Presentation on theme: "LIB 311 Spring 2011 Created by Alisa Gonzalez, updated April 20, 2011 by Susan Beck."— Presentation transcript:
LIB 311 Spring 2011 Created by Alisa Gonzalez, updated April 20, 2011 by Susan Beck
It is very likely that libraries will in some way in the next half century begin to make use of magnetic, electronic, or other types of memory units for handling and producing information. Yale Medical Library Annual Report, 1951
Clay tablet-papyrus Scroll to codex Handwritten manuscripts to mass produced books (press books, woodblock) Printing Press Typewriter to word processor PC to laptop to handheld mobile
Anthony Panizzi Charles Ammi Cutter Cutter Classification System Futuristic work Buffalo Public Library of 1983Buffalo Public Library of 1983 Melvil Dewey Dewey Decimal System S. R. Ranganathan Five laws of library science
Charles Babbage Hated the imperfection in human computing. Tried to design machines to do mathematical computations. Created the difference Engine
Wanted to create a system to penetrate books Something about bibliography accessing databases of information through an electronic telescope … connections to a Universal Book Created Universal Decimal System
Information networked Documents seen as three dimensional things Identifiers Substance Context/relevance/ connection
MIT graduate, professor and eventually president. Founder of Raytheon Worked with government defense. National Defense Research Committee. Office of Scientific Research Committee which oversaw Manhattan Project at what is now Los Alamos National Labs Post WWII recommended creation of National Science Foundation
Designer of analog computers Differential Analyzer Room sized machine that solved math problems Created Rapid Selector (1930s)- A machine that utilized the new information format of microfilm
Wrote As We May Think in 1945 (Atlantic Monthly)As We May Think Described a futuristic workstation in which researchers could access information on microfilm Had the ability to link information. Link created by the researcher. Called the machine the Memex
1. A collection of microfilm documents 2. A workstation with a screen (monitor) 3. A mechanism for adding microfilm 4. Code input mechanism (to identify and select info) 5. Associative Trails Evolution of Otlets Links
Bush envisioned an evolution of the Memex in Memory to be held using biological crystals The ability to access large amounts of information from a distant location.
Eugene Garfield created Science Citation Index…now part of Web ofWeb of ScienceScience… Sputnik (1 st satellite) launched October 4, 1957
1958 ARPA –created by Eisenhower as a part of the Defense Department (Advanced Research Projects Agency) Social and Political Climate of the Cold War
Doug Engelbart- human centered vision of computing Created oN-Line System (NLS) Consisted of Word processor Early feature Tool for building links to documents Had a cursor mover, know as a bug…precursor to the mouse showed the system to an audience in San Francisco…huge event in personal computing history showed the system to an audience in San Francisco…huge event in personal computing history.
The social and intellectual climate of the 60s Ted Nelson- Harvard sociology student Computers should be an all purpose machine. Echoed Ranaganathan…a computer should be for readers and writers. First coined term hypertext Xanadu Literary Machines – outlined blue print of WWW.
1969 ARPA goes online Initially, connecting four major universities Becomes known as ARPANET For research and better communications between government agencies. To provide a communications network in case traditional communication lines were down because of military attack. To provide a communications network in case traditional communication lines were down because of military attack
Xerox PARC Created a windows style graphical desktop Steve Jobs visited PARC and was inspired and influenced by PARCs early work with hypertext
ARPANET continues to grow with in the United States and in Europe Ray Tomlinson- created the first program for ARPANET becomes a huge part of ARPANET activity
The rise of the Personal Computer Apple Computer founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak IBM creates their first PC Continues through the 1980s
In 1984, NSF wanted to create supercomputing centers because it saw the need to facilitate communication between research facilities and universities. Took over ARPANET and used its structure
1983 Domain names created A move from difficult to remember IP addresses Ex Example:.com,.net,.edu, etc.
1986 – 5,000 hosts 1987 – 10,000 hosts 1989 – 100,000 hosts What is a host? A machine or application with an IP address. Boom of Personal Computing
Created by Tim Berners-Lee December 25 th, 1990 Definition: a navigation tool and interface through browsers (i.e. Explorer, Firefox, Safari) that guides the user in using the Internet.
Creating the Information Superhighway Introduced by Al Gore, supported by the Bush Administration & it lead to the creation of Mosaic, earliest web browser.
Brief timeline of the internet. (2011) Houghton Mifflin's dictionary of computer and internet words. (2001). Boston : Houghton Mifflin. Internet timeline. (2007).http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A html Moschovitis, C. (1999). History of the internet: A chronology, 1843 to the present. Santa Barbara: ABC –CLIO. Notess, G. (2006).Teaching web search skills. Medford, N.J. : Information Today.. Random House -Webster's computer and internet dictionary. 3 rd ed. (1999). New York : Random House. Rubin, R. (1998). Foundations of library and information science. New York: Neal-Schuman. Wright, A. (2008).Glut: Mastering information throughout the ages. Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.