Presentation on theme: "Cyberspace and language change.. The medium with more significant impact on language usage as well as change than the telegraph, telephone, radio, cinema,"— Presentation transcript:
Cyberspace and language change.
The medium with more significant impact on language usage as well as change than the telegraph, telephone, radio, cinema, and TV all combined.
Internet and Gutenberg's printing machine in 1436.
Internet and Norman invasion in England of 1066.
However, just as any past invention, the Internet's impact on society in general and on language in particular has raised opposing standpoints.
The Internet has caused considerable damage in terms of language usage and written proficiency.
The Internet threatens national borders through manifest foreign influence and hegemony.
The Internet threatens the existence of linguistic minorities and the linguistic identity of oppressed communities and nations.
The Internet as a flat space promotes learning, democracy, and cultural understanding.
Language change is inevitable and cannot be stopped.
Languages are open systems. Change occurs as long as a language has a speech community.
English is seen as the lingua franca of the world.
The Internet promotes efficient communication and bridges the gap between cultures and nations.
The Internet is not a site of oppression.
The Internet has promoted the revival of endangered languages strengthening and revitalizing speech communities.
However, how can we assert that the Internet, as the information highway of the twenty first century, is affecting speech and writing in a negative manner?
Can we attribute to it all instances of language change, or is language change a natural occurrence in any speech community?
Or is the Internet merely another social environment conducive to community building, where people develop their modes of communication and language skills in the same way that they have done through traditional means throughout human history?
The Internet remains a positive force for social change.
Its impact on language is far from being negative.
Cyberspace has provided a positive platform that is conducive to:
Language change Language shift.
The Internet, as has been the case for any new invention, is being blamed for most of the perceived ills of our societies, including language deficiency and language shift.
There is "nothing new about fears accompanying the emergence of a new communications technology" (Crystal p2).
In the fifteenth century, the Church thought of printing "as an invention of Satan" because it was thought that "the dissemination of uncensored ideas would lead to a breakdown of social order" (Crystal, p2).
The telegraph was thought to be the medium that "would destroy the family and promote crime" (Crystal, p2).
The telephone and broadcasting were thought to have negative effects on society as the first would undermine society, while the second was thought to be the voice of propaganda (Crystal, p2).
Language pundits in the US.
The Internet threatens the existence of language as linguistic heritage
The Internet has caused English to become Deficient Sloppy adulterated
Lack of consensus How to counter the Internets impact without violating net neutrality and free speech.
What constitutes a linguistic threat for some is progress for others.
What would be the appropriate remedy for bad spelling, bad grammar, or bad usage?
l'Académie française The enforcer that ensures the proper usage of French language to preserve its purity.
Recently, France developed and launched a computer program that automatically replaces English words with French words
As an example, some these words are: Baladeur = Walkman Logiciel = Software Courrier = Dialogue en ligne = Chat
Campaign Objectives Stopping American Imperialism
How? By replacing all American words with Spanish equivalents.
Host = Servidor Mouse = Ratón Staff = Equipo
"punctuation tends to be minimalist in most situations, and completely absent in some s and chat exchanges" (Crystal, p94).
Computer mediated communication (CMC) : Chatting Texting
The new generations and particularly teenage users are the ones who have introduced several deviant spellings (Crystal, p9), such as kool = cool, fone = phone and B4 = before.
David Campbell states that , blogs, chat rooms, MySpace and Facebook seem to be treated as "trash" forms of communication where good spelling and grammar are irrelevant.
The Internet has enriched the English language Affected our cultural identity
Transformed the way we think Do things Communicate Manage time for the sake of efficiency and expediency.
Global connections among individuals, communities and nations.
language acquisition Mother language Second language Foreign language
Allowed isolated and disenfranchised communities to come out of their isolation and strengthen the bond with their cultures.
Chatting and Texting lol: laughing out loud a/s/l: Age/Sex/Location dur: do you remember
1337 sp34k or LEET SPEAK n00b13: n00bie = noobie, newbie, a novice and also a person who is stupid. Ebonics Leet: j0 1s 4 n00b13 6r0! = yo is a newbie bro! I h4x0rd you = I hacked you I h4x0r j00 = I hacked you
Aralish 2: Sou2l = Question 3: 3mal = Work 5: O5ti = My sister 7: A7lam = Dreams 8: Al8dra = Speech (La Parole) 9: 9mar = Moon.
English as superstratum Colonialism Linguistic Oppression Science Commerce Skånska cementgjuteriet 1887 Became SKANSKA in 1984 eliminate diacritics in letters such as å/Å, ä/Ä, and ö/Ö to make their products internationally marketable
Claire Kramsch from university of California, Berkley and Steven L. Thorne from Pennsylvania State University, the Internet and computer mediated communication (CMC) are helping student learn a second language.
Cyberspace overcame distance Forced cultures to open to each other Sometimes bridging the gap Other times widening it.
The general consensus is that the Internet will accelerate ongoing changes in languages and affect the cultural attitudes, norms, and values of internet users (Hansson and Bunt-Kokhuis, August 2004).
Internet has enriched languages Allowed minorities to reclaim their linguistic heritage Language revival
Native American languages, Hawaiian, and a host of other devalued languages having a strong presence on cyberspace Empowering their communities Attracting even outside new speakers.
Cultural identity and community identification, which are almost impossible to attain in traditional settings, especially by people who do not share community traits, such as multiracial individuals and marginalized ethnic groups, have been possible through interneting communities.
Change in itself is a natural occurrence as long as there are speech communities. Therefore, in the words of Franklin Roosevelt, we really have nothing to fear except fear itself. In the world of bits and bytes, similarly to the world of mortar and bricks, English is doing fine and does not need anyone to defend it. Languages are open systems that change from within and from without as long as they are alive.