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Student Instructional Unit #1

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1 Student Instructional Unit #1
Sources Student Instructional Unit #1

2 Sources Notes and Assignment Worksheet
Directions: Open the Sources Notes and Assignments Worksheet in Microsoft Word. Save this document in your student file under you name. Example: hatch_sources_notes_assignments Fill in each section of the notes as you watch the Sources PowerPoint Presentation. Save the document each time you add more information, so you do not loose your work. When you are completely done, attach the notes to an When you are completely done, the notes to Mr. Hatch –

3 Student Objectives Students will: Understand plagiarism
Use the Internet to find information Evaluate electronic and traditional sources of information Use traditional sources for research Use electronic sources for research Cite sources correctly

4 What you will learn. . . What is plagiarism? Evaluating Sources
Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad –vs. – Narrow Search Boolean Operators Source Citation Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

5 Plagiarism “The bees pillage the flowers here and there, but they make honey of them which is all their own; it is no longer thyme or marjolaine: so the pieces borrowed from others he will transform and mix up into a work all his own.” Michael Eyquen de Montaigne Journal Entry #1: In one paragraph, tell me what this person is trying to say about plagiarism? Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

6 What is plagiarism? Definition: “Plagiarism consists of presenting the intellectual or creative work of other people (words, ideas, opinions, data, images, flowcharts, computer programs, etc.) as one's own work.” SU School of Information Studies Statement on Academic Integrity Preate, S. (Information Services Librarian, Syracuse University Library) (2004). Internet Plagiarism. Powerpoint Presentation. Retrieved January 28, 2006 from Weber School District’s Media Library Website: Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

7 Plagiarism Perceptions
Read the following quotes about plagiarism and summarize the different perceptions of plagiarism. Quotes: “Originality is the art of concealing your sources.” Unknown “I found your essay to be good and original. However, the part that was original was not good and the part that was good was not original.” Samuel Johnson “Originality usually amounts only to plagiarizing something unfamiliar.” Katherine Fullerton Gerould “To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism; to steal from many is research.” Unknown Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

8 Why do people plagiarize?
Ignorance Pressure/fear Lack of confidence Faculty perceived as excessively demanding Perceived lack of consequences Boredom/lack of interest Laziness Competition Arrogance Cultural differences BUT WHATEVER THE REASON, DO NOT PLAGIARIZE! WHY? It is unethical, wrong, cheating, and you will not learn anything or feel pride in your achievements by using another person’s work. Preate, S. (Information Services Librarian, Syracuse University Library) (2004). Internet Plagiarism. Powerpoint Presentation. Retrieved January 28, 2006 from Weber School District’s Media Library Website: Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

9 Plagiarism Continued “A special place in the underworld is reserved for those who think their [High School Teacher] is technology impaired: believe me, I can track down plagiarized Internet material faster than it can be copied and pasted into a paper (as cited in Preate, 2004). ” It usually takes me about two minutes. Mr. Hatch Preate, S. (Information Services Librarian, Syracuse University Library) (2004). Internet Plagiarism. Powerpoint Presentation. Retrieved January 28, 2006 from Weber School District’s Media Library Website: Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

10 What happens if I plagiarize?
If you plagiarize, you will be caught. It is not hard. I know you as a student. I know your voice. If the writing does not sound like you, it probably is not. There are red flags in papers that are plagiarized. I can take any sentence from your paper, enter it into a keyword search, and find the Internet site you copied in about 30 seconds. Please do not do it. You will get an “F” on the assignment, and will be referred to the administration for cheating. Not to mention you will lose your self-respect and credibility among students and teachers. It is not worth it. If you need help to do a paper, ask. There are no stupid students, but it is a really stupid choice to cheat. “Regard your good name as the richest jewel you can possibly be possessed of - for credit is like fire; when once you have kindled it you may easily preserve it, but if you once extinguish it, you will find it an arduous task to rekindle it again. The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavor to be what you desire to appear.” Socrates Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

11 How do I avoid plagiarism?
Identify the source Acknowledge the source in your work Use others’ work to create your own work – don’t just copy Cite your sources correctly Go to the following website and read the section on plagiarism: Click Back to Main Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

12 Evaluating Sources Click on the following links and answer the question in your sources notes for this section How Historians Work – Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources Primary Sources Examples Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

13 What is bias? Definition: A bias is a prejudice, preference, or an inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment. Bias is being subjective (influenced by your past experiences and ideas) as apposed to being objective or impartial (not allowing your biases to affect you – which is really impossible). We all have biases. How is it that eleven people can witness the same accident – all with their eyes wide open – and each account will be different despite the fact they all saw the same thing? Bias is like wearing a pair of sunglasses. The sunglasses represent your past experiences, how you were reared as a child, and any other previous learning, training, or experiences. That is why two people can look at the same thing and describe something differently. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

14 What is perspective? Definition: A point of view. The way a person sees or understands something. (This point of view is often unknowingly clouded by our experiences which creates bias.) Imagine that in the rush to get to school a wreck occurred at the intersection of Washington Blvd. and 12th Street. A very intelligent and well-behaved 4.0 student in his dad’s red sports-car is T-boned by an old lady with a poodle named snoocums in the passenger side of her car. She can barely see over the steering wheel of her 1979 Cadillac Coupe Deville. Who is at fault? In this activity, try to imagine and describe what the perspective of each of the eye-witnesses and those involved would be. Eye-witnesses and others involved: Old-lady Driver Highly intelligent 4.0 student The newly hired news reporter The principal passing by after the wreck The student’s father who is a lawyer The student’s mother who works part time at a nursing home The blind conspiracy theorist who “witnessed” the crash while standing on the corner Police officer who was just harassed by a “hoodlum” teenager 10 minutes earlier The old woman’s son who stands to inherit his mother’s “fortune” An ambulance driver who cleaned up the scene of a teenage DUI accident the night before – two children were killed The Flying-J trucker who can’t stand getting stuck behind old people Do you recognize any bias in any of these perspectives? Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

15 Bias and Perspective Read the following quotes about bias and perspective and summarize what you learned about bias and perspective. Quotes: “History belongs to the winner.” Anonymous “Anyone who believes you can’t change history has never tried to write his memoirs.” David Ben Gurion “Patriotism ruins history.” Goethe “History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.” Winston Churchill “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.” Napoleon Bonaparte “When a man wants to murder a tiger, it's called sport; when the tiger wants to murder him it's called ferocity.” George Bernard Shaw “The truth is rarely pure and never simple.” Oscar Wilde “The color of truth is grey.” Andre’ Gide Click Back to Main Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

16 Electronic Sources Electronic Sources Main Page Plagiarism
Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

17 What you will Learn: Surfing the Web Evaluating Websites
Electronic Sources What you will Learn: Surfing the Web Evaluating Websites What is a database? What are search-engines? Boolean Operators What is a subject directory? Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

18 “Surfing” The Web KAWABUNGA LET'S GO Click to Continue Main Page
Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

19 How the Web Affects Research Papers
Click on the link below and read the following article. How the Web Destroys the Quality of Students’ Research Papers. Then answer the questions in the Sources Notes and Assignments worksheet. Value or Vomit? Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

20 Evaluating Websites – 8 Criteria
The 8 Criteria for Evaluating Websites Validity Accuracy Authority Uniqueness Completeness Coverage Objectivity Currency Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

21 “Honor and trust are earned not freely given - check your sources.”
Validity Validity: How logical, trustworthy and reliable the content of the resource is. Warning! Anyone can publish anything on the Internet. Do not believe everything you read or see. Questions to ask: Does the resource appear to be honest and genuine? Is a third party involved that monitors the site for accuracy? Is the resource available in another format? (Book, CD-Rom, etc.) Is there evidence that the information was well researched? (Works Cited, Bibliography, Reference List, Citations, Endorsements, etc.) Is any bias made clear and of an acceptable level? (Everything has bias, but has the website attempted to address any of its biases?) Clues to look for: References List, Source Citations, and Bibliographies A statement of the goals and objectives of the site A mention of any quality checks conducted by a neutral third party A URL which supports claims in the content (example: (.edu) for an educational site) “Honor and trust are earned not freely given - check your sources.” Mr. Hatch Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

22 Accuracy Accuracy: Closely related to validity, the accuracy of a resource will depend on how correct all the information actually is. Warning! The lack of information filters on the Internet, such as proof readers, editors and publishers means that mistakes are more prevalent than in print. Some errors are innocent, some are just lies and deceptions. Questions to ask: Is the website refereed or checked by a third party (publisher, editor or peer reviewer)? Can the information be triangulated or cross-checked with other reliable sources? What is the author’s motivation? Does the author gain anything for being inaccurate? Clues to look for: Typographical errors Spelling mistakes and bad grammar Bibliographies and references The author’s credentials (degrees, training, awards, experience, etc.) “If one has made a mistake, and fails to correct it, one has made a greater mistake.” Plato (427 BC BC) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

23 Authority Authority: Depends on the expertise, reputation and status of the source. The author’s credentials – training, education, experience, awards, etc. Warning! The source of the information is not always clear. Information may not always be correctly attributed. Anyone can publish anything on the Internet, so compared with a bookstore or a library you will find a lot more information based on personal opinion rather than fact. Questions to ask: Who is the author? Is the author’s name available. Would you put your name on something you are not proud of or know is incorrect? Think about that. How reputable are the author? What are the author’s credentials? Awards? How trustworthy is the origin of any data or information? Can you cross-check or triangulate the information with other reputable sites? Clues to look for: Information about the author Details of the origin of any data or information (bibliography, etc.) Can you contact the author? ( , address, phone #) Links to other sources that support the claims of the author. “If a rhinoceros were to enter this restaurant now, there is no denying he would have great power here. But I would be the first to rise and assure him that he had no authority whatever.” G. K. Chesterton ( ) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

24 “We are drowning in information and starved for
Uniqueness Uniqueness: Relates to the amount of primary information contained within the resource which is not obtainable from other sources. Warning! On the Internet many resources contain little primary or original information. Resources often contain only secondary information. A resource containing primary information that is unavailable from other sources, and in particular other online sources is likely to be of greater value than a resource containing secondary information. Questions to ask: Does the resource contain any original work? Is there some primary information on the site? If the site is a secondary source, is the primary source available? Clues to look for: Check the URLs of links to see if they take you to information within the site or to external sites created by somebody else The "About this site" links often lead to clues about the uniqueness of the information “We are drowning in information and starved for knowledge.” Unknown “In your thirst for knowledge, be sure not to drown in all the information.” Anthony J. D'Angelo Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

25 Completeness Completeness: A complete resource will be a finished piece of work that is available online in its entirety. Warning! The Internet often offers incomplete information that has either been published before it has been finished (the term "under construction" is commonly used), or that is available only in part online and points the user to non-networked resources for the full text edition. Questions to ask: Is the resource available in full and not "under construction"? Are there any dead links or empty files? Is there any missing information? Does the information available agree with the promises made? Clues to look for: Any scope statement for the site – how much information is covered? The contents page Disconnected Links Site maps “The Internet is so big, so powerful and pointless that for some people it is a complete substitute for life.” Andrew Brown Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

26 Paraphrased from:Neil Postman
Coverage Coverage: The depth and breadth of the information. Warning! Many Internet resources are not as comprehensive or detailed as what you might find in a library. Broken into screen-sized chunks, they may not cover a subject in the same depth as a book. Internet sites often simply lack in-depth coverage of the subject matter. Questions to ask: Does the information go into sufficient depth? Does the resource cover the subject matter adequately? Is there any information missing? Clues to look for: A contents page An index A site map Bibliographies and references “The whole problem with [the Internet] comes down to this: [everything can be printed on one page, and] the world cannot be understood in one page.” Paraphrased from:Neil Postman Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

27 Objectivity Objectivity: All websites have bias, but did the website take measures to eliminate bias, or at least label the bias as such – an opinion. Warning! Be aware that not everything is true just because it is on the internet. Anyone can publish anything on the Internet. Why do you think (.com) stands for a company website? Questions to ask: What is the motive for publishing the information (money, fame, shock-value)? Does the site require money? * Note * (Sometime this can actually be a great website. Remember nothing of real value is free. Valuable information will either cost you in money or research time, so think of that next time you get your free and easy instant information from the Internet.) Clues to look for: Opinion, bias, viewpoint Inflammatory of provocative language (Is the site a “soapbox” for an organization or a person’s opinion. Is there advertising on the page? Does your URL give you a hint (.com)? “The biases the media has are much bigger than conservative or liberal. They're about getting ratings, about making money, about doing stories that are easy to cover.” Al Franken “Advertising is the modern substitute for argument; its function is to make the worse appear the better.” George Santayana ( ) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

28 “The more things change, the more they remain... insane.”
Currency Currency: How up-to-date and current is the website? Warning! Many Internet resources are old and out-of-date. If a website is older the two to three years, it should be avoided. Many sites have been around since the birth of the Internet in the early 1980’s. Questions to ask: When was the page first published and last updated? If the page was revised, were the revisions substantive? Is the information current or outdated? Are the links current? Is the site older than two or three years? Clues to look for: Outdated links / Broken links A date older than two to three years. Information that does not triangulate with recent sites. “The more things change, the more they remain... insane.” Michael Fry and T. Lewis Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

29 What is a Database? Definition:
In the broadest sense, a database is anything that stores data. A phone book, for instance, could be considered a database as it stores related pieces of information such as name and phone number. However, in the world of computers, a database usually refers to a collection of related pieces of information stored electronically. Aside from the ability to store data, a database also provides a way for other computer programs to quickly retrieve and update desired pieces of data. From: There are two major types of databases available in the computer and Internet world: Search Engines – large powerful databases that rely on automated search agents called robots. Subject Directories – Have no crawlers or robots, but are a directory of website organized and put into categories by humans. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

30 Search Engines “Search Engines, with their half-baked algorithms, are closer to slot machines than to library catalogues. You throw your query to the wind You may get 234,468 supposed references. . .” David Rothenberg Journal Entry: In one paragraph, tell me what this person is trying to say about Search Engines? Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

31 Search Engines Definition:
Search engines use spiders, crawlers, or robots [small programs that traverse the Internet looking at web sites] to find sites. The spiders retrieve information from the title or content of web sites and send it back to the search engine's database. The search engine then analyzes the web page and ranks it according to very sophisticated algorithms, which are closely guarded secrets. AltaVista and Google are examples of search engines. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

32 Interest Activity 1 Go to askjeeves.com, google.com, or msn.com
Choose five of broad subjects from the following list. Enter them in the key-word search box. Then answer the following questions for each. China Martin Luther Hitler History United States of America The Civil Rights Movement Egypt World War II Constitution Rome President Congress Record the number of hits or results you found. How relevant were the internet sites to your subject? What percentage do you think? What do you need to do to get better, more relevant results? Search Engines typically ignore 60%-90% of websites. What do you think about that? (as cited in High-Tech Heretic by Clifford Stoll) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

33 Broad –vs.- Narrow Search
Broad Search: Starting point – I’m just learning about the subject. Very general information A lot of information Use textbooks, Internet, encyclopedias, and other tertiary reference material that can give you a good general summary of the topic. Narrow Search: Finishing up my research with the best information available. Very specific information for the subject of my paper Less information - Professional Authors use what is called a throw-away-rate. They do A LOT of research and find A LOT of information. Then, they throw away about 90% of the information, and keep the 10% of information that is really good and relevant to their topic. Use more primary documents and very reliable sources for very specific details and information. Use Boolean Operators and Key Words to narrow your search. Research is like a funnel – you start very broad and narrow the topic down. BROAD narrow Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

34 Boolean Operators Boolean Operators
Think about the Interest Activity. Recall that many of your searches had well over 100,000,000 hits. Imagine how long it would take to go through all of those websites. Keep in mind that about 90% of them will be complete garbage or not relevant to your topic. How can you narrow that search down to something more manageable? Boolean Operators Boolean Operators help to broaden or narrow a keyword search. In the keyword box you should the type keywords and the Boolean Operators. Boolean Operators are always typed in capital letters. AND – Includes all the websites that have both key terms together. Most search engines do (AND) for you automatically, if you do not specify, but that may not be the best choice for your search. Example: Rome AND Caesar – This will give you only the websites that contain both words. OR – Includes all of the website that include either one or both of the key terms. Example: Rome OR Caesar – This will give you all of the websites that have one or both of the key terms. NOT- This excludes any term that you may want to ignore. Example: Rome AND Caesar NOT Julius “phrase” – Putting a phrase that you would like to find in “quotes” will find all of the websites that have that phrase. Example: “The fall of the Roman Empire” Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

35 Click here to see another worksheet that explains Boolean Operators.
Boolean Operators – This Venn Diagram shows how it works. Does (AND) or (OR) give you more results? Click here to see another worksheet that explains Boolean Operators. Or go to - Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

36 Interest Activity 2 – Now Try It!
Go to askjeeves.com, google.com, or msn.com Choose the same five subjects from the Interest Activity 1. Enter the changed search in the key-word search box. Then answer the following questions for each. Record the number of hits or results you found with the new search. Compare to your other numbers from Interest Activity 1. Are there more or less hits? Is it more manageable? How relevant were the internet sites to your subject? What percentage do you think? How did using the Boolean Operators and quotation marks help? The Original Search: China Martin Luther Hitler History United States of America The Civil Rights Movement Egypt World War II Constitution Rome President Congress Change To: China AND “Empress Wu” “Martin Luther” OR “John Calvin” Hitler AND “World War I” History AND Africa “United States of America” “The Civil Rights Movement” Egypt AND 2006 “World War II” AND deaths “The United States Constitution” “The fall of the Roman Empire” “President Bush” Congress NOT “United States of America” Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

37 Evaluating Website Sponsors
What’s in a name – or a URL? Definition: (URL) means (Uniform Resource Locator) or the website address. Click on each type of URL sponsor. .edu = educational websites and institutions .gov = governmental websites .org = non-profit organization websites .com = commercial websites Others: .net = network of companies .biz = business .info = information .museum = museum For more, go to netlingo.com – the dictionary of internet terms. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

38 Evaluating Website Sponsors Cont.
Sub-Domains give even more clues. Examples: k-12 (kindergarten – 12th grade) EXAMPLE ut (Utah), si (Smithsonian Institute) EXAMPLE Country codes: US (U.S.A), BR (Brazil), UK (England), MX (Mexico), IQ (Iraq), and More EXAMPLE The graphic below illustrates how you can get a lot of information about a site from just reading the URL domains and sub-domains. Graphic from Internet Detective at: Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

39 Evaluating Website Sponsors Cont.
If you want to find out who owns a particular domain name, then use the “WHOIS” link. (pronounced who-is). Knowing who owns and maintains the website can tell you a lot about the information contained within the website. TRY IT OUT! Copy and paste any URL in the WHOIS search window. Click Back to Main Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

40 .edu – Educational Websites and Institutions
Examples: - college - college - college - educational museum - educational center cctc.commnet.edu/grammar - writing center americanhistory.si.edu - educational museum highwire.stanford.edu - educational research The (.edu) websites are educational. Universities, schools, and educational institutions use (.edu). They are usually very reliable. (click back) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

41 .gov – Governmental Websites
Examples: utah.gov - Utah State Government firstgov.gov - U.S. Governent gop.gov - Republican Party dnc.gov - Democratic Party whitehouse.gov - The Whitehouse ready.gov - The U.S. Dept. of Homeland Sec. irs.gov - The IRS Department senate.gov - The U.S. Senate census.gov - U.S. Census Bureau The (.gov) websites are governmental websites. They are usually considered very reliable. Again, however, many of the political websites have political agendas. Therefore, particular care should be taken with bias, as always. (click back) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

42 .org – Non-Profit Organizations
Examples: pbs.org - Public Broadcasting System cancer.org - American Cancer Society lds.org - LDS Church greenpeace.org - Greenpeace moveon.org - Political Action realtor.org - Realtor Association nea.org - Teacher Association en.wikipedia.org - Wikipedia Free English (en) Encyclopedia The (.org) websites are sponsored by non-profit organizations. They are often reliable, but it should be remembered that a non-profit organization does have an agenda, just like anything else. Therefore, as always, particular attention should be paid to bias. (click back) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

43 .com – Commercial Websites
Examples: espn.com - Sports cbsnews.com - News historychannel.com - The History Channel historycentral.com - History Shopping Site gm.com/history - General Motors’ History halliburton.com/history - Halliburton History travelsd.com/history - South Dakota Travel The (.com) websites are commercial sponsors or companies. You must always be aware. . . Is someone trying to sell me something? How does the fact that they are trying to sell me something affect this information? (click back) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

44 What is a Subject Directory?
Definition: A subject directory is a catalog of sites collected and organized by humans. Subject directories start with a few main categories and then branch out into subcategories, topics, and subtopics. To find the homepage for the Pittsburgh Steelers at Yahoo!, for example, select “Recreation and Sports” at the top level, “Sports” at the next level, “Football (American)” at the third level, “National Football League” at the fourth level, “Teams” at the fifth level, and then finally “Pittsburgh Steelers.” Because human beings organize the websites in subject directories, you can often find a good starting point if your topic is included. Directories are also useful for finding information on a topic when you don’t have a precise idea of what you need. Many large directories, like Yahoo!, include a keyword search option which usually eliminates the need to work through numerous levels. In this case, it would be faster to enter the keyword “Pittsburgh Steelers”. Because directories cover only a small fraction of the pages available on the Web,, they are most effective for finding general information on popular or scholarly subjects. If you are looking for something specific, use a search engine. The primary difference between a search engine and a search directory is how web sites get added to the database. In a search directory, people submit their sites, which are, in turn, reviewed by human editors. If the editor deems that the site is acceptable for inclusion based on a set of criteria, the editor adds it to the directory. Yahoo! and Open Directory are examples of search directories. Ludwig-Hardman, Stacey, Mimi Tschida, and Alec M. Testa, Ed. D. Contributors. Education Without Boundaries, Strategies for Success in Your WGU Program. Prentice Hall: Boston, 2000. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

45 So which database should I use?
Click Here for a list of search engines. What do you want? Then try. . . Brows a subject area Yahoo!, Excite, Lycos, Google Search Usenet Yahoo!, Excite, Webcrawler, OpenText, AltaVista, Go, HotBot, Include alder GOPHER files in Excite, Webcrawler, OpenText, Go Search as much of the web as possible AltaVista, Go, UltraSeek, Dogpile, Ask Jeeves, Mamma Search every word on a site or in a document AltaVista, OpenText, Go, UtlraSeek, HotBot, Excite Locate and obscure or hard to find document Webcrawler, Yahoo!, Excite Retrieve a large number of results AltaVista, Go, UltraSeek, Search, Metacrawler Retrieve few but relevant results Webcrawler, OpenText Search only titles, URLs, or keywords Webcrawler, Yahoo!, AltaVista Specify the location on the site to search (e.g., title or summary ) AltaVista (advanced features), Go, UtlraSeek, OpenText Search only reviewed and evaluated sites Excite, Lycos ***A note about go.com – this used to be infoseek.com. They have scaled back to a more entertainment format. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

46 More Search Engines Click Back to Main Page
Click Here for the search engine list. The Search Engine List has over 1,600 links to search engines, directories, PPC search engines, meta search engines, special vertical systems, niche directories, classified ad sites, blog search engines, link building resources, press release sites, free classifieds sites, and a number of foreign systems. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

47 Traditional Sources Traditional Main Page Plagiarism
Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

48 What you will learn: Books (Non-Fiction) Books (Fiction) Magazines
Traditional Sources What you will learn: Books (Non-Fiction) Books (Fiction) Magazines Refereed Professional Journals Newspapers Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

49 Books (Non-Fiction) BEST!
Non-fiction - writing based on someone’s perspective of the “facts”. Includes three levels of credibility- Secondary Source – The author (Stephen E. Ambrose) interviewed and researched the soldiers who lived the experience first hand. The author has second hand knowledge. There are many primary source references. Example: Use tertiary sources for a very broad beginning search Tertiary Source – The authors (Elisabeth Ellis and Anthony Esler) relied on secondary sources – it is a general summary of history. There are no source citations. Example: BEST! Primary Source – The author (Gene Jacobsen) lived the experience first hand. Example: Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

50 Books (Historical Fiction)
Contemporary Fiction – The story is fiction, but the author is writing the story at the time of the actual events. Many historians consider this a primary source, because it does represent the time period and issues of the time period accurately. Examples: Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which is a fictional story. However, Stowe witnessed slavery, and she used the story to tell the similar events she personally witnessed. Mark Twain wrote fictional stories about Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. However his description of life on the Mississippi River is considered a primary source, because he lived during that time. Historical Fiction – Fiction based on real historical events. Example: Jeff Shaara’s work is considered secondary or tertiary. Primary sources are used to write his books. Historical fiction can bring history alive, but it is not the most reliable, because it is not written by an eye-witness the events. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

51 Magazines - Periodicals
Usually for entertainment more than research. Usually considered a tertiary source. Rarely includes source citations and references. Good place to start for a broad topic search. Periodical – Usually published monthly. *** Contemporary Magazines: could be considered primary sources, because they are from the time period. Example: The Time magazine with Hitler is from 1941.*** Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

52 Refereed Professional Journals - Periodicals
Refereed Journals: This is not a personal journal. Usually published by universities and colleges or professional societies and associations. A good source of information, because the information is refereed. Refereed means that the information is double-checked by a third party – usually a very reliable source of information. . Usually considered a secondary source. Contains citations and references from sources. Periodical – Usually published each semester or quarterly. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

53 Newspapers - Periodicals
Extra! Newspapers - Periodicals Newspaper:  A daily or weekly publication of current news, editorials, and feature articles. Could be primary because it is a contemporary record, but it is more likely secondary or tertiary, because sources are not normally cited. Click Back to Main Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

54 Source Citation Where did you find that? Main Page Plagiarism
Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

55 Conventions for Citing Sources
We use conventions in Writing and punctuation, driving, math, and many other places. The reason we use conventions is so that everyone does the task, whatever it is, in the same predictable way, so that everyone understands. Convention: A practice or procedure widely observed in a group, especially to facilitate social interaction; a custom: the convention of shaking hands. A widely used and accepted device or technique, as in drama, literature, or painting: the theatrical convention of the aside. We use conventions in citing sources so that everyone does it the same. The most popular accepted citing styles and conventions are, Turabian (Chicago Style), APA, and MLA. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

56 Citation Manuals Pick the citation method that you would use in your future career or education. Turabian Style Citation The Turabian form of citation is normally used by historians. (Also know as Chicago style.) APA Style Citation APA (American Psychological Association) The Publication Manual is the style manual of choice for many disciplines where effective communication in words and data is fundamental, including: Psychology, Sociology, Business, Economics, Nursing, Social Work, Criminology. MLA Style Citation The MLA Handbook is published by the Modern Language Association, the authority on MLA documentation style. Widely adopted in high schools, colleges, and publishing houses, the MLA Handbook treats every aspect of research writing, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

57 Citing Website Sources (Turabian)
The Turabian form of citation is normally used by historians. (Also know as Chicago style.) Kate Turabian ( ) was dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago from 1930 to This manual and her Student's Guide for Writing College Papers made her name so well known that she has become "part of the folklore of American higher education" (Quill and Scroll). Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

58 Website - Bibliographic Citation (Turabian)
Turabian Style Bibliography: Include as much of the following as you can: Author (last name first). Date Created. “Title of the Page – in Title Caps” (in quotations). title or owner of the site. (Available from) URL; Format (Internet, Database, Directory); and access date (accessed day month year). Sometimes authors are not identified. The owner of the site may stand in for the author. For content from informal sites such as personal web pages where titles are lacking, descriptive phrases may be used. If information is not available, for example there is no author or date listed, use “None” in your citation. ***NOTE – this could tell you something about the information on the website.*** Example: Petrik, Paula “World History Matters.” Center for History and New Media. George Mason University. Available from Internet; accessed 9 February 2006. Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name (Or Organization). Date Created. “Title.” Owner of the site. Available from URL; Format; accessed day month year. When hand writing citations, underline sections to represent an italicized section. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

59 Website - Parenthetical Citation (Turabian)
Turabian Style Parenthetical Reference – This is an in-text citation that points the reader to your bibliographic citation. Any direct quotes should include the quotation in quotation marks (“quote”) and then in parenthesis include: (Author’s last name, publication or creation date). Cite direct quotations, paraphrases, ideas peculiar to an author, case studies, statistics, and graphics, such as maps, charts, diagrams, and scientific research results. Place citations directly after the quotation or paraphrase. Example: “. . . Quote (Author’s last name, publication or creation date).”   Quotation Example (Short Quotation) A quotation longer than a few sentences that is set apart from the rest of the text and is indented is considered a “block quotation” (Turabian 1996, 75). ***Note if the quote is longer than two or more sentences and runs eight or more lines, do not use quotation marks, single space the section, indent four spaces from the left margin for the section, and include the parenthetical reference at the end. This is called a block quotation. Example of a block quotation: (manual page 74-75) Quotation Example (Block Quotation) Turabian states: But in general a prose quotation of two or more sentences that runs to eight or more lines of text in a paper should be set off from the text in single-spacing and indented in its entirety four spaces from the left margin, with no quotation marks at the beginning or end. A quotation so treated is called a block quotation. Exceptions to this rule are allowable when, for emphasis or comparison, it is desirable to set of shorter quotations (1996, 75). Click here for an example of a Block Quote. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

60 Citing Electronic Sources - Websites
Turabian Style Citation On-Line References: (Use the one that works best for you.) Great Sites: 1.UC Berkeley Turabian Guide (Printable) OR GO TO - 2. Eastern Michigan University (Great Site!) 3. Duke University (Great Site!) 4. Weber State Writing Center (Great Site!) Other Useful Sites: 5. University of Montana 6. University of Southern Mississippi 7. Ohio State University 8. Ithaca College Library Back to Citation Manual Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

61 Citing Electronic Sources (APA)
APA (American Psychological Association) The Publication Manual is the style manual of choice for many disciplines where effective communication in words and data is fundamental, including: Psychology, Sociology, Business, Economics, Nursing, Social Work, Criminology. Based in Washington, DC, the American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With 150,000 members, APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

62 Website - Bibliographic Citation (APA)
APA Style Bibliography: Include as much of the following as you can: Author (last name and the author’s first initial only). (Date Created). Title of the page in Italics (only the first letter capitalized). Retrieved Month Day, Year from URL. Sometimes authors are not identified. The owner of the site may stand in for the author. For content from informal sites such as personal web pages where titles are lacking, descriptive phrases may be used. If information is not available, for example there is no author or date listed, use “None” in your citation. ***NOTE – this could tell you something about the information on the website.*** Example: Petrik, P. ( ). World History Matters. Retrieved February 9, 2006, from Internet; accessed 9 February 2006. Format: Author’s Last Name, First Initial (Or Organization). (Date Created). Title in Italics. Retrieved month day, year, from URL When hand writing citations, underline sections to represent an italicized section. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

63 Website - Parenthetical Citation (APA)
APA Style Parenthetical Reference – This is an in-text citation that points the reader to your bibliographic citation. Any direct quotes should include the quotation in quotation marks (“quote”) and then in parenthesis include: (Author’s last name, publication or creation date). Cite direct quotations, paraphrases, ideas peculiar to an author, case studies, statistics, and graphics, such as maps, charts, diagrams, and scientific research results. Example: “ Quote” (Author’s last name, publication or creation date).  ***Note if the quote is longer than 40 or more words, do not use quotation marks, single space the section, indent five spaces from the left margin for the section, and include the parenthetical reference at the end of the quotation, after the final punctuation. This is called a block quotation. Quotation Example (Block Quotation) Bedford / St. Martins states: To introduce and identify the source of a long quotation (one comprising 40 or more words), use a previewing sentence that names the author and ends in a colon. By briefly announcing the content of an extended quotation, a previewing sentence tells readers what to look for in the quotation. Indent the block quotation five spaces (or one paragraph indent). At the end of the quotation, after the final punctuation mark, indicate in parentheses any text division that indicates the quotation's location in the source document. (2003) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

64 Citing Electronic Sources - Websites
Great Sites: 1.UC Berkeley APA Guide (Printable) OR GO TO - 2. The Citation Machine (Great – Generates your citation in MLA or APA style) 3. Eastern Michigan University (Great Site!) 4. Duke University (Great Site!) 5. Weber State Writing Center (Great Site!) Other Useful Sites: 6. University of Montana 7. University of Southern Mississippi 8. Ohio State University 9. Ithaca College Library 10. Dartmouth College APA Parenthetical Citation Website: APA Style Citation On-Line References (Use the one that works best for you.) Back to Citation Manual Page Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

65 Citing Electronic Sources (MLA)
The MLA Handbook is published by the Modern Language Association, the authority on MLA documentation style. Widely adopted in high schools, colleges, and publishing houses, the MLA Handbook treats every aspect of research writing, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. Founded in 1883 by teachers and scholars, the Modern Language Association promotes the study and teaching of language and literature. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

66 Website - Bibliographic Citation (MLA)
MLA Style Bibliography: Include as much of the following as you can: Author (last name, first name). “title of the internet page section” (in quotations). Followed by the title of the site (underlined). Date of the last update (if given). Name of any organization associated with the website. Access date (accessed day month year). <URL in (<arrows>)>. Sometimes authors are not identified. The owner of the site may stand in for the author. For content from informal sites such as personal web pages where titles are lacking, descriptive phrases may be used. If information is not available, for example there is no author or date listed, use “None” in your citation. ***NOTE – this could tell you something about the information on the website.*** Example: Petrik, Paula. “Women in World History” World History Matters Center for History and New Media. George Mason University. 9 February 2006.<http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/index.htmlInternet>. Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name “title of the Internet page section”. Title of the website (underlined). Date of the last update. Organization involved with the website. Access Date day month year. <web address (URL)>. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

67 Website - Parenthetical Citation (MLA)
MLA Style Parenthetical Reference – This is an in-text citation that points the reader to your bibliographic citation. Any direct quotes should include the quotation in quotation marks (“quote”) and then in parenthesis include: (Author’s last name and page number). Cite direct quotations, paraphrases, ideas peculiar to an author, case studies, statistics, and graphics, such as maps, charts, diagrams, and scientific research results. Place citations directly after the quotation or paraphrase. ***Note if the quote is longer than three lines, do not use quotation marks, indent the section, and include the parenthetical reference at the end. Example: A parenthetical reference looks like this: (Jones 47) "Jones" refers to an author whose last name is Jones. The name "Jones“ corresponds with an author named Jones whose name would appear on your Works Cited page, alphabetized under the letter "J." The number "47" refers to the page number from Jones on which the borrowed information appears--whether it's from a book, a periodical article, or another print source. (The page number is omitted when the borrowed information comes from a non-print source, such as a Web site.) Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

68 Citing Electronic Sources (MLA)
Great Sites: 1.UC Berkeley MLA Guide (Printable) OR GO TO - 2. The Citation Machine (Great – Generates your citation in MLA or APA style) 3. Eastern Michigan University (Great Site!) 4. Duke University (Great Site!) 5. Weber State Writing Center (Great Site!) 6. MyBibPro.com Other Useful Sites: 6. University of Montana 7. University of Southern Mississippi 8. Ohio State University 9. Ithaca College Library 10. Dartmouth College MLA Style Citation On-line Resources (Use the one that works best for you.) Click to go to- Bibliography Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

69 Source Note Cards Now it is your turn to practice evaluating and citing some Internet electronic sources and some traditional sources. Print (10) note cards, and complete the Note Card Assignment on the next slide. Source Note Cards Guide: How to Use the Note Cards Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

70 Note Card Assignment Assignment: Use a website or print the style guides to complete one practice note card for each type of source. The Writers INC. students writing manual can help (see page 259 MLA and 285 APA). Remember to complete the note card completely, including your parenthetical and bibliographic citation and evaluation. Complete nine cards – one for each of the following: (2) Historical Books – (1 author) and (Multiple Authors). Refereed Journal Magazine Newspaper A website from each of these types of sponsors: .edu, .gov, .com, .org (You may click back and use the websites presented earlier in the presentation – .edu, .gov, .com, .org, websites) Ask Mr. Hatch or the library for the traditional source examples. You may use Turabian, APA, or MLA style. Printable Style Guides: APA MLA Turabian Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

71 Bibliography Definition: The works or a list of the works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in its production. “Biblio” means Book and “graphy” means “to write”. Therefore, a bibliography is a written list of books that you referenced in your research. A Bibliography could also be called a Reference List or Works Cited. Center Bibliography, Works Cited, or Reference List at the top of the page. Single-space each bibliographic reference. Double-space between each bibliographic reference. Create a hanging indent (The first line is typed normally. If the reference goes to the second or third line, indent one tab space so that the author’s last name is hanging out) – It is easier to find the author. Each bibliographic reference should be in alphabetical order based on the author’s last name. In a succession of works by the same author, the name is given for the first entry, and an eight-space line (the underscore key struck eight times ________. ) followed by a period takes its place in subsequent entries. Click here to see an example – Bibliography Example Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

72 Bibliography Assignment
Open a new Microsoft word document, and save it under your name and practice bibliography. Example: hatch_practice_bibliography. Center Bibliography, Works Cited, or Reference List at the top of the page. Using the bibliographic citations from your note card assignment, single-space each bibliographic reference. (Remember to Italicize what you have underlined when hand writing.) Double-space between each bibliographic reference. Create a hanging indent (The first line is typed normally. If the reference goes to the second or third line, indent one tab space so that the author’s last name is hanging out) – It is easier to find the author. Each bibliographic reference should be in alphabetical order based on the author’s last name. In a succession of works by the same author, the name is given for the first entry, and an eight-space line (the underscore key struck eight times ________. ) followed by a period takes its place in subsequent entries. Click here to see an example – Bibliography Example When you have completed the bibliography assignment, you may hand it in or it to Mr. Hatch. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

73 Sources Notes and Assignment Worksheet
Directions: Open and make sure you have finished your saved Sources Notes and Assignments Worksheet in Microsoft Word. Save the final document in your student file under you name. Example: hatch_sources_notes_assignments When you are completely done, attach the notes to an When you are completely done, the notes to Mr. Hatch – THE END CONGRATULATIONS! Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources

74 Credits and a Big - Thank You -
Rothenberg, David. “How the Web Destroys the Quality of Students’ Research Papers” Chronicles of Higher Education. 43(49), p.A44 15, August 1997. Benjamin, Jules R. A Student’s Guide to History. 8th ed. Bedford: St. Martins, 2001. The book can be found at: compType=TOC Microsoft Clipart Suggestions and Comments Any final comments of suggestions for improvement? Mr. Hatch your suggestions. Main Page Plagiarism Evaluating Sources Traditional Sources Electronic Sources Broad/Narrow Search Boolean Operators Citing Sources


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