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Using a computer to communicate is the most popular application of computers today. Computer Communications: Process in which two or more computers or.

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Presentation on theme: "Using a computer to communicate is the most popular application of computers today. Computer Communications: Process in which two or more computers or."— Presentation transcript:


2 Using a computer to communicate is the most popular application of computers today. Computer Communications: Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information 2

3 3 Laptop Tablet Web Server Cell Phone Satellite Satellite Dish Bluetooth Device Communications Towers

4 1.A sender (computer) 2.A communications device (modem): connects the sender to the channel 3.A communications channel (cable, radio waves) 4.A communications device (modem): connects the channel to the receiver 5.A receiver (computer) 4

5 Some applications of communications technology: Internet/Web E-mail Blogs Wikis (collaborative documents) RSS (Really Simple Syndication) VoIP (Voice Over IP) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Web folders Web conferencing 5

6 Network: a collection of computers and devices connected via communications devices and transmission media. 6

7 Share hardware (e.g. printer, Internet connection) Share software Share data (e.g. files on a hard disk) 7

8 A Local Area Network: a LAN is a network in limited geographical area such as home or office building (or a college campus) 8

9 Wide Area Network: a WAN is a network that covers a large geographic area using many types of communications media. The Internet is the worlds largest WAN. 9

10 Internet: a world-wide network of computer networks. 10

11 ARPANET Networking project by Pentagons Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Goal: To allow scientists at different locations to share information Goal: To function if part of network were disabled Became functional September 1969 11

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17 1969: Four host nodes 1984: More than 1,000 host nodes Today: More than 500 million host nodes 17

18 1989. Tim Berners-Lee 1991. HTML 1.0 1992. Lynx browser 1993. Mosaic browser 1994. HTML2 1995. HTML3 (draft never approved) 1995. Internet Explorer. 1998. HTML4 2014. HTML5 18

19 No one controls the Internetit is a public, cooperative, and independent network. Several organizations set standards. 19

20 To connect to the Internet, you need three things: Hardware to allow you to connect your PC to a communications channel. Software that controls the sending and receiving of data. Rules for sending data back and forth (called a protocol). 20

21 Telephone line (dial-up) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Satellite dish 21

22 All of these require a device to connect your computer to the Internet called a modem. MODEM: a device that translates digital signals from a computer into a format that can be transmitted over communication lines (e.g. phone line or cable). A modem modulates a signal going out and demodulates a signal coming in. Speed is measured in BITS per second (bps, b=bits, B=bytes). 22

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25 Phone (dial-up): cheap but slow Satellite: faster than phone, slower but usually more expensive than DSL or cable. Available anywhere. DSL: fast, but more expensive than an ordinary phone connection. Also, speed deteriorates as you move farther away from the phone company office. Maximum distance is around 2 miles. Cable: fastest, but more expensive than DSL. All users in a neighborhood share the same cable channel, and as more users subscribe, the speed can deteriorate. 25

26 At work, your network is probably connected to the Internet through either a: 1. T1 line (carries 24 separate signals, each at a rate of 64Kbps, for 1.5 Mbps) 2. T3 line (28 T1 lines = 43 Mbps; this is the type of line used for the Internet backbone). 26

27 How data might travel the Internet using a cable modem connection: 27

28 In addition to the hardware, the computers on both ends of the communications line must agree on which rules they will use to send data back and forth. Such rules are called a protocol. Protocol: a set of rules governing the exchange of information between computer systems. 28

29 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The message is divided into numberedpackets (like the pages in a book). Addresses each packet and sends it to its destination. Packets are re-assembled into the original message when they arrive 29

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31 Internet Protocol: a 32-bit addressing scheme. Each computer on the Internet is given a numeric address that consists of 4 8-bit numbers, called an Internet Protocol (IP) address. An IP address looks like this: * (each number has been translated into decimal) * IP address of Google 31

32 URL: A unique address for a web page 32

33 12-digit IP addresses are impossible to memorize. The Internet supports the use of a text name for each IP address. This text name is called a domain name. is a domain name. 33

34 A domain name is divided into three parts (and they are read from right to left!): 1. Top-level domain (e.g. com) 2. Second-level domain (e.g. google) 3. Third-level domain (e.g. www) It is possible to have four or more domains, but most domain names consist of three parts. 34

35 Originally there were six top-level domains: (commercialbusiness) 2.www.briarcliff.EDU (education) 3.www.whitehouse.GOV (government) (network service providers) 5.www.w3.ORG (non-profit organizations) (military) More top-level domains have been added and will be added in the future. 35

36 .aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the business This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's cooperatives TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale information This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to international organizations TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. 36

37 .jobs companies TLD is designed to be added after the names of established companies with jobs to advertise. At this time, owners of a "" domain are not permitted to post jobs of third party mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with museums Must be verified as a legitimate individuals, by name This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's professions Currently,.pro is reserved for licensed or certified lawyers, accountants, physicians and engineers in France, Canada, UK and the U.S. A professional seeking to register domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate Internet communication travel and tourism industry related sites 37

38 The second-level domain is usually the name of the organization that purchased the name: 38

39 The third-level domain identifies a web server on the host site. Usually www, but it can be anything. Examples: 39

40 Protocol: http: stands for "hypertext transfer protocol", the protocol (rules) used to transmit pages on the web: HTTP:// HTTPS:// 40

41 The last part of the URL is the name of the file to be displayed and the folder that the file is stored in: /syllabus.htm /syllabus.htm Try changing the case of the file names. 41

42 HTML is the language used to create web pages. A static web page is a page that does not change. A web page is requested by a browser that sends an HTTP request to a web server. A web page is returned to the browser by the web server sending an HTTP response. The web browser's responsibility is to render the web page for the user. 42

43 A dynamic web page is generated on the fly by a program on the web server. The web server looks at the file extension of the requested page and uses the file extension to determine which application server it should send the request to for processing. The application server generates an HTML page on the fly and returns it to the web server, which returns it to the user who made the request. 43

44 ASP.NET. Runs on IIS. (.aspx) JSP. Runs on Apache web server (Unix/Linux). (.jsp) PHP. Free, open source. Apache. (.php) ColdFusion. Commercial language. (.cfml) Ruby. Free, open source. Combined with the Rails framework. (.rb) Perl. Free, open source. (.pl) Python. Free, open source. (.py) 44

45 JavaScript. Runs on the client. Implemented by all major browsers. 45

46 Web browser: allows Internet users to view web pages Todays four most popular browsers: 1.Internet Explorer (Microsoft) 2.Firefox (Mozilla) 3.Safari (Apple) 4.Chrome (Google) 46

47 Step 1. Type in the URL. Step 2. The web Browser sends the URL to your ISP where it is translated to an IP address and forwarded. Step 3. The Web server at the destination finds the page and sends it back to the original IP address. Step 4. The Web browser receives the web page (coded in HTML), interprets the HTML, and displays the page on your computer. 47

48 HTML: HyperText Markup Language. HTML involves creating plain text documents and embedding tags into them. The tags provide formatting information that is interpreted by a web browser. 48

49 HTML tags usually come in pairs, one to turn the feature on, one to turn it off. Heading 1 Heading 2 paragraph BOLD Italic Underline 49

50 Plug-ins: Programs that extend the capability of a browser You can download many plug-ins at no cost from various Web sites Popular plug-ins: Acrobat Reader Flash Player Java Quicktime Shockwave Player 50

51 Improve error handling Develop the ability of the browser to be an application platform, via HTML, CSS, and Javascript. Adds audio, video, vector graphics (SVG), math notation (MathML), Web SQL database, geolocation data HTML5 introduces a number of APIs that help in creating Web applications. These can be used together with the new elements introduced for applications. 51

52 Current scores (12/31/2012). See Chrome (v. 23): 448 (of 500) Opera (v. 12): 419 Safari (v. 6): 378 FireFox (v. 17): 365 IE (v. 9): 138 52

53 Guidelines for making your web pages accessible to handicapped users. 53

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