedDivision in sub-problems for better management of the study & further translation into research questions
30 Research QuestionsTo be researchable, a research problem has to be translated into one or more research questions.Types of Research Questions:What questions require a descriptive answer (describing the features of a social phenomenon)Why questions ask for the causes or reasons for the observed features (seeking to understand the relations between social processes)How questions are concerned with bringing about change (suggesting possible interventions and outcomes)
31 Types of QuestionsTestable questions – should help building, theories & experiments and carrying out analysisClosed questions – those having a specific answer that may or may not be known e.g. what is the trend in the rate of inflation during the last 18 months?Open questions – may have multiple answers and require considerable research e.g. what would be the composition of Party-wise Loksabha Members after 2014 elections?
32 A Sample of Legal Research Enquiry To advance the science of law, the issues could be:Why a particular rule?What led to its adoption?What are its effects?Whether it is suited to the present conditions?How can it be improved?Whether it needs to be replaced entirely by a new rule?S N Jain, Legal Research and Methodology, 14 Jr of Ind L Inst 487 (1972), at 490.
33 Research Question Forms A research question is a logical statement that progresses from what is known and factual to that which is unknown and needs validation.Two forms of research questions:- a central question- associated or sub-questionsEx.:- How can the quality of Indian research be raised?Which are the governing factors?What is to be changed in the education system?What could be the incentives?
34 A Research Question Feature Research Questions should be Well Grounded.Well grounded means that they are searchable questions.Well grounded questions are not too narrow, too broad, nor too challenging.In practice it implies inclusion of key words or terms, one can use to search information resources (both online & print) to know more about research done in that area.
35 Problematic Questions Too Narrow:Does India have a written Constitution?When was the “Emergency” declared in India?These questions have a “Yes” or “No” answer, or can be replied by one word.Too Broad:What is the history and value of Philosophy?This question cannot be covered in the scope of single work.Too Challenging:Why is the Indian college education so lopsided?This question is too opinionated and is based upon people’s feeling and would need a very large study.
36 Example of a Research Question Topic: A Study of Mid-Day Meal Schemein the Municipal Schools in JalgaonResearch Question: What are the health and academic benefits of mid-day meal scheme in primary, and middle school sections of the Municipal Schools in Jalgaon?
37 Sub-questionsSub-questions are narrower questions that together answer the research question.Example:Research Question: What are the health and academic benefits of mid-day meal scheme in primary, and middle school sections of the Municipal Schools in Jalgaon?Sub-questions:What are the standards for health and academic performance adopted by the concerned public authorities in Jalgaon?Is there a difference made by the mid-day meal scheme in the health and academic performance of elementary and middle school sections of the Municipal schools in Jalgaon?Does mid-day meal supply a certain amount of nutrition value?How does mid-day meal scheme operate and in what way can it be strengthened and expanded?
38 Types of Research Questions Existence [Do senior citizens suffer from general slowing?]Description and Classification [What are the characteristics of span of attention? Is it constant or variable?]Composition [What are the factors that increase crimes?]Relationship [Is saving directly related to income?]Descriptive-Comparative [Are instruction booklets with text and graphics more effective than those with text alone?]Causality [Does dividing attention degrade performance?]Causality-Comparative [Is swimming better than cycling to build the physical stamina?]
39 Good Questions Characteristics: Clear Specific Answerable InterconnectedSubstantially relevantSub-questions could be converted inhypotheses, if justified
40 Research Problem Social Phenomenon: Research Problem: Housing shortage is a chronic problem in urban IndiaResearch Problem:What are the nature, causes and consequences of housing shortage in a given urban area?
41 Research Problem: What are the nature, causes and consequences of housing shortage in a given urban area?Research Questions:What is the extent of housing shortage? (data on population, family size, housing stock…)What are the consequences of housing shortage? (slum proliferation, abnormal rents…)Why does the shortage exit or what is the root cause of the shortage? (shortage of land, high construction cost,…)How can the shortage be removed? (promoting LIG house-building schemes, policy of increasing FSI…)
42 Settlement Unit No. of Persons AnthroposRoomHouseHouse GroupSmall NeighbourhoodNeighbourhoodSmall Polis (Town) ,000Polis ,000Small Metropolis ,00,000Metropolis millionSmall Megapolis millionMegapolis millionSmall Epropolis millionEpropolis millionEcumenoplis ,000 millionC.A. Doxiadis, ACTION for Human Settlement, Athens Centre of Ekistics, 1976, p.185.
43 Urban Area according to the Census of India is: All statutory places with a Municipal Council, Municipal Corporation, Cantonment Board or Notified Town Committee, orA place satisfying all the following conditions:a minimum population of 5000,at least 75% of male population is engaged in non-agricultural activities, anda density of population is at least 400/sq.km.Town with population more than or equal to 1,00,000is called City.
44 Topic Selection (Academic Research) Factors to be considered:Relevant to the institution and timeState of the current knowledgeEmerging research area (future oriented)Data expediency can largely be ensuredAvailability of guidance & facilitiesPersonal confidence
45 Select Leads Some triggering event observed or learned about Own experience or the experience of othersLiterature review to notice that a certain field or types of problems are not covered Shortcomings of the existing theoriesFancy for some topic or concept arising out of the study say, during the L.L.M. or M.Phil. stage
46 Select Leads (2) Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theoryclarifying contradictory findingscorrecting a faulty methodologycorrecting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniquesreconciling conflicting opinionssolving existing practical problemsDeveloping better algorithms or methods
47 Generic Design Science Often scope of the problem is eithernot properly defined, orit has too many dimensions, ortoo few dimensions.Generic Design Science addresses this issue by balancing the following three factors:1. Variety 2. Parsimony Saliency
48 VarietyPrepare exhaustive list of factors associated with a design situationSolicit inputs from as many participants and stakeholders as possible using different means[Aim is to build the maximum possible variety in design to counter the variety in tune with Ashby’s law of requisite variety]
49 ParsimonySort out the factors in their importance through wider debate and discussionIdentify the most critical factor for system design[Aim is to make the problem manageable in practice in tune with Miller’s law of parsimony on human information handling capacity]
50 SaliencySimplify the design by matching proposed features with critical needsPrepare a sequence for system or experimental study implementation[Aim is to derive a priority structure among the activities to guide implementation in tune with Warfield’s law of saliency]
51 A Classroom Management System LEARNERSCOURSEDURATIONFOCUSFACULTYPrimarySecondaryCollegePost-Grad.FixedVariedEvolving45 minutes60 minutes75 minutes150 minutesConceptMethodHistoryUseRegularPart-TimeVisitingPrivate/ContractTie LineNominalStandardVariableGovt.PrivateInternationalLectureCase StudyProject WorkPADEOGOGYFUNDINGFEES
52 Checklist Is the problem of interest for both current and future? Is the research question put in clear, concise and argument form?Will its study contribute significantly to either theory or practice?Will it lead to new research?Will it be practical to conduct the research?
53 Checklist (2)Can the research be completed within a reasonable time say, three years?Is it possible to obtain reliable data?Is one qualified or trained to handle the problem?Will there be serious ethical issues involved in the conduct and presentation of the research?Answers to most of these questions (except Q.9)should be affirmative to commence the research
55 Researcher’s SWOT Analysis (with respect to the research topic) Strengths:qualificationsexperiencereputationOpportunities:novel problemnew computer toolsmultidisciplinary workWeaknesses:inadequate facilitiesanalytical toolswriting skillsThreats:strong competitiontime limitInternal hostility
56 Academic Guide’s Role Assessing the research theme potential Indicating possible approachesPreparing for the research journeyJudging the quality of resultsExamining the interpretation, validation
57 SMART(ER) Principle Specific: Articulate objective/s Measurable: Quantifiable results/outputAchievable: Realizable in practiceRelevant: Possible applications in sightTimely: Avoid abnormal delayEvaluated: Acceptable i.e. flawlessRecorded: Widely noted and citedAim to submit your Ph. D. Thesis within three yearsWork should result in at least two research papersin the top class journals in the field – more are welcome!
58 Research TipsRead and think constantly about your topic and prepare notes for referenceWrite weekly research memoStick to your research designCollaborate with a Statistician for designing the experimentsWrite and present your Thesis Chapters periodically to your GuideDiscuss your work with different subject expertsEnjoy the research activity
59 Thank You Research problem should be well articulated and sub-divided to guide theresearch process gainfullyThank You