Presentation on theme: "COMPREHENSION WITHOUT TEARS HCI-NYGH CONFERENCE 24 JANUARY 2011 Mrs Rosalind Lee & Mrs Yeong-Loke LF."— Presentation transcript:
COMPREHENSION WITHOUT TEARS HCI-NYGH CONFERENCE 24 JANUARY 2011 Mrs Rosalind Lee & Mrs Yeong-Loke LF
Objectives Introduction – theoretical background Methodology Strategies (ICT) Survey Findings Implications ORDER OF PRESENTATION
STUDENT PROFILE Age of Technology Reading skills – skimming, scanning, interested in merely the gist of the information Uncomfortable to read for a prolonged period of time. Glare of the screen. Widely read? Depth of reading?
READING SKILLS Construction of meaning Read, pick up information, connect information to what we already know, interpret, read between the lines for deeper meaning, evaluate information and ideas Internet technology – enhances and expands the curriculum beyond the physical classroom
READING SKILLS Teachers need to guide students to build up intensive reading and research skills. Need to reflect and review what has been read. Small group and cooperative learning activities that will help students to solve problems or work with concepts that were discussed within the reading.
MUST LEARNING BE TAUGHT? Hillocks & Vygotsky – teachers who believe that kids will naturally grow and learn, are letting themselves off the hook. Anything that is learned must be actively taught. Learning-centred teaching requires explicit teaching.
HILLOCKS & VYGOTSKY All knowledge is socially and culturally constructed. What and how the student learns depends on what opportunities the teacher provides. Learning is not natural but depends on interactions with more expert others.
VYGOTSKY Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) – texts that are chosen such that the child can learn with the assistance and support of a teacher, peers and the instructional environment. Students develop cognitive abilities when a teacher leads them through task-oriented interactions.
VYGOTSKY Allow the students to do as much as they can on their own, and then to intervene and provide assistance when it is needed, so that the task can be successfully completed. Challenging tasks so that they can successfully complete it with appropriate help. Scaffolding
TEACHERS ROLE Observe learners closely Scaffold learning Match individual and collective curricula to suit learners needs Create environment of inquiry
Comprehension Without Tears Student Responsibility Adult-Then Joint- Responsibility Self -Responsibility Zone of Actual Development Zone of Proximal Development What the student can do on his own, unassisted Assistance provided by more capable others : teacher or peer or environment : classroom structures and activities Transition from other assistance to self-assistance Assistance provided by self Internalisation, automisation TEACHING MODEL - VYGOTSKY
Text characteristics Pre-reading tips During-reading tips After-reading tips GUIDELINES TO DEVELOP LEARNERS ABILITIES
Text characteristics Good readers expect to understand what they are reading. Where there is unfamiliar vocabulary, teachers can introduce key vocabulary in pre-reading activities – encourage learners to use their background knowledge e.g. meaning of a title, illustration, key words.
Lighten students cognitive burden. Teacher-directed : key vocabulary, ideas are explained. Interactive approach : teacher leads a discussion draws out information students already have and interjects additional information necessary for further understanding. PRE-READING
Skimming – reading rapidly for main points Scanning – reading rapidly to look for a specific piece of information Extensive reading – reading a longer text, often for pleasure Intensive reading – reading a short text for detailed information PURPOSE OF READING
Active reading : Making predictions Making selections Integrating prior knowledge Skipping insignificant parts Re-reading Making use of context or guessing DURING- READING
DURING-READING Breaking words into component parts Reading in chunks Pausing Paraphrasing Monitoring
Post-reading – focus on processes that lead to comprehension Discussing the text Summarizing Making questions Answering questions AFTER-READING
Filling in forms and charts Writing reading logs Completing a text Listening to or reading other related materials Role-playing
Comprehension Without Tears Suggested Strategies
Clarifying Background Identifying question types Setting Questions Feedback Answering techniques Good vs bad answers Close Textual Reading Analysing Questions Pre-Reading During- reading Post-reading Use of ICT
Clarifying Background Source of the passage Geographical features Pictures Movie/ video clips Related websites Contexts
Source of the Passage http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/world/africa/26iht worm.1451843.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&sq=a%20rare% 20and%20stubborn%20pestilence&st=cse&scp=1 Refer Exercise 1
Geographical Features http://www.africaguide.com/a fmap.htm Refer Exercise 1
Research into Contexts Theodore Roosevelt The Rough Riders The American Civil War Charles Dana Gibson Frank Merriwell, the blue-blooded superathlete of Yale The Princeton creations of F. Scott Fitzgerald The Smithsonian Institution (see Exercise 3)
Analysing Questions Identifying Question Types See Exercise 1
Analysing Questions Setting Comprehension Questions See Exercise 2 Use of Discussion Forum and School Workbins
Providing Feedback Comparison of students answers Based on Exercise 3